To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland to 1700

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland for the years until 1700. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland, 1701–1800.

The number shown by each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Act concerning assay passed in 1783 is cited as "23 & 24 Geo. 3 c. 23", meaning the 23rd Act passed during the session that started in the 23rd year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 24th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "40 Geo. 3" rather than "40 Geo. III"). Acts of the reign of Elizabeth I are formally cited without a regnal numeral in the Republic of Ireland.

Acts passed by the Parliament of Ireland did not have a short title; however, some of these Acts have subsequently been given a short title by Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland, or Acts of the Oireachtas. This means that some Acts have different short titles in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland respectively.

A number of the Acts included in this list are still in force in Northern Ireland or the Republic of Ireland. Because these two jurisdictions are entirely separate, the version of an Act in force in one may differ from the version in force in the other; similarly, an Act may have been repealed in one but not in the other.

A number of Acts passed by the Parliament of England also extended to Ireland during this period.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    2 976 055
    2 647 799
    5 330
    1 187
    1 208
  • Tea, Taxes, and The American Revolution: Crash Course World History #28
  • The Atlantic Slave Trade: Crash Course World History #24
  • Find Your 17th-c. New England Ancestors with NEHGS
  • Parliamentary sovereignty
  • 18th Century America: The Colonies Mature - Liam O'Brien


Hi, I’m John Green, This is Crash Course World History and today you AREN’T going to get a blow by blow chronology of the American Revolution, and you AREN’T going to get cool biographical details about Thomas Jefferson or George Washington. But you are going to get me not wearing any pants. Mr. Green, Mr. Green! Did you know that George Washington might have had slave teeth implanted into his jaw? Yeah, I did Me from the Past, and while it’s fun to focus on metaphorically resonant details, what we’re concerned with here is why the American Revolution happened and the extent to which it was actually revolutionary. Plus, for the first time in Crash Course history, I have a legitimate chance of getting through an entire episode without butchering a single pronunciation. [Wouldn't bet your Sword of Destiny on that] Unfortunately, next week we will be in France and je parle francais comme une idiot. [Intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] So, intellectual historians might put the roots of the American revolution earlier, but I’m going to start with the end of the 7 Years War in 1763, which as you will recall from last week was 1. Expensive, and 2. A victory for the British, including British subjects living in America, who now had more land and therefore more money. Right, so, in 1765 the British government was like, “Hey, since we went into this debt to get you all this new land, we trust that you won’t mind if we pass the Stamp Act, in which we place a fancy stamp on your documents, newspapers, playing cards, etc., and in return, you give us money.” Well, it turns out the colonists weren’t so keen on this, not so much because the tax was high because they had no direct representation in the parliament that had levied the tax. [Some things never change, eh, D.C?] And plus, they were cranky about the Crown keeping large numbers of British troops in the colonies even after the end of the 7 Years War. And then the British government was like, “You are inadequately grateful,” and the colonists were like, “Shut up we hate you,” [That old chestnut] and the British government was like, “As long as you live under our roof, [This old chestnut] you live by our rules,” and so on, but eventually the British backed down and repealed the Stamp Act. The repeal inspired a line of commemorative teapots, thereby beginning America’s storied tradition of worthless collectible ceramics. [atleast Beanie Babies double as cornhole bags] But, in the end, this only emboldened the colonists when the British tried to put new taxes on the Americans in the form of the Townshend acts. These led to further protests and boycotts and most importantly, more organization among the colonists. The protests escalated: 1770 saw the Boston Massacre, which with its sum total of five dead was perhaps the least massacrey massacre of all time, and in 1773, a bunch of colonists dumped about a million dollars worth of tea into Boston Harbor, in protest of British government decisions that actually would have made British tea cheaper. Oh it’s time for the open letter? [oh no! he's coming in hot!] Ah…..oh, that did not go well. [admittedly not your best work, John.] An Open Letter to Tea. But first, let’s see what’s in the secret compartment today. Oh, it’s a gigantic teabag. [not touching that] Hm. Let’s see what flavor it is... Bitter tyranny variety! [SleepyTime sure ain't gonna keep the fires of rage a'burning] Dear Tea, Like all Americans who love justice and freedom, I hate you. [You're harshing my Mint Magic mellow, Bro] But I understand you’re quite popular in the UK where the East India Company would periodically go to war for you. But, what fascinates me about you, tea, I mean, aside from the fact that people choose to drink you when there are great American refreshments available, like Mountain Dew, [Hey, like on Mad Men!] is that even though you’re stereotypically English, you’re not English. It’s Chinese, or Burmese, or Indian. No one really knows, but it’s definitely not English. You didn’t even have tea until, like, the 1660s. Posers. Best wishes, John Green So, The Boston Tea Party led to further British crackdowns and then mobilization of colonial militias and then Paul Revere and then actual war, but you can hear all about that stuff on, like, TV miniseries. I want to focus on one of the ways that colonists protested unfair taxation. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. [Because Canadians are so unruly & disagreeable?] As previously noted, the English Crown benefited tremendously from the import of consumer goods to the American colonies, and one of the most effective ways American colonists could protest taxation without representation was by boycotting British products. In order to enforce these boycotts, the protesters created Committees of Correspondence, which spread information about who was and was not observing the boycotts. And these committees also could coerce non-compliers into compliance—which is to say that they were creating and enforcing policy, kind of like a government does. The Maryland Committee of Correspondence, in fact, was instrumental in setting up the first Continental Congress, which convened to coordinate a response to the fighting that started in 1775. This was back when congresses did things, by the way. It was awesome. Anyway, the Continental Congress is most famous for drafting and approving the Declaration of Independence. No, Thought Bubble. That’s the Will Smith vehicle Independence Day. I mean the Declaration of Independence. Right, that one. It’s not your fault, you guys are Canadian. [+ magnificently talented, ruly, agreeable] You’ve never declared independence. Worth noting, by the way, that the congress edited out more than a quarter of Jefferson’s original declaration, and he forever after insisted they’d “mangled” it. Anyway, I would argue the heavy lifting of the American Revolution was already done by the Declaration. In truth, by the time the shooting started, most of the colonists were already self-governing and had developed a sense of themselves as something separate and different from Great Britain— as evidenced by these "Committees of Correspondence," which functioned as shadow governments— eventually reaching out to foreign governments, establishing an espionage network, tarring and feathering loyalists and royal officials which, by the way is incredibly painful and dangerous to the victim, and even recruiting physicians to tell American men that drinking British tea would make them weak and effeminate. [If only they had Dr. Pepper 10] Thanks, Thought Bubble. Now, despite all this, about 20% of colonists remained loyal to Great Britain throughout the war, especially in the major cities that Britain occupied. Also lots slaves continued to support the British, especially after Britain promised that any slaves who fought with them would be freed. And it’s worth noting that while we generally celebrate the Revolution and see it as a step toward justice and equality, the people who most needed the protection of a government might have been better off and more free, if Britain had won. [whoops] Especially since Britain ended slavery well before America did, and, you know, without a civil war. Also, even though most Americans had come to see themselves as separate from Britain before 1776, the British certainly didn’t see it that way. They continued to fight either until 1781 or 1783, depending on whether you calculate by when they actually gave up or when the peace treaty was signed. So you can’t really say the American Revolution was won before the fighting even started. But the truth is, the American Revolution and the war for independence weren’t like this. They were like this. So, here’s what was pretty revolutionary about the American Revolution: The colonists threw off the rule of an imperial monarchy and replaced it with a government that didn’t have a king, a radical idea in a world that didn’t feature many non-monarchical forms of government. And, if you look at the explanations for the revolution, especially those contained in, like, the Declaration of Independence and in pamphlets, like Thomas Paine’s Common Sense, there’s definitely a revolutionary zeal that’s informed by the Enlightenment. And that’s especially true if you focus on the idea of liberty, as many of the pamphleteers did. That said, if you look at the actual outcome of the revolution, aside from the whole no king thing, it wasn’t that revolutionary. Let’s look, for instance, at two ideas central to the revolution: property rights and equality. So the Articles of Confederation gave the government no power to tax, which had the effect of making sure that people who had property were able to keep it because they never had to pay the government anything in exchange for the right to own and use it. And that’s very different from taxation systems dating all the way back to, like, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. And it’s probably not a coincidence that most of the writers and signers of the Declaration of Independence were men of property, and they wanted to keep it that way. So, basically, the white guys who controlled the land and its production before the American Revolution were the same white guys who controlled it after the American Revolution. And this leads us to the second, and more important way that as a revolution, the American one falls a bit short. So, if you’ve ever studied American history, you’re probably familiar with the greatest line in the Declaration of Independence: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.” Sorry, ladies. [some things never brickabracking change!] And, you also may know that at the time those words were written, a large segment of the American population, perhaps as much as 30%, were slaves of African descent who were held as property and were definitely, 100% not treated as equal to whites. In fact, the guy who wrote those words held slaves, and was fighting against a government who promised to free any slaves who supported it. Furthermore, women couldn’t vote, and neither could white men who didn’t own enough property— meaning that the government of, for, and by the people was, in fact of, for, and by about 10-15% of the people. But here’s the real question: Was the American Revolution what the historian Jonathan Israel called “a revolution of mind?” [Like in the Matrix?] Did it change the way we think about what people are and how we should organize ourselves? Addressing those questions will involve a brief foray into the history of ideas. Let’s study the Enlightenment! The Enlightenment was primarily a celebration of humans’ ability to understand and improve the natural world through reason. The Enlightenment had a number of antecedents, including the European Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution, but what made it special was that some of its more radical proponents— like, Immanuel Kant, for instance— went so far as to argue that human reason rendered a belief in God unnecessary and, by extension, proclaimed that any belief in divine intervention or a divine plan for humanity was just superstition. Given that this was coming out of an overwhelmingly Christian Europe, this was a pretty controversial suggestion, and not all Enlightenment thinkers would go that far. And more moderate Enlightenment thinkers were also more willing to countenance hierarchical social and political structures. Like John Locke, a major Enlightenment thinker, formulated his version of inalienable rights as life, liberty, and property. And that’s much more traditional than arguing, for instance, that property should be held communally. And it’s no coincidence that the more moderate Enlightenment thinkers, like Locke and Adam Smith, happened to be British, and the real radicals were French. And the founders of the United States, were far more closely linked to those British Enlightenment thinkers than to the French, who influenced the French Revolution, which as we will see next week, goes swimmingly. But even if the government that America’s revolutionaries came up with didn’t overturn privilege or tear apart the social order as the French Revolution tried to do, it did make significant changes. America made sure that there would never be a formal nobility, except for the Count of Chocula. [and Gene "Duke of Earl" Chandler in the 60's] And, it recognized the equal rights of daughters and widows, when it came to inheriting and possessing property. [Downton Abbey wishes] Also, it created a world in which future countesses could rehabilitate their reputations in New York. But, the real seismic change was that after the Revolution, Americans came to view themselves as equal to each other. And, in the context of the 18th century, that was pretty radical. “Ordinary Americans came to believe that no one in a basic down-to-earth and day-in-and-day-out manner was really better than anyone else. That was equality as no other nation had ever quite had it.” And in the end, the ideas of the American revolution— ideas about property and equality and representation— are still hugely important in shaping political discourse around the world, and particularly in America. [particularly in an election year] And by America, I mean the United States. I’m sorry Canadians and Mexicans and Central Americans and South Americans. We’re provincial, okay? I mean, here in the United States, our Presidential candidates must know both how to wear a suit and how to bowl. But the American Revolution also reminds us— as the French one will next week— that revolutionary ideas and values are not always easy to live up to. Nothing challenges one’s belief in equality quite like becoming rich and powerful. Indeed, rare is the revolutionary who doesn’t become, on some level, like Orwell’s pigs, insisting that while all animals were created equal, some were created more equal than others. [at the very least tastier than others?] In short, if you’re going to base your new society on philosophy, you should try to found it on ideals that are as inclusive and humanistic as possible— because the people executing those ideas will never be ideal. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller, our script supervisor is Danica Johnson, the show is written by my high school history teacher Raoul Meyer and myself, our graphics team is Thought Bubble, [we love you, ThoughtBubbles!] and we are ably interned by Meredith Danko. [dba: The Interness or MTVCS] Last week’s phrase of the week was "Historian Feuds." If you want to suggest future phrases of the week, or guess at this one you can do so in comments, where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course, and as we say in my hometown, don’t forget That's how you get ants! [Do you want ants, John?] [slides away into the white-walled abyss] [music outro] [music outro]

13th century

1 Hen. 3 (1216)

11 Hen. 3 (1226)

20 Hen. 3 (1236)

21 Hen. 3 (1237)

  • Concerning those born before wedlock

22 Hen. 3 (1238)

  • Inheritance of bastard

12 Edw. 1 (1284)

  • Observance in Ireland of Statute of Rutland

13 Edw. 1 (1285)

20 Edw. 1 (1292)

21 Edw. 1 (1293)

28 Edw. 1 (1300)

  • Custom of Ireland as to goods of testator
  • Export of silver

14th century

1 Edw. 2 (1307)

13 Edw. 2 (1320)

  • Confirmation of observance in Ireland of Statutes of Merton, Marlborough, Westminster the First, Westminster the Second, Gloucester

17 Edw. 2 (1324)

29 Edw. 3 (1355)

  • Forestallers of Fish

31 Edw. 3 (1357)

  • State of the Land of Ireland

40 Edw. 3 (1366)

13 Ric. 2 (1389)

  • Prohibition of sale of falcons, hawks, etc.

15 Ric. 2 (1391)

  • Observance in Ireland of Statutes of England

15th century

3 Hen. 4 (1402)

  • Forcible Entry

11 Hen. 4 (1410)

7 Hen. 6 (1428)

  • c. 8 Indictments and Pleadings Act 1428

16 Hen. 6 (1437)

  • Treatment of Foreign Merchants Act 1437

33 Hen. 6

  • c. 9 Ships guarding the sea between Ireland and England to have certain tolls

37 Hen. 6 (1459)

  • c. 1 Warrants and Patents

38 Hen. 6

  • c. 14 Foreign enemies spoil and slay merchants, &c., on sea

3 Edw. 4 (1463)

  • c. 9 Town of Dungarvan Act 1463
  • c. 21 Town of Youghal Act 1463

5 Edw. 4 (1465)

  • City of Cork Act 1465

7 Edw. 4 (1467)

  • c. 2 An Act that none shall purchase Benefices from Rome

7 & 8 Edw. 4 (1467)

  • c. 58 Borough of Drogheda Act 1467
  • c. 64 Borough of Drogheda (No. 2) Act 1467

10 Edw. 4 (1470)

  • c. 10 Herring Fishery Act 1470

11 & 12 Edw. 4 (1471)

  • c. 80 Parliamentary Privilege Act 1471

15 & 16 Edw. 4 (1475)

  • c. 8 Taking of Pledges Act 1475

16 & 17 Edw. 4 (1476)

  • c. 17 County of Louth Act 1476
  • c. 22 Courts Act 1476

18 Edw. 4 (1478)

  • Confirmation of rights: pestilence
  • Saint Werburgh's Church Act 1478

18 Edw. 4 Sess. 1 (1478)

  • c. 8 Bog of Allen Act 1478

21 Edw. 4 (1481)

  • Christ Church Lands Act 1481

21 & 22 Edw. 4 (1481)

  • Christ Church Grants Act 1481
  • Town of Ardee Act 1481

1 & 2 Hen. 7 (1486)

  • c. 4 City of Dublin Act 1486
  • c. 5 Borough of Drogheda Act 1486

9 Hen. 7 (1493)

  • Distress etc. Act 1493

10 Hen. 7 (1495)

16th century

8 & 9 Hen. 8

  • c. 9 Foreigners fishing off coast to land one-third of the catch in Ireland

28 Hen. 8 (1537)

28 & 29 Hen. 8

  • c. 17 Marriage (No. 2) Act 1537[1]
  • c. 24 County of Wexford Act 1536
  • c. 32 Borough of Wexford Act 1536
  • c. 37 Boyne Weirs Act 1536

33 Hen. 8 (1542)

33 Hen. 8 Sess. 2 (1542)

  • c. 3 An Act touching Mispleading and Jeoyfailes

34 Hen. 8 (1543)

3 & 4 Phil. & Mar. (1556)

  • c. 2 Settlement of Laois and Offaly
  • c. 11 Treason Act
  • c. 14 Regal Power of Queen

2 Eliz. 1 (1560)

  • c. 1 An Act restoring to the Crown, the auncient Jurisdiction over the State Ecclesiasticall and Spirituall, and abolishing all forreine Power repugnant to the same (still in force in UK)
  • c. 2 An Act for the Uniformitie of Common Prayer and Service in the Church and the Administration of the Sacraments
  • c. 6 An Act whereby certaine Offences be made Treasons

12 Eliz. 1 (1570)

  • c. 1 An Act for the Erection of Free Schooles
  • c. 2 An Act that Exemplifications shall be of the same Effect and Strength as the Record or Matter exemplified should be

28 Eliz. 1 (1586)

  • c. 1 Perjury Act 1586
  • c. 2 Witchcraft Act 1586

17th century


11, 12 & 13 Jas. 1 (1613-15)

  • c. 2 Piracy Act 1613
  • c. 8 An Act for the avoyding of privie and secret outlawries of His Majestie's subjects in personal actions


10 Chas. 1 (1634)

  • c. 3 An Act for confirming of letters patent hereafter to be past upon his Majesties commission of grace for the remedy of defective titles
  • c. 5 Recovery of rents by executors

10 Chas. 1 Sess. 2 (1634)

  • c. 1 Statute of Uses 1634
  • c. 3 Conveyancing Act 1634
  • c. 4 An Act concerning grantees of reversions, to take advantage of breaches of conditions &c.
  • c. 6 Trespass Act 1634
  • c. 14 An Act for the continuance of actions after the death of any King
  • c. 17 An Act that where the plaintiffe is non-suited, the defendant shall recover costs

10 Chas. 1 Sess. 3 (1634)

  • c. 2 Explanation of 10 Chas. 1 c. 3
  • c. 3 Re plantation
  • c. 7 An Act for contentation of debts upon execution
  • c. 10 Administration of Estates Act 1634
  • c. 13 Forcible Entry Act 1634
  • c. 15 Maintenance and Embracery Act 1634
  • c. 18 Sheriffs Act 1634

10 & 11 Chas. 1 (1634-35)

  • c. 3 Ecclesiastical Lands Act 1634
  • c. 8 An Act to give costs to the defendant, upon a nonsuite of the plaintiffe, or verdict against him
  • c. 10 An Act to prevent and punish the abuses in procuring processe and supersedeas of the peace and good behaviour out of his Majesties courts of Chancery and Kings Bench and to prevent abuses in procuring writs of certiorari, &c.
  • c. 11 Common Informers Act 1634
  • c. 12 Re privilege of Parliament
  • c. 35 Cruelty to horses and sheep

15 Chas. 1 Sess. 2 (1639)

  • c. 3 Forfeiture Act 1639 (still in force in UK)
  • c. 6 An Act for strengthening of letters patent past and to be past, upon any of his Majesties commissions of grace for the remedy of defective titles, etc.


14 & 15 Chas. 2 (1662)

  • c. 3 Hostlers and innkeepers

14 & 15 Chas. 2 Sess. 4 (1662)

  • c. 2 Re plantation
  • c. 10 An Act for real union and division of parishes, and concerning churches, free-schools and exchanges
  • c. 19 Tenures Abolition Act 1662
  • c. 21 An Act for increasing the fee of the seal due to the lord chancellor of Ireland

17 & 18 Chas. 2 (1665)

  • c. 2 Re plantation
  • c. 6 An Act for the Uniformity of Publique Prayers and Administration of Sacraments, and other Rites and Ceremonies; and for establishing the Forme of making, ordaining, and consecrating Bishops, Priests and Deacons, in the Church of Ireland
  • c. 11 An Act to prevent Delays in extending Statutes, Judgements and Recognizances
  • c. 20 An Act for the trial by Nisi Prius of Issues laid in the City of Dublin and County of Dublin
  • c. 21 St. Patrick's Cathedral Act 1665


4 Will. & Mar. (1692)

7 Will. 3 (1695)

  • c. 2 An Act for taking away the Writ de heretico comburendo
  • c. 3 An Act declaring all Attainders and all other Acts made in the late pretended Parliament, to be void
  • c. 4 An Act to Restrain foreign Education
  • c. 5 An Act for the better securing the government, by disarming papists
  • c. 6 Statute of Distribution 1695
  • c. 8 Life Estates Act 1695
  • c. 9 Profane Oaths Act 1695
  • c. 12 Statute of Frauds 1695
  • c. 13 Sheriffs Act 1695
  • c. 14 An Act declaring which days in the year shall be observed as holy-days
  • c. 15 An Act for granting a Supply to his Majesty, by raising Money by a Poll, and otherwise
  • c. 17 Sunday Observance Act 1695
  • c. 18 Bail in civil actions
  • c. 21 An Act for the better suppressing Tories, Robbers, and Rapparees; and for preventing Robberies, Burglaries, and other heinous Crimes
  • c. 22 Distress for Rent Act 1695

9 Will. 3 (1697)

  • c. 1 An Act for banishing all Papists exercising any Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, and all Regulars of the Popish Clergy out of this Kingdom - known as the "Banishment Act"
  • c. 2 An Act for the Confirmation of Articles made at the Surrender of the City of Limerick
  • c. 3 An Act to prevent Protestants inter-marrying with Papists
  • c. 5 An Act to hinder the Reversal of several Outlawries and Attainders, and to prevent the Return of Subjects of this Kingdom who have gone into the Dominions of the French King in Europe
  • c. 8 An Act for granting a supply to his Majesty, by raising money by a poll
  • c. 9 An Act to Supply the Defects, and for better Execution of an Act passed this present Session of Parliament, entituled, An act for the better suppressing Tories and Rapparees; and for preventing Robberies, Burglaries, and other heinous Crimes
  • c. 10 Costs and prevention of frivolous suits
  • c. 11 Clandestine Mortgages Act 1697
  • c. 13 Transferring suits from inferior Courts
  • c. 16 St. Michan's Parish Act 1697

10 Will. 3 (1698)

  • c. 6 Glebe Act 1698
  • c. 7 Confirming estates under Acts of Settlement
  • c. 8 Deer Protection Act 1698
  • c. 10 An Act for traversing Inquisitions
  • c. 13 An Act to prevent Papists being Solicitors
  • c. 14 Arbitration

See also


  • Statutes passed in the Parliaments held in Ireland from the third year of Edward the second, A.D. 1310, to the fortieth year of George III, A.D. 1800, inclusive. Dublin: G. Grierson, printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 1794–1801. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
  • "Pre-Union Irish Statutes". Irish Statute Book. Attorney General of Ireland. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
  • "Statutes which have already been repealed (i.e. prior to the Statute Law Revision Act 2007)" (PDF). Pre-Independence Project. Attorney General of Ireland. 2006. pp. 1–73. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2006. Retrieved 29 June 2015.


  1. ^ Harding, Maebh (2011). "The curious incident of the Marriage Act (no 2) 1537 and the Irish statute book". Legal Studies. 32: 78–108. doi:10.1111/j.1748-121X.2011.00217.x.
This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 02:26
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.