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List of Armenian monarchs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of the monarchs of Armenia, for more information on ancient Armenia and Armenians, please see History of Armenia. For information on the medieval Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia, please see the separate page Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia.

See List of kings of Urartu for kings of Urartu (Ararat), the predecessor state of Greater Armenia.

Greater Armenia

This is the historical designation of the largest and longest-lasting Armenian kingdom.

Orontid kings and satraps

In Armenian tradition

Early kings in traditional Armenian chronology according to Moses of Chorene.

Note that the early dates are traditional and of uncertain accuracy.

Attested satraps

Yervandian (Yervanduni or Orontid) Dynasty

Artashesian (Artaxiad) Dynasty

Roman and Parthian non-dynastic candidates

Arshakuni (Arsacid) Kings of Armenia

Presiding Marzbans and Princes of Armenia

Ruler Reign Family Ruling part Overlord Notes
Veh Mir Shapur 428-442 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Vasak 442-451 Siunia Marzpanate of Armenia Armenian noble.
Adhur Hormizd 451-465 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Adhur Gushnasp 465-481 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Sahak II 481-482 Bagratuni Marzpanate of Armenia Armenian nobleman, elected by the rebellious Armenian nobles. Killed at the Battle of Akesga.
Shapur Mihran 482 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian military occupation.
Vahan I 482-483 Mamikonian Marzpanate of Armenia Armenian nobleman. 1st time, as Head of provisional government.
Zarmihr Hazarwuxt 483 Karen Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian military occupation.
Shapur 483-484 Mihran Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord
Cyril Toumanoff suggests a marzpan named Andigan for the same period.[1]
Vahan I 484-505 Mamikonian Marzpanate of Armenia 2nd time.
Vard 505-514 Mamikonian Marzpanate of Armenia
Gushnasp Bahram 514-518 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia 1st time. Somes experts insert here various short rules. According to Samuel of Ani : "After the patrician Vard, brother of Vahan, Iranian marzpans governed Armenia for 11 years ... The government of Armenia passed then to Mjej of the Gnuni family, who exercised it for 30 years".[2]
Mjej I 518-548 Gnuni Marzpanate of Armenia Mentioned by Cyril Toumanoff[1] and Gérard Dédéyan,[3] but not included by René Grousset.
Gushnasp Bahram 548-552[1] or 552-554[4] N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord. 2nd time.
Tan-Shapur 552-560[1] or 554-560[4] N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Varazdat 560-564 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Chihor-Vishnasp 564-572 Suren Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Mihran Mihrevandak 572 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian military occupation.
Vardan III 572-573 Mamikonian Marzpanate of Armenia Armenian nobleman and leader of anti-Iranian rebellion.[4] 1st time.
Golon Mihran 573-574 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Vardan III 574-577 Mamikonian Marzpanate of Armenia 2nd time.
Tamkhosrow 577-579 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Varaz Vzur 579 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Pahlav 579-586 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Frahat 586-590 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Hrartin 590-591 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Musel II 591 Mamikonian Province of Armenia Brief Byzantine occupation.
Vindatakan 591-605 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Possible marzbans, according to Cyril Toumanoff.
Nakhvefaghan N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia
Merakhbut N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia
Yazden N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia
Butmah N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia
Smbat IV 605-611 Bagratuni Marzpanate of Armenia Christian Settipani records him as marzpan from 599 to 607.[5] He is not mentioned as marzpan by Toumanoff. René Grousset holds that Khosrau II named him marzpan following his victories in Hyrcania, ca. 604, and adds that he possibly continued in office until his death in 616-617.[6] However, he also mentions three other marzpans over the same period (see following).[7]
Schahrayeanpet 611-613 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord. Marzpan at Dvin, in eastern Armenia, along with Shahin Vahmanzadegan as pahghospan in western (former Byzantine) Armenia .
Parsayenpet 613-616 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Namdar-Gouchnasp 616-619 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Shahraplakan 619-624 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Rotchvehan 624-627 N.D. Marzpanate of Armenia Iranian lord.
Vacancy: 627-628 Marzpanate of Armenia Vacancy: 627-628
Varaztirots II 628-633 Bagratuni Marzpanate of Armenia Armenian nobleman, named marzpan by Kavadh II for the portions of Armenia remaining under Iranian rule. Following the onset of the Muslim conquest of Iran, Varaztirots aligned himself with the Byzantines.
633-634 Province of Armenia
Mjej II 634-635 Gnuni Province of Armenia Installed by the Byzantines.
David Kouropalates 635-638 Saharuni Province of Armenia Armenian nobleman, he murdered Mjej and proclaimed himself governor. He was recognized by Heraclius, who named him kouropalates and ishkhan of Armenia.
Period with no centralized authority:638-643 Province of Armenia Period with no centralized authority:638-643
Theodore 643-645 Rshtuni Province of Armenia Recognized by the Byzantines after a victory against the Arabs. 1st time.
Varaztirots II 645–646 Bagratuni Province of Armenia Following the complete collapse of Iran, he was named Prince of Armenia by the Byzantines, but died before being formally invested.
Theodore 646-652 Rshtuni Province of Armenia 2nd time for Theodore, rule with Smbat V Bagratuni, son of Varaztirots II. In 652, they recognized Arab suzerainity.
652-654 Emirate of Armenia
Smbat V 646–652 Bagratuni Province of Armenia
652-653 Emirate of Armenia
Musel IV 654 Mamikonian Emirate of Armenia Expelled Theodoros, but he returned to power that same year.
Theodore 654–655 Rshtuni Emirate of Armenia 3rd time. Under his third rule, Maurianos, a Byzantine governor, was installed in Armenia.
Maurianos 654–655
(in opposition)
N.D. Province of Armenia Installed by the Byzantines, ruled concurrently against Theodore Rshtuni.
Hamazasp 655–661 Mamikonian Emirate of Armenia The Arabs appointed Habîb ibn-Maslama as vassal governor for the prince.
Grigor I 661–685 Mamikonian Emirate of Armenia
Ashot II 685–688 Bagratuni Emirate of Armenia
Nerseh 688–691 Kamsarakan Province of Armenia In 688, the Byzantine Empire recovers Armenia.
Smbat VI Kouropalates 691–698 Bagratuni Emirate of Armenia Son of Varaztirots III Bagratuni. Shifted alliances between the Byzantines and the Arabs.

Arab vassal governors:

698-706 Province of Armenia
706–726 Emirate of Armenia
Artavazd 726–732 Kamsarakan Emirate of Armenia Arab vassal governors:
Ashot III the Blind 732–745 Bagratuni Emirate of Armenia 1st time. Arab vassal governors:
Grigor II 745–746 Mamikonian Emirate of Armenia 1st time. Arab vassal governors:
Ashot III the Blind 746–748 Bagratuni Emirate of Armenia 2nd time. Arab vassal governors:
Grigor II 748 Mamikonian Emirate of Armenia 2nd time. Arab vassal governors:
Musel VI 748-753 Mamikonian Emirate of Armenia Brother of Grigor II. Arab vassal governors:
Sahak III 753-761 Bagratuni Emirate of Armenia Also Lord of Taron. Arab vassal governors:
Smbat VII 761–772 Bagratuni Emirate of Armenia Arab vassal governors:
Vacancy: 772-780 Emirate of Armenia Arab vassal governors (probably more independent in the period):
Tatzates 780-785 Andzevatsi Emirate of Armenia Arab vassal governors:
  • Uthman ibn 'Umara ibn Khuraym (780–785)
Vacancy: 785-806 Emirate of Armenia Arab vassal governors (probably more independent in the period):
Ashot IV the Carnivorous 806–826 Bagratuni Emirate of Armenia Arab vassal governors:
Smbat VIII the Confessor 826–856 Bagratuni Emirate of Armenia Brothers, ruled jointly.[8] Arab vassal governors:
Bagrat II 830–852 Bagratuni Emirate of Armenia
Ashot V the Great 856–884 Bagratuni Emirate of Armenia In 884, he finally sets an indepedent kingdom of Armenis, freeing it from the Arabs. Arab vassal governors (until 884):

Armenian Bagratid kingdom and vassals

Bagratuni dynasty

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Ashot I the Great
(Աշոտ Ա)
c.820
Son of Smbat VIII Bagratuni and Ripsime
884-890 890
Gugark
aged 69/70
Kingdom of Armenia Katranide of Armenia I
seven children
Crowned king in 884, with the consent of Al-Mu'tamid, to prevent Byzantine invasion in the land, as its emperor, Basil I, had Armenian origins.
Smbat I the Martyr
(Սմբատ Ա)
c.850
Son of Ashot I and Katranide of Armenia I
890-914 914
Yernjak
aged 63/64
Kingdom of Armenia Unknown
two children
Continued his father's policy of maintaining cordial relations with the Byzantine Empire, but remained mindful of the Arabs' fears of the Armeno-Byzantine alliance.
Ashot II the Iron
(Աշոտ Բ)
c.880
Son of Smbat I
914-929 929
(aged around 48-49)
Kingdom of Armenia Sahakanuysh of Gardman[9]
no children
His reign was filled with rebellions by pretenders to the throne, and foreign invasions, which Ashot fought off successfully. However, he left no descendants. The throne passed to his brother.
Abas I
(Աբաս Ա)
c.880
Son of Smbat I
929-953 953
aged around 72-73
Kingdom of Armenia Gurandukht Bagratuni
two children
Abas' reign was marked by years of peace, stability, and prosperity for Armenia.
Ashot III the Merciful
(Աշոտ Գ Ողորմած)
c.916
Son of Abas I and Gurandukht Bagratuni
953-977 3 January or 20 May 977
aged 60–61
Kingdom of Armenia Khosrovanuysh
four children
Moved his royal seat of residence to Ani and oversaw its development and of the kingdom as a whole. Armenia reached the height of its golden era during his reign and that of his sons and successors.
Musel
(Մուշեղ Ա)
c.920?
Son of Abas I of Armenia and Gurandukht Bagratuni
963-984 984
aged around 63/64?
Kingdom of Kars Unknown
(daughter of Prince Sevada II of Gardman)
four children
From 963, ruled in his own state of Kars, created as a vassal state. In 977 contested the succession of his nephew Smbat II.
Smbat II the Conqueror
(Սմբատ Բ նվաճողը)
Haghpat monastery bas relief.jpg
c.940?
Ani
Son of Ashot III and Khosrovanuysh
977-989 989
Ani
aged around 48-49
Kingdom of Armenia Unmarried He left no descendants. The throne passed to his brother Abas.
Gurgen I
(Գուրգեն Ա)
c.940?
Ani
Son of Ashot III and Khosrovanuysh
979-989 989
Matsnaberd
aged around 48-49
Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget Unknown
two children
From 979, ruled in his own state of Tashir-Dzoraget, created as a vassal state.
Abas I
(Աբաս Ա)
?
Son of Musel
984-1029 1029 Kingdom of Kars Kata of Georgia
one child
Helped David II of Georgia, who wanted to take Manzikert, against the Emirate of Azerbaijan.
Gagik I
(Գագիկ Ա)
c.950?
Ani
Son of Ashot III and Khosrovanuysh
989-1020 1020
Ani
aged around 69-70
Kingdom of Armenia Katranide of Armenia II
three children
David I the Landless
(Դավիթ Անհողին)
?
Matsnaberd
Son of Gurgen I
989-1048 1048
Matsnaberd
Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget Zolakertel of Kakheti
four children
During his reign he lost temporarily his lands to the main kingdom of Ani, hence his nickname.
Hovhannes-Smbat (III)
(Հովհաննես–Սմբատ (Գ))
Iovanesikes surrenders himself to Basil II.jpg
c.975?
Ani
Son of Gagik I and Katranide of Armenia II
1020-1041 1041
Ani
aged around 71-72?
Kingdom of Armenia Unmarried
Ashot IV the Valiant
(Աշոտ Դ Քաջ)
c.975?
Ani
Son of Gagik I and Katranide of Armenia II
1020-1040 1040
Ani
aged around 70-71?
Kingdom of Armenia Unknown
one child
Rebelled against his brother and made himself crowned king in various Armenian provinces.
Gagik-Abas II
(Գագիկ-Աբաս Բ)
Gospel of King Gagik of Kars.jpg
?
Son of Abas I and Kata of Georgia
1029-1064 1064 Kingdom of Kars Gurandukht of Cilicia[10]
one child
His good relations with Alp Arslan spared him from the invasion of the Seljuks in Ani. However, to secure protection, Gagik Abas sold his kingdom to Constantine X Doukas, in exchange with some towns in Cappadocia.
Kars annexed to the Byzantine Empire
Gagik II
(Գագիկ Բ)
Kakikios surrenders to Constantine IX.jpg
1024
AniSon of Ashot IV
1040/41-1045 24 November 1079
Caesarea Mazaca
aged around 74-75
Kingdom of Armenia Unknown
one child
He was enthroned as Gagik II and ruled for a brief period from 1042 to 1045, before the Bagratid dynasty rule collapsed in Armenia. He survived and died in 1076.
Armenia annexed by: the Byzantine Empire (1045–1064), the Turko-Persian Seljuk Empire (1064–1072) and the Muslim Shaddadids (1072–1199)
Gurgen II
(Կյուրիկե Բ)
Kiurike Bagratunicoin.jpg
?
Matsnaberd
Son of David I and Zolakertel of Kakheti
1048-1089 1089
Lori
Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget Unknown
three children
Changed the capital of the kingdom to Lori in 1065.
David II
(Դավիթ Բ)
?
Lori
Son of Gurgen II
1089-1118

1118-1145
1145?
Matsnaberd
Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget

Lordship of Matsnaberd and Tavouch
Mamka
three children
They returned their capital to Matsnaberd in 1111. In 1118, the kingdom was annexed to Georgia. Despite keeping the royal title, they continued to rule as Lords of Matsnaberd and Tavouch, then as vassals of the Kings of Georgia. Vassals of:
Abas I
(Աբաս Ա)
?
Lori
Son of Gurgen II
1145
Matsnaberd
Ruzka
no children
Gurgen III
(Կյուրիկե Գ)
?
Matsnaberd
Son of David II and Ruzka
1145-1185 1185
Matsnaberd
Lordship of Matsnaberd and Tavouch Tamar
six children
Vassal of:
Abas II
(Աբաս Բ)
1173
Matsnaberd
Son of Gurgen III and Tamar
1185-1192 1192
Matsnaberd
Lordship of Matsnaberd and Tavouch Nana of Armenia
(Daughter of a Zakarid prince)
one child
Vassal of:
Aghsartan
(Աղսարթան)
?
Matsnaberd
Sson of Abas II and Nana of Armenia
1192-1236 1236
Matsnaberd
Lordship of Matsnaberd and Tavouch Unknown
one child
Vassal of:
Gurgen IV
(Աբաս Բ)
1173
Matsnaberd
Son of Aghsartan and Nana of Armenia
1232-1236 1236
Matsnaberd
Lordship of Matsnaberd and Tavouch Unknown
three chilren
Co-ruled with his father. He is probably the last ruling member of the family. There are two more rulers, which probably don't belong already to the family, which were vassals to Rusudan of Georgia and David VI of Georgia:
  • 1236–1256: Pahlavan
  • 1256–1259: Taqiaddin
Matsnaberd and Tavouch merged in Georgia

Princes and Kings of Vaspurakan (800–1021)

Artsruni dynasty as princes

  • 800–836: Hamazasp II, married to a daughter of Ashot Msaker of the Bagratuni family.
  • 836–852: Ashot I Abulabus, son, 1st time
  • 852–853: Gurgen I, brother of the above
  • 853–854: Abu Djafar, probably brother of the above
  • 854–857: Gurgen II, a distant relative from Mardastan
  • 857–868: Grigor-Derenik, son of Ashot I, married Sofia, daughter of Ashot I Bagratuni. 1st time
  • 868–874: Ashot I Abulabus, 2nd time
  • 874–887: Grigor-Derenik, 2nd time.
  • 887–898: Gagik Abu Morvan Artsruni, regent for Grigor-Derenik's sons, then usurper from 896
  • 898–900: Ashot II Sargis, son of Grigor-Derenik.
  • (Vaspurakan occupied in 900-01 by the Sajid emir Afshin)
    • Safi, governor
  • 901–904: Ashot II Sargis, reinstated. After his death Vaspurakan is divided:
  • 904–908: Gagik III, brother of Ashot II, ruler in northwest Vaspurakan, crowned king 908
  • 904–925: Gurgen III, brother of Ashot II, ruler in southeast Vaspurakan.

Artsruni dynasty as kings

Kings of Syunik (987–1170)

Siunia dynasty

  • 987–998: Smbat I Sahak
  • 998–1040: Vasak, son of the above
  • 1040-1044/51: Smbat II, maternal grandson of the above
  • 1044/51-1072: Grigor I, brother of the above
  • 1072–1094: Seneqerim, brother-in-law of the above
  • 1094–1166: Grigor II, son of the above
  • 1166–1170: Hasan, son-in-law of the above

Kings of Georgia

Bagrationi dynasty (1118–1476)

Armenians in exile: The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees, who were fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia.[11] It was initially founded by the Rubenian dynasty, an offshoot of the larger Bagratid family that at various times held the thrones of Armenia and Georgia. While the Rubenian rulers were initially regional princes, their close ties with the Western world after the First Crusade saw the principality recognised as a kingdom under Leo I by the Holy Roman Empire in 1198.[12] The Rubenid dynasty fell in 1252 after the death of the last Rubenid monarch Isabella, and her husband Hethum I became sole ruler, beginning the Hethumid dynasty. After the death of Leo IV in 1341 his cousin was elected to succeed him as Constantine II, the first king of the Lusignan dynasty. The kingdom fell at the beginning of Leo V's reign to the Mamluks,[13] and henceforth title holders were only claimants to the throne. Charlotte of Cyprus ceded the throne to the House of Savoy in 1485,[14] and the title fell out of use until after 1861.

  Lords and Princes of Cilician Armenia   Kings of Cilician Armenia

Rubenian dynasty

Ruler Born Reign Death Consort Notes
Ruben I
(Ռուբեն Ա)
Rupoohye.GIF
1025[15]/35 [16]
Unknown
1080–1095 1095
Kormogolo[17]
aged 59–60 or 69–70
Unknown
two children
He declared the independence of Cilicia from the Byzantine Empire, thus formally founding the beginning of Armenian rule there.[18] The Roupenian dynasty ruled Cilician Armenia until 1219.
Constantine I
(Կոստանդին Ա)
Tancred, Tarsus.jpg
1035–1040[19] or 1050–1055
Son of Ruben I
1095-c.1100 c.1100[20] or 24 February 1102 or 23 February 1103 [16]
aged approximately 50–60
Unknown
(great-granddaughter of Bardas Phokas) three children
He provided ample provisions to the Crusaders, for example during the difficult period of the siege of Antioch in the winter of 1097. He was a passionate adherent of the separated Armenian Church.
Thoros I
(Թորոս Ա)
Unknown, before 1100
First son of Constantine I
c.1100-1129 17 February 1129[21] or 16 February 1130 [16] Unknown
two children
His alliance with the leaders of the First Crusade helped him rule his feudal holdings with commanding authority. He avenged the death of King Gagik II by killing his assassins. He also bestowed favors and gave gifts and money to many monasteries for their decoration and adornment.
Constantine II
(Կոստանդին Բ)
Before 1129
Son of Thoros I
1129/1130 After 17 February 1129 Unmarried He died a few months after his father's death in the course of a palace intrigue.
Leo I
(Լեիոն Ա)
Levon I.gif
Before 1100
Second son of Constantine I
1129/30-1137 14 February 1140
Constantinople
aged at least 39–40
Unknown
six or seven children
Most of his successes benefited from Byzantium's pre-occupation with the threats of Zengi from Aleppo and the lack of effective Frankish rule, especially in the Principality of Antioch. He expanded his rule over the Cilician plains and even to the Mediterranean shores. He was taken captive in 1137 with two of his sons by the Byzantine Emperor. He died in prison.
Byzantine Rule: 1137-1144/1145
Thoros II the Great
(Թորոս Բ)
1144[16] or 1145[22][23]
Son of Leo I
1144–1169 6 February 1169[24][25][16]
aged 23–25
Unknown
(An unnamed daughter of Simon of Raban[26][23]) or Isabelle of Edessa[16]
1149
two children

Unknown
(An unnamed daughter of Thomas of Cilicia)
1164
one child
Thoros survived his incarceration in Constantinople and was able to escape in 1143. He found it occupied by many Greek garrisons, ousting successfully the Byzantine garrisons.
Ruben II
(Ռուբեն Բ)
(under guardianship of Thomas of Cilicia[27])
1165
Son of Thoros II
1169–1170 1170
aged 4–5
Unmarried Placed under regency of his maternal grandfather, Thomas of Cilicia. Both monarch and regent were assassinated by prince Mleh, who took the power to himself.
Mleh
(Մլեհ)
Before 1120
Son of Leo I
1170–1175
usurper
15 May 1175
Sis
aged at least 54-55
Unknown
no children
During his father's captivity escaped to Edessa with two of his brothers. Expelled from Cilicia by Thoros II, for embracing the Muslim faith, almost undid his brother's work when he took the power.
Ruben III
(Ռուբեն Գ)
1145
First son of Stephen of Armenia and Rita of Barbaron
1175–1187 6 May 1187[16]
Drazark[28]
aged 41–42
Isabella of Toron
two children
Grandson of Leo I. He was a friend of the Franks (the Crusaders); for example, at the end of 1177, assisted Philip, Count of Flanders and Prince Bohemond III of Antioch at the ineffectual siege of Harenc.[25]
Leo II the Magnificent
(Լեւոն Ա Մեծագործ)
(Leo I as king)
Leo II of Armenia.jpg
1150
Second son of Stephen of Armenia and Rita of Barbaron
1187-1198/9 2 May 1219[16]
aged 68–69
Isabella of Antioch
3 February 1188 or 4 February 1189
(annulled 1206)
one child

Sibylla of Cyprus
28 January 1210 or 27 January 1211
one child
In 1194–1195, when he was planning to receive the title of king, he instituted a union of the Armenian church with Rome. During his reign, succeeded in establishing Cilician Armenia as a powerful and a unified Christian state with a pre-eminence in political affairs.[29] Led his kingdom alongside the armies of the Third Crusade and aided the crusaders. Under his rule, Armenian power in Cilicia was at its apogee: his kingdom extended from Isauria to the Amanus Mountains.
1198/9 – 1219
Isabella I
(Զապել)

(under guardianship of Adam of Baghras (1219-20) and Constantine of Barbaron (1220-26))
Isabella of Armenia.jpg
27 January 1216 or 25 January 1217
Daughter of Leo II and Sibylla of Cyprus
1219–1252 23 January 1252
Ked
aged 35–37
Philip of Antioch
June 1222
no children

Hethum I
14 June 1226
Tarsus
seven children
A period of dynastic conflict that ended with the apparent unification in marriage of the two principal dynastic forces of Cilicia (i.e., the Roupenids and the Hethumids). The country experienced struggles and shifting alliances between Crusader states and the Mongol Empire.

Hethumid dynasty

Ruler Born Reign Death Consort Notes
Hethum I
(Հեթում Ա)
HetoumIAtMongolCourt1254.JPG
1215
Son of Constantine of Barbaron[30] and Alice Pahlavouni
1226–1270
(with Isabella I until 1252)
21 October 1270
aged 54–55
Isabella I
14 June 1226
Tarsus
seven children
Was a major player in the political struggles and shifting alliances around the Crusader states, as the Armenians had ties with all sides. They were primarily aligned with the Europeans, but during Hethum's reign, the rapidly expanding Mongol Empire became a concern.
Leo III
(Լեւոն Բ)
(Leo II as king)
Leo III of Armenia.jpeg
1236
Son of Hethum I and Isabella I
1270–1289 6 February 1289
aged 52–53
Anna of Lampron
5 January 1262 or 14 January 1263
sixteen children
A pious king, he was devoted to Christianity. He pursued active commercial relations with the West, by renewing trade agreements with the Italians and establishing new ones with the Catalans. He also endeavoured to reinforce the Mongol alliance.
Hethum II
(Հեթում Բ)
HetoumIIDrawing.JPG
1266
First son of Leo III and Anna of Lampron
1289–1293

1295–1296
(as co-ruler)

1299–1303
17 November 1307
Anazarba
aged 40–41
Unmarried Political trouble: he abdicated in 1293 for monastic vows, being recalled by his brother Thoros III in 1295. They travelled to Constantinople to marry their sister Rita to Michael IX Palaiologos, but their brother Sempad usurped the throne, and they were imprisoned in the return; Freed after Sempad's death, assumed power again in 1299, abdicating once more in 1303 to become regent for his successor, Leo IV.
Thoros III
(Թորոս Երրորդ)
(Thoros I as king)
LeonIIQueenGueraneAndTheirFiveChildren1272.jpg
1271
Second son of Leo III and Anna of Lampron
1293–1298
(nominally due to prison since 1296)
23 July 1298
aged 26–27
Margaret of Cyprus
9 January 1288
two children

Unknown
(daughter of Mahmud Ghazan Khan)
no children
Imprisoned in 1296 by Sempad, his brother, who usurped the throne, was strangled in prison in 1298.
Sempad
(Սմբատ)
Sempad.jpg
1277
Third son of Leo III and Anna of Lampron
1296–1298
(usurper)
1310
aged 32–33
Unknown
(daughter of Mahmud Ghazan Khan)
no children
Sempad seized the throne with the aid of his brother Constantine while his brothers Hethum II and Thoros were in Constantinople. At their return, imprisoned them. He also blinded Hethum and strangled Thoros.
Constantine III
(Կոստանդին Ա)
(Constantine I as king)
Kostandin III.jpg
1278
Fourth son of Leo III and Anna of Lampron
1298–1299 1310
aged 31–32
Unmarried After helping and then deposing his brother, he was raised as king. Gave the throne to his brother, Hethum II.
Leo IV
(Լեիոն Գ)
(Leo III as king)

(under guardianship of Hethum of Armenia[31] (1303-05))
Levon IV.jpg
1289
Son of Thoros III and Margaret of Cyprus
1303–1307 17 November 1307
Anazarba
aged 17–18
Agnes of Tyre-Cyprus
1305
no children
Together with his uncle and previous regent, he fought the Mongols, but were both assassinated in 1307.
Oshin
(Օշին)
Oshin.jpg
3 January 1283
Fifth son of Leo III and Anna of Lampron
1307–1320 20 July 1320
aged 37
Isabella of Korikos
c.1310
one son

Isabelle of Cyprus
1310
(annulled c.1316)
no children

Joan of Taranto
February 1316
Tarsus
one child
Ascended to the throne after the death of his nephew, Leo IV. He was poisoned by his cousin Oshin of Korikos, who then ascended as regent.
Leo V
(Լեիոն Դ)
(Leo IV as king)

(under guardianship of Oshin of Korikos)
Portrait of Levon V in manuscript of Armenian translation of Assises d'Antioche.jpg
1309
Son of Oshin and Isabella of Korikos
1329–1341 28 August 1341
aged 31–32
Alice of Korikos
10 August 1321
one child

Constance of Sicily
29 December 1331
no children
Leo was strongly pro-Western and favored a union of the Armenian and Roman Churches, which deeply displeased the native barons. After murdering Leo, they elected a cousin, from the Cypriot Lusignans.

Houses of Lusignan and Hethum-Neghir

  House of Lusignan   House of Hethum-Neghir

Ruler Born Reign Death Consort Notes
Constantine IV
(Կոստանդին Բ)
(Constantine II as king)
Constantine IV of Armenia.jpg
c.1300
Son of Amalric, Lord of Tyre and Isabella of Armenia
1341–1344 17 April 1344
aged approximately 43–44
Kantakouzene
c.1318
Constantinople
no children

Theodora Syrgiannaina
c.1330
two children
Assassinated in an Armenian revolt in 1344.
Constantine V
(Կոստանդին Դ)
(Constantine III as king)
Constantine III.png
17 April 1313
Son of Baldwin, Lord of Neghir
1344–1362 Marie of Korikos
1340
two children
21 December 1362
aged approximately 43–44
During his rule, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was reduced by Mamluk raids and conquests. They conquered Ajazzo in 1347, Tarsus and Adana in 1359.
Interregnum: Regency of Marie of Korikos (Մարիա Կոռիկոսի): 1362-1365
Constantine VI
(Կոստանդին Բ)
(Constantine IV as king)
Kostandin VI.jpg
c.1324
Son of John, Lord of Neghir
1365–1373 April 1373
aged approximately 48–49
Marie of Korikos
1369
no children
Cousin of his predecessor. Allied with Cyprus, and after 1369, with the sultan of Egypt. The barons disliked his policy because they feared the Muslim annexation, and murdered Constantine.
Leo VI
(Կոստանդին Բ)
(Leo V as king)
Bust Leon V of Armenia.jpg
c.1342
Son of John of Poitiers-Lusignan and Soldana of Georgia
1373–1375 29 November 1393
Paris
aged 50–51
Margaret of Soissons
May 1369
one child
After several battles against superior Mamluk forces, he locked himself in the fortress at Geben (Armeina: Gaban) and eventually surrendered in 1375,[32] thus putting an end to the Kingdom of Armenia.

Claimants

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Leo VI13751393Lusignan
James I13961398Lusignan
Janus13981432Lusignan
John14321458Lusignan
Charlotte14581467Lusignan

The title is contested by the House of Savoy.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Toumanoff 1990, pp. 506–507.
  2. ^ Settipani 2006, p. 133, n.4.
  3. ^ Dédéyan 2007, p. 195.
  4. ^ a b c Grousset 1947, pp. 242–247.
  5. ^ (Settipani 2006, pp. 330–334).
  6. ^ Grousset 1947, p. 264.
  7. ^ Grousset 1947, p. 272.
  8. ^ Kingdom of Greater Armenia (Bagratids)
  9. ^ Sometimes called Maria.
  10. ^ Probable sister of Ruben I, Prince of Armenia
  11. ^ (in Armenian) Poghosyan, S.; Katvalyan, M.; Grigoryan, G. et al. Cilician Armenia (Կիլիկյան Հայաստան). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. vol. v. Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1979, pp. 406–428
  12. ^ Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Badmoutioun Hayots, Volume II (in Armenian). Athens, Greece: Hradaragoutioun Azkayin Oussoumnagan Khorhourti. pp. 29–56.
  13. ^ Mutafian, p.90
  14. ^ Lang, Robert Hamilton (1878), Cyprus, London: Macmillan and Co., p. 179, retrieved 2008-01-15
  15. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093).
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Cawley, Charles (2009-04-01), Lords of the Mountains, Kings of (Cilician) Armenia (Family of Rupen), Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[self-published source][better source needed]
  17. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093).
  18. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093).
  19. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093).
  20. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093).
  21. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093).
  22. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093).
  23. ^ a b Vahan M. Kurkjian (2005-04-05). "A History of Armenia". Website. Bill Thayer. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
  24. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093).
  25. ^ a b Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades – Volume II.: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East: 1100–1187.
  26. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093).
  27. ^ Thomas was son of a daughter of Leo I.
  28. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1093).
  29. ^ Edwards, Robert W. The Fortifications of Armenian Cilicia.
  30. ^ Previous regent of Isabella, married her to his son.
  31. ^ Previously Hethum II.
  32. ^ Edwards, Robert W. (1987). The Fortifications of Armenian Cilicia: Dumbarton Oaks Studies XXIII. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University. pp. 10, 125, 234. ISBN 0-88402-163-7.

References

  • Boase, T. S. R. (1978). The Cilician Kingdom of Armenia. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press. ISBN 0-7073-0145-9.
  • Mutafian, Claude (2001). Le Royaume Arménien de Cilicie. Paris: CNRS Editions. ISBN 2-271-05105-3.
  • Histoire Des Princes de Lusignan, Anciens Rois de Jérusalem, de la Petite Arménie et de Chypre, St. Petersbourg, Soikine, Stremiannaya 12, 1903.
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