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List of California ballot propositions 2010–19

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of California ballot propositions from 2010–2019.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Unsolved: Highway Serial Killers
  • ✪ Decolonizing Language Revitalization
  • ✪ Dr. Anton Treuer (03-22-2012) "Historical Trauma"
  • ✪ Lateefah Simon, Rosenberg Foundation
  • ✪ FNS - Elder Teachings by Napos

Transcription

The trucking industry is a critical part of the United States economy. Over 70% of all freight transported across the country is moved by truck. The transportation industry employs 3.5 million truck drivers and without them, our economy would come to a standstill. Truck driving is an honest job, but there is a strange subculture that has developed around the trucking community. Many rest areas, truck stops, and travel plazas have happy families headed on vacation on one side, but on the other side are prostitutes and drug dealers wandering the lot looking for interested truckers. When you are traveling the highway, or stopped at a rest stop, you never really know who the stranger is in the truck next to you might be. If there is an ideal profession for a serial killer, it might be a long-haul truck driver and not some blood spatter analyst or lumber jack. Forty years ago, 30% of serial killers in the United States got away with five or more murders before being caught. Today, that figure is down to 13% with nearly half of all killers are caught after their first two murders. Long haul truckers make ideal serial killers, because their job is mobile. It is harder for the police to recognize a pattern in the murders when different police departments are working on each separate murder in different jurisdictions across the country. Truckers can travel at night when there is little to no traffic and with little supervision. Serial killers can pick up a victim in one state, murder them in another, and finally dump the body on the side of the highway in a third state that the victim has no known connection to. In 2009 the FBI publicly announced the existence of the Highway Serial Killings Initiative. The HSK dates back to 2004, when an analyst from the Oklahoma Burau of Investigation realized a pattern in the murdered women’s bodies that were being dumped along I-40 in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Mississippi and Texas. This body same dumping pattern has been found on highways across the United States. The HSK’s purpose is to help local law enforcement agencies connect the dots of cases outside their own jurisdictions. Over 750 potential victims have been discovered, that includes stranded motorists, hitchhikers, and prostitutes whose bodies were dumped near highways over the past three decades. Most victims lead high risk lifestyles. Many victims are women who are prostitutes or had substance abuse problems that are frequently picked up at truck stops or service stations and then sexually assaulted, murdered, and dumped along the highway. The Freeway Killer was a nickname given by the media to what was believed to be a serial killer in California during the 1970’s and 80’s. The killer was dumping victims along freeways. It later turned out to be three separate murderers who operated independently of each other but operated with a similar MO. The most notable of the murderers was William Bodin who raped and killed at least 21 young within a two-year span. However, he is believed to have committed at least 15 addition murders that went unsolved. His victims were often teenagers and would be lured into Bodin’s vehicle where their fates would be sealed. Once inside, Bodin would torture his victims, going as far to stab them in the ears with ice picks, and even forcing one victim to drink hydrochloric acid. Bodin was eventually arrested, went to trial, and became the first person in the history of California to be executed via lethal injection. The other two Freeway Killers included Randy Kraft who murdered and raped up to 67 of his victims and Patrick Kearny who was known to copulate with the corpses of up to 43 of his victims. This showed that there can be many of these killers traveling across the nation and dumping their victims along our highways. Even when a pattern is detected in killings, it is extremely difficult for truckers to be tracked as they freely move from state to state selecting their next victim. The FBI has over 450 potential suspects in the ongoing murder investigations. Many of the suspects are truck drivers who drive across the country to earn a living. According to Ginger Strand’s book “Killer on the Road,” there are currently at least 25 serial killers who are in prison who were also truck drivers. Serial killers make up such a tiny fraction of the population, yet so many of them were truckers. The FBI estimates there are currently between 25-50 active serial killers in America who haven’t been caught yet. Unfortunately, most highway murders remain unsolved and more murders are occurring every year. These murders are only expected to increase as more and more truckers enter the workforce with the growing demand in the transportation industry. However, self-driving trucks could bring the end of the highway murders, and the jobs of 3.5 million hardworking Americans. Until that day arrives, I implore you to keep a keen eye on those drivers around you. That nice-looking man in the vehicle beside you may just be hiding a dark secret, and waiting for you to discover it firsthand. Thanks strangers for watching. Please like, comment, and subscribe to our channel for more strange content every Wednesday. Also, check the video description below for additional reading and sources for this video. Until next time, stay strange.

Contents

Elections

June 8, 2010 primary

Result Description
13 Passed Limits on property tax assessment. Seismic retrofitting of existing buildings. Legislative constitutional amendment.
14 Passed Elections. Open primaries/"Top Two primary Act".
15 Failed California Fair Elections Act.
16 Failed Imposes new two-thirds voter approval requirement for local public electricity providers. Initiative constitutional amendment.
17 Failed Allows auto insurance companies to base their prices in part on a driver's history of insurance coverage. Initiative statute.

November 2, 2010 general election

Result Description
18 Deferred Safe, Clean, and Reliable Water Supply Act of 2010 — pushed back to November 2012[1]
19 Failed Changes California law to legalize marijuana for recreational use.
20 Passed Redistricting of congressional districts.
21 Failed Establishes $18 annual vehicle license surcharge to help fund state parks and wildlife programs and grants free admission to all state parks to surcharged vehicles.
22 Passed Prohibits the state from taking funds used for transportation or local government projects and services.
23 Failed Repeals AB 32 until unemployment is below 5.5% for four consecutive quarters.
24 Failed Repeals recent legislation (tax breaks) that would allow businesses to carry back losses, share tax credits, and use a sales-based income calculation to lower taxable income.
25 Passed Changes legislative vote requirement to pass a budget from two-thirds to a simple majority. The two-thirds majority for passing taxes would not change.
26 Passed Increases legislative vote requirement to two-thirds for state levies and charges. Imposes additional requirement for voters to approve local levies and charges with limited exceptions.
27 Failed Repeals state legislature redistricting law

June 5, 2012 primary

In October 2011, Governor Jerry Brown signed into law a bill which requires all future ballot initiatives to be listed only in general elections (held in November), rather than during any statewide election. The two initiative propositions below qualified for the next statewide election (which was the June 2012 presidential primaries) prior to the signing of the law.[2]

Result Description
28 Passed Limits on legislators' terms in office: state legislature from 14 to 12 years, 12 years total state Assembly and Senate term limits.[3]
29 Failed Imposes additional tax on cigarettes for cancer research. $1.00 per pack, equivalent tax increase on other tobacco products.[4]

November 6, 2012 general election

Result Description
30 Passed Increases income and sales taxes temporarily for education and public safety funding. Initiative constitutional amendment.[5]
31 Failed Constitutional amendment changing responsibilities of local governments, the Legislature and the Governor in regards to the state budget. Initiative constitutional amendment and statute.[6]
32 Failed Prohibits Union and Corporate using payroll-deducted funds for political purposes, as well as to politicians or their political action committees. Initiative statute.[7]
33 Failed Changes current law to allow insurance companies to set prices based on whether the driver previously carried auto insurance with any insurance company. Initiative statute.[8]
34 Failed Repeals the death penalty. Initiative statute.[9]
35 Passed Imposes higher penalties on human trafficking. Initiative statute.[10]
36 Passed Revises three strikes law to impose life sentence only when new felony conviction is serious or violent. Initiative statute.[11]
37 Failed Requires labeling on raw or processed food offered for sale to consumers if made from plants or animals with genetic material changed in specified ways. Initiative statute.[12]
38 Failed Increases income taxes for education and early childhood programs. Initiative statute.[13]
39 Passed Requires multistate businesses to calculate their California income tax liability based on the percentage of their sales in California and allocates potential revenue to create energy efficient and clean jobs. Initiative statute.[14]
40 Passed Redistricting of State Senate districts. Referendum.[15]

June 3, 2014 primary

As per the aforementioned 2011 law, only mandatory propositions sent from the state legislature may appear on the June primary ballot.

Result Description
41 Passed Veterans Housing and Homeless Prevention Bond Act Of 2014.[16]
42 Passed Requires local governments to comply with laws that provide public access to their body meetings and records of government officials. Also eliminates the reimbursement for the costs of such compliance. Legislative constitutional amendment.[17]

November 4, 2014 general election

Result Description
43 Passed Water Quality, Supply, and Infrastructure Improvement Act of 2014. (pushed from November 2010 to a revised version for November 2014).[1]
44 Passed State Budget. Budget Stabilization Account. Legislative Constitutional Amendment.[18]
45 Failed Healthcare Insurance. Rate Changes. Initiative Statute.[18]
46 Failed Drug and Alcohol Testing of Doctors. Medical Negligence Lawsuits. Initiative Statute.[18][19]
47 Passed Criminal Sentences. Misdemeanor Penalties. Initiative Statute.[18]
48 Failed Indian Gaming Compacts. Referendum.[18]
49 Deferred Pulled from the November 2014 ballot by the California Supreme Court for further state constitutional review.[20] The proposition eventually appeared on the November 2016 ballot as Proposition 59

June 7, 2016 primary election

As per the aforementioned 2011 law, only mandatory propositions sent from the state legislature may appear on the June primary ballot.

Result Description
50 Passed Amends the state constitution to require a two-thirds vote in the respective chamber of the state legislature to suspend a state senator or assembly member. The proposal would also withhold the salaries and benefits of the suspended legislator.[21][22]

November 8, 2016 general election

The number of propositions in this election was significantly larger than previous elections. The increase has been attributed to the relatively low number of signatures required for ballot placement for this election. The number of signatures required for ballot placement is a percentage of the turnout in the previous election. Since the turnout in the November 2014 elections was low, the number of signatures required for ballot placement in 2016 was 365,880, whereas the typical requirement is well over half a million signatures.[23]

Result Description
51 Passed School Bonds. Funding for K-12 School and Community College Facilities. Initiative Statutory Amendment. This initiative statutory amendment would authorize $9 billion in bonds for school construction and modernization.[24][25]
52 Passed State Fees on Hospitals. Federal Medi-Cal Matching Funds. Initiative Statutory and Constitutional Amendment. Among others, this proposed initiative statutory and constitutional amendment would require a two-thirds vote in the state legislature to change laws that impose fees on hospitals for purpose of obtaining federal Medi-Cal matching funds.[24][26]
53 Failed Revenue Bonds. Statewide Voter Approval. Initiative Constitutional Amendment. This initiative constitutional amendment requires statewide voter approval for revenue bonds exceeding $2 billion for projects financed, owned, operated, or managed by the state or any joint agency created by or including the state.[24][27]
54 Passed Legislature. Legislation and Proceedings. Initiative Constitutional Amendment and Statute. Among other requirements, prohibits the legislature from passing any bill unless it has been published on the internet and in print for at least 72 hours prior to the vote.[28]
55 Passed Tax Extension to Fund Education and Healthcare. Initiative Constitutional Amendment. Extends income tax increases from 2012 and allocates the revenue from them for K-12 schools, community colleges, and healthcare programs.[24][29]
56 Passed Cigarette Tax to Fund Healthcare, Tobacco Use Prevention, Research, and Law Enforcement. Initiative Constitutional Amendment and Statute. Increases cigarette tax by $2.00 a pack and allocates revenues to healthcare programs and tobacco research.[24][30]
57 Passed Criminal Sentences. Juvenile Criminal Proceedings and Sentencing. Initiative Constitutional Amendment and Statute. Increases access to parole for people convicted of nonviolent felonies and modifies how juvenile defendants can be tried as adults.[24][31]
58 Passed Senate Bill 1174: This mandatory proposition, placed by the state legislature and Governor on September 2, 2014, would repeal most of 1998's California Proposition 227, and thus allow multi-language education in public schools.[24][32]
59 Passed Senate Bill 254: This mandatory proposition asks voters if they want California to work towards overturning the Citizens United Supreme Court ruling, in a similar manner to Proposition 49 from 2014 (which was removed from the ballot by the state supreme court).[24][33]
60 Failed Adult Films. Condoms. Health Requirements. Among other requirements, this initiative statute would mandate the use of condoms in adult films and require that producers of said films pay for STI testing and vaccinations for their performers.[24][34]
61 Failed State Prescription Drug Purchases. Pricing Standards. This initiative statute prohibits California state agencies from paying more for prescriptions drugs than the United States Department of Veterans Affairs pays.[24][35]
62 Failed Death Penalty. Initiative Statute. Repeals the death penalty and replaces it with life imprisonment without the possibility of parole as the maximum punishment for murder.[24][36]
63 Passed Firearms. Ammunition Sales. Initiative Statute.[24][37]
64 Passed Marijuana Legalization. Initiative Statute. Legalizes marijuana and hemp while imposing cultivation taxes and distribution standards.[24][38]
65 Failed Carry-Out Bags. Charges. Initiative Statute. Redirects revenues from the sale of carry-out bags at grocery stores to environmental projects under the Wildlife Conservation Board.[24][39]
66 Passed Death Penalty. Procedures. Initiative Statute. Limits death penalty appeals and length of time for death penalty review. Invalidates Proposition 62 if passed by a larger proportion of the popular vote.[24][40]
67 Passed Referendum to Ban Single-Use Plastic Bags. This is a referendum on a law signed by the Governor on September 30, 2014, that would impose a statewide ban on the distribution of single-use plastic bags at grocery stores.[24][41]

June 5, 2018 primary

As per the aforementioned 2011 law, only mandatory propositions sent from the state legislature may appear on the June primary ballot.[42]

Result Description
68 Passed California Drought, Water, Parks, Climate, Coastal Protection, and Outdoor Access For All Act of 2018. Authorizes $4 billion in bonds to fund various water, parks and coastal protection projects.
69 Passed SB1 Gas Tax appropriations mandate and exempt from expenditures limit. This state constitution amendment ensures that revenues from SB1 Gas Taxes established by the Road Repair and Accountability Act of 2017 can only be used for transportation-related purposes.
70 Failed Greenhouse Gas Reduction Reserve Fund. This state constitution amendment would have created a special fund, effective on January 1, 2024, that will collect the revenue from the California Air Resources Board's cap and trade programs, that were previously established by the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006. A one-time, two-thirds vote in each chamber of the state legislature would then had been required for them to spend the money collected by this fund on greenhouse gas reduction projects.
71 Passed Ballot measures-effective date. This state constitution amendment moves the effective date of passed ballot measures from the day after the election to the fifth day after the secretary of state certifies the results.
72 Passed Property tax: new construction exclusion: rain water capture system. This state constitution amendment excludes rainwater capture systems, completed on or after January 1, 2019, from property tax assessments.

November 6, 2018 general election

The filing fee for submitting a proposition to the ballot has been raised by a factor of 10, from $200 to $2,000, following the signing of a law in September 2015. Originally lawmakers wanted to raise the fee to $8,000 but compromised on $2,000. The fee is refunded if the proposition makes it to the ballot. The fee increase was in response to a proposition calling for "the execution of gays and lesbians" that was circulated for the 2016 election but did not make the ballot. During debate lawmakers were concerned that the fee increase may "discourage legitimate initiatives by average citizens".[43][44]

Result Description
1 Passed Veterans and Affordable Housing Bond Act of 2018. This mandatory proposition, placed by the state legislature and the Governor, will authorize $4 billion in bonds to fund various veterans' home loans and affordable housing programs.[45][46]
2 Passed No Place Like Home Act of 2018. This mandatory proposition, placed by the state legislature and the Governor, will allow revenue generated by 2004's Proposition 63, the 1 percent tax on incomes above $1 million, be used for $2 billion in bonds for homelessness prevention housing.[46]
3 Failed Authorizes Bonds to Fund Projects for Water Supply and Quality, Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Water Conveyance, and Groundwater Sustainability and Storage. Initiative Statute. Authorizes $8.877 billion in bonds to fund such infrastructure projects.[46]
4 Passed Authorizes $1.5 billion in bonds to funding construction at various hospitals providing children’s health care. Initiative Statute. Authorizes $1.5 billion in bonds to fund grants for construction and improvements at various children's hospitals.[46]
5 Failed Changes Requirements for Certain Property Owners to Transfer Their Property Tax Base to Replacement Property. Initiative Constitutional Amendment and Statute. Will amend 1978's Proposition 13 by allowing homeowners who are over 55 years old or severely disabled to transfer their property tax base from their old home to their new one, regardless of the new residence's property value, location, or their previous transfers.[46]
6 Failed Eliminates Recently Enacted Road Repair and Transportation Funding by Repealing Revenues Dedicated for those Purposes. Requires any Measure to Enact Certain Vehicle Fuel Taxes and Vehicle Fees be Submitted to and Approved by the Electorate. Initiative Constitutional Amendment. Repeals the fuel tax increases and vehicle fees under the Road Repair and Accountability Act of 2017. Any future increases would then require a mandatory proposition placed on the ballot.[46]
7 Passed Daylight Savings Time. This mandatory proposition, placed by the state legislature and the Governor, will repeal 1949's Proposition 12, allowing the state legislature to enact permanent daylight saving time, subject to approval by the U.S. Congress.[46]
8 Failed Authorizes State Regulation of Kidney Dialysis Clinics. Limits Charges for Patient Care. Initiative Statute. Among other requirements, mandates that kidney dialysis clinics issue refunds to their patients if their revenue exceeds 115 percent of their costs of direct patient care and health care quality improvements.[46]
9 Pulled Division of California into Three States. Initiative Statute. Also known as the Cal 3 measure, would have divided California into three U.S. states, subject to approval by the U.S. Congress.[46] Removed from the ballot by order of the California Supreme Court on July 18, 2018, for further legal review.[47]
10 Failed Expands Local Governments’ Authority to Enact Rent Control on Residential Property. Initiative Statute. Repeals the Costa–Hawkins Rental Housing Act of 1995, lifting its limits on municipal rent control ordinances.[46]
11 Passed Requires Private-Sector Emergency Ambulance Employees to Remain on Call During Work Breaks. Changes Other Conditions of Employment. Initiative Statute. Among other requirements, would require private-sector emergency ambulance employees to remain on call during breaks, be trained in certain emergency situations, and receive paid mental health services from their employers.[46]
12 Passed Establishes New Standards for Confinement of Certain Farm Animals; Bans Sale of Certain Non-Complying Products. Initiative Statute. Requires meats and eggs be produced from farm animals that are confined in areas greater than a specific amount of space.[46]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Cavanaugh, Tim (2010-08-10). "Another Schwarzenegger Idea Runs Dry". Reason Magazine. Archived from the original on 2011-03-02. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Prop. 18 supporters have opted to remove the initiative from the ballot and bring it back in 2012
  2. ^ Siders, David (October 8, 2011). "Gov. Jerry Brown signs bill restricting ballot initiative to November elections". Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on February 12, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2012.
  3. ^ http://ag.ca.gov/cms_attachments/initiatives/pdfs/i845_initiative_09-0048_(a1s).pdf
  4. ^ http://ag.ca.gov/cms_attachments/initiatives/pdfs/i895_initiative_09-0097.pdf
  5. ^ http://vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov/2012/general/pdf/30-title-summ-analysis.pdf
  6. ^ http://vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov/2012/general/pdf/31-title-summ-analysis.pdf
  7. ^ http://vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov/2012/general/pdf/32-title-summ-analysis.pdf
  8. ^ http://vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov/2012/general/pdf/33-title-summ-analysis.pdf
  9. ^ http://vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov/2012/general/pdf/34-title-summ-analysis.pdf
  10. ^ http://vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov/2012/general/pdf/35-title-summ-analysis.pdf
  11. ^ http://vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov/2012/general/pdf/36-title-summ-analysis.pdf
  12. ^ http://vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov/2012/general/pdf/37-title-summ-analysis.pdf
  13. ^ http://vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov/2012/general/pdf/38-title-summ-analysis.pdf
  14. ^ http://vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov/2012/general/pdf/39-title-summ-analysis.pdf
  15. ^ http://vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov/2012/general/pdf/40-title-summ-analysis.pdf
  16. ^ http://vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov/2014/primary/pdf/42-title-summ-analysis.pdf
  17. ^ http://vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov/2014/primary/pdf/41-title-summ-analysis.pdf
  18. ^ a b c d e "Qualified Statewide Ballot Measures". Secretary of State of California. Archived from the original on August 29, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
  19. ^ http://vig.cdn.sos.ca.gov/2014/general/pdf/proposition-46-title-summary-analysis.pdf
  20. ^ "'Citizens United' Measure Removed From California's Fall Ballot". KQED. August 11, 2014. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
  21. ^ "Qualified Statewide Ballot Measures". Secretary of State of California. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
  22. ^ "California Legislator Suspension Amendment, Proposition 50 (June 2016)". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 2016-07-02.
  23. ^ Myers, John (November 8, 2015). "California's ballot could be a blockbuster next November". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2018-04-03.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Qualified Statewide Ballot Measures". Secretary of State of California. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  25. ^ "Proposition 51: K-12 and Community College Facilities". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  26. ^ "Proposition 52: Medi-Cal Hospital Fee Program". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  27. ^ "Proposition 53: Voter Approval of Revenue Bonds". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  28. ^ "Proposition 54: Legislative Procedure Requirements". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  29. ^ "Proposition 55: Tax Extension for Education and Healthcare". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  30. ^ "Proposition 56: Cigarette Tax". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  31. ^ "Proposition 57: Criminal Sentences & Juvenile Crime Proceedings". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  32. ^ "Proposition 58: English Proficiency. Multilingual Education". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  33. ^ "Proposition 59: Corporate Political Spending Advisory Question". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  34. ^ "Proposition 60: Adult Film Condom Requirements". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  35. ^ "Proposition 61: State Prescription Drug Purchase Standards". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  36. ^ "Proposition 62: Repeal of Death Penalty". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  37. ^ "Proposition 63: Firearms and Ammunition Sales". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  38. ^ "Proposition 64: Marijuana Legalization". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  39. ^ "Proposition 65: Carryout Bag Charges". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  40. ^ "Proposition 66: Death Penalty Procedure Time Limits". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  41. ^ "Proposition 67: Ban on Single-use Plastic Bags". Secretary of State of California. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
  42. ^ "Qualified Statewide Ballot Measures". Secretary of State of California. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  43. ^ McGreevy, Patrick (August 17, 2015). "California lawmakers vote to raise initiative fee from $200 to $2,000". Los Angeles Times.
  44. ^ Fimrite, Peter (September 1, 2015). "State ballot initiative fee raised to $2,000 to prevent mischief". San Francisco Chronicle.
  45. ^ "California lawmakers reach deal on affordable housing bond". Los Angeles Times. August 28, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Qualified Statewide Ballot Measures". Secretary of State of California. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
  47. ^ Egelko, Bob (July 18, 2018). "Splitting up California: State Supreme Court takes initiative off ballot". San Francisco Chronicle.
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