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List of Amish and their descendants

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of notable Amish and their descendants, including both those who lived or are living culturally as Amish or Amish Mennonite as well as those who recognize themselves culturally as Amish or Amish Mennonite descendants but may or may not practice Anabaptist beliefs. This list does not include those of Mennonite religion only, who are not culturally connected to Switzerland and South Germany and the persecution documented in the Martyrs Mirror.

To be included in this list, the person must either have a Wikipedia article showing they are Amish or Amish Mennonite or are of Amish or Amish Mennonite descent or must have references showing their claim and are notable.

Amish in Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Amish in Lancaster, Pennsylvania

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  • What Caused These Mysterious Genetic Mutations?
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Transcription

Hemophilia, infertility, and a whole host of life-threatening conditions. Genetic mutations in the royal families were passed on through generations of inbreeding. Stay tuned to number one to find out how inbreeding may have helped the United States win the Revolutionary War! Number 10: Hemophilia. One of the most recognized symptoms of inbreeding, hemophilia is also one of its most dangerous. Hemophilia is an inherited genetic disease where the body is unable to clot blood properly due to a lack of the necessary proteins. It can often lead to nosebleeds, bruising easily, and even bleeding into the brain. This disease can cause scary situations for parents such as a simple cut or nose bleeding turning into the elevator scene from "The Shining." Originally observed and noted by an Arabic physician in the 10th century when he noticed many of his patients dying due to uncontrollable blood loss, the condition became much more well known and recognized after the devastating effect it had on the family of Queen Victoria I of the United Kingdom. Despite being one of the few female monarchs in English history, and ruling during a time of great change and colonial expansion in her kingdom, hemophilia is one of the most lasting memories of her legacy. In fact, researchers believe she was the first carrier of Hemophilia B, a new type of bleeding disorder that she passed on to her descendants. In a trend that will become depressingly common on this list, royal families would often mate with close family members throughout Europe for political and financial reasons. This aided in the spread of many genetic mutations including hemophilia. Originally showing in her son, Leopold, who passed away at 30 years old from just a minor fall, hemophilia B affected upwards of dozens of relatives in the royal family, with the actual gene being passed on to many more. This ultimately led to the death of at least eight direct descendants. Thankfully the practice of inbreeding has all but died out in the Western world, and today's descendants of Queen Victoria have decided to try dating outside the family. It's a good thing - otherwise we wouldn't know who Pippa is! Number 9: The Habsburg Jaw. Also known as lantern jaw and Austrian lip, this disorder can cause suffers serious discomfort due to issues like a misaligned jawline, swollen lower lip, and an enlarged tongue. In severe cases, it can also affect the nervous system and lead to mental disabilities, blindness, and seizures.This condition became much more common among royal families across Europe and the Middle East due to intermarriage among relatives. This type of practice resulted in the most famous case of the Habsburg jaw, and one of its most tragic sufferers, Charles II of Spain. Part of the long reigning Habsburg house, Charles II became the namesake behind this condition due to his facial abnormalities and his slow mental development. By the time he took power in adulthood, he had trouble communicating due to his swollen tongue, while his severe underbite made chewing extremely difficult. How did this happen to one of the most powerful houses in European history? Over 100 years of "keeping it in the family" in order to consolidate power. While they're considered one of the more extreme cases, the practice did not stop with the Habsburg house. Other noteworthy rulers dealing with this genetic condition include Ferdinand I of the Holy Roman Empire and Dracula himself, Vlad the Impaler...which certainly explains some things Number 8: Clubfoot. King Tutankhamun, one of the most widely remembered Pharaohs of the ancient Egyptian world may have died in a chariot crash or broke his leg during an assassination attempt. for the better part of 100 years, this was the widely believed end of a larger-than-life figure, however, researchers have recently discovered the evidence behind this cause of death...a severely misaligned foot, which was actually due to the young ruler suffering from clubfoot. Developed during pregnancy clubfoot is an inherited condition of the bones in the feet, making them appear twisted and causing the child to have trouble walking. While it is still fairly common to this da, studies indicate that children who are the product of inbreeding have a much higher incidence than the general public. This is where the ancient king comes back into the story. After more advanced techniques in studying the tomb of King Tut were created in recent years, evidence proves that incest played a big role in the ancestry line leading up to King Tutankhamun. This left him with many conditions including clubfoot, cleft palate, and a vulnerable immune system that led to many cases of malaria. By the time of his death at just 18 years of age, he had so much trouble walking that the young pharaoh was buried with 139 walking canes made from ivory, silver, and gold. Number 7: Infertility. In today's world, infertility for both men and women is taken very seriously, with scientific advancements being made every year. Throughout history, even as recent as the 20th century, this was a much different story. A leading contributor for many suffers was generations of incestuous mating that led to issues such as still births, low sperm count, and erectile dysfunction. Despite needing "two to tango," so to speak, the stigma of infertility was usually placed solely on women. In older societies, a woman's worth to her husband or her social standing was directly tied to her ability to produce children, and could even cost them their marriage or their life. The ability to produce a strong male heir was made especially important to the ruling class of most major civilizations. The ancient Egyptians believed that marriage between siblings led to pure bloodlines, and created stronger male heirs. The effect of this practice led to a high percentage of still births and miscarriages throughout the 3,000 years of Pharaoh rule. Even the previously mentioned Tutankhamun was found buried with his two children, both of whom were stillborn. As civilizations evolved, their understanding of infertility and its relation to inbreeding was...slow, to say the least. While Michelangelo was turning a slab of marble into a 17 foot high naked man and Christopher Columbus was sailing the ocean blue to become a thing, the physicians of Europe were continuing to show us how lucky we are, today, in terms of health care and medical testing. In the 1400s, the most common test for infertility was to have a husband and wife fill two clay pots with water and wheat bran, wait 10 days, then whoever's pot didn't have maggots was assumed to be the infertile one. Before that, in North Africa and the Middle East, a woman would have an onion or a garlic placed in her birthing canal for a whole day. If her breath smelled like the vegetable of the next day, she was going to be expecting a child! Let's keep this in mind next time you complain about today's medical care. Number 6: Cognitive Disabilities. A very famous quote once said how the mind is the strongest muscle in the human body. Well, despite the fact that the brain is not actually a muscle, the human mind is arguably the most important organ we have and has helped the human race evolve to unbelievable levels. This is perhaps why cognitive orders such as mental disabilities and dementia are among the most well known possible outcomes of generational inbreeding. Perhaps our understanding in the higher incidents of these cognitive disabilities due to inbreeding has relied upon the interpretation of our past. Many historical figures throughout history suffered with these disabilities, but had to endure constant mockery and demonization...even from their own family. Charles II of Spain and King Tutankhamun, both mentioned earlier in this list, suffered from different forms of mental disability throughout childhood and during their reigns of power. Other powerful figures to deal with similar disorders include Princess Alexandrine of Prussia, who suffered from Down syndrome, and Prince John...the would-be uncle of Queen Elizabeth II. She was believed to have autism. Due to each member's family having a long history of intermarriage, it is widely speculated that inbreeding played a significant role in determining their health, overall. And for those of you that are curious...the strongest muscle on the body is actually the gluteus maximus. Number 5: Recessive Genetic Disorder. Also known as autosomal recessive disorders, this wide range of diseases and conditions are specific to those that are caused by parents passing on two copies of the same alleles to certain genetic mutations. This can lead to serious diseases such as tay-sachs, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell anemia. These life-altering and deadly diseases, often discovered early in childhood, have become much more common in certain parts of the world that still largely believe in familial intermarriage. 10% of all marriages, worldwide, are considered to be between two family members. However, in parts of the Middle East and Southeast Asia, that number rises dramatically. In countries like Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, estimates have placed familial marriage as over half of all total marriages. This ultimately can lead to a higher incidence of genetic disorders among such families. These incidents, however, are not mutually exclusive to the other side of the earth. 19 states in the United States allow for marriage between cousins, with no genetic testing required. Seriously! Number 4: Cleft Palate. A cleft palate, or a cleft lip, is a fairly common condition that causes an opening at the roof of the mouth or the upper lip. Figures roughly estimate one case in every 940 births, making it the second most common birth defect in the United States. This rate rises worldwide to one in every seven hundred births, with a higher prevalence among Latinos and Pacific Islanders. Usually, this condition can be fixed with a single surgery when the child is between nine and twelve months old. The cleft palate goes back throughout human history, with the first cleft palate repair actually taking place in China around 390 BC, however, repair did not become commonplace for most societies until 1816, when the more modern technique was invented...albeit, without anesthesia. This birth defect became very common among the royal family in ancient Egypt, specifically including our old friend King Tutankhamun. Another notable example includes family members of King Rama V of Thailand. Throughout his lifetime, he sired 70 children with many women, including through marriage to half-sisters. Now, while that may seem like an extraordinary number of children, let's try to keep in mind that he only lived to be 37 years old. It really makes you wonder how did he even have time to run a country! Number 3: Scoliosis. Scoliosis is a medical condition that causes a sideways curvature of the spine. This skeletal disorder, which affects upwards of nine million people in the United States, can cause back pain, misaligned hips, and even heart and lung problems (in more severe cases). Most scoliosis patients develop the condition as children, or in adolescents between the ages of 10 and 15 years old. This was the case for England's Princess Eugenie of York, who developed the condition as a child and had surgery to correct her spine alignment. She's actually the second member of the royal family to reveal her affliction with scoliosis since the turn of the millennium. Richard III, the former King of England ,was found buried under a parking lot in Leicester, UK. Remains of the former monarch, who became the last King of England to die in battle, were also found to show the young royal suffered from curvature of the spine. Number 2: Elongated Skull. The concept of elongated skulls has long been known when studying human history. These remains have been found across the world, from the Mayans in the Americas to the Goths in tribal Germany. However, while many tribes and societies artificially altered their skulls for traditional or religious reasons, an elongated skull was also a birth defect that affected many in the bloodline of the royal families of ancient Egypt. Pharaoh Akhenaten of the 18th dynasty is widely believed to have suffered from craniosynostosis, a condition where fibrous joints in the head fuse at an early age and lead to elongated and in misshapen skulls. He was also known to pass this on to many members of his family, including his daughters and his youngest son. Who was that son you ask? Tutankhamun! But of course it was! At this point, the list should probably be named "The Unfortunate Boy King. Number 1: Porphyria. The year is 1776. The British military has just been defeated, and the United States begins its rise to glory. We all know the story taught to us in school, but, do we know the whole story? Perhaps not. At the time of the Revolutionary War, the king of England was George III. Known to be a tough monarch, and absolutely opposed to independence for the American colonies, King George was quite popular among his subjects in England. However, what many didn't know was that the King suffered from a metabolic disorder known as porphyria. For many, this illness has simply become known as "the madness of King George." Porphyria is a condition that can affect the skin and nervous system of a sufferer. Symptoms include severe abdominal pain, depression, psychosis, and sensitivity to sunlight. Perhaps the most well-known sign of porphyria is the purple urine...yes, that's right, I said purple urine...produced during an attack or relapse of the disease. In regards to King George, his constant relapses with the then-unknown illness led him to shutting himself off from the outside world after the humiliating loss of the American Revolution. By the time he passed away, he was blind, almost completely deaf, and was a king in name only. Because the disease is considered a genetic disease, inbreeding among the English royal family not only affected George III, but many ancestors and those following him that were believed to have signs of porphyria. Mary, Queen of Scots, James V of Scots, Princess Charlotte of Prussia, Frederic the Great of Prussia, and many, many more. Tell us what you think about poor King Tut in the comments below. Don't forget to hit the subscribe button to keep up with other interesting information...and we'll see you next time!

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This page was last edited on 29 September 2018, at 23:20
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