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List of lieutenant governors of Minnesota

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of lieutenant governors of the U.S. state of Minnesota.

In 1886, elections were moved from odd years to even years. Beginning with the 1962 election, the term of the lieutenant governor increased from two to four years. Prior to the 1974 election, governors and lieutenant governors were elected on separate ballots. Marlene Johnson, elected in 1982 as the running mate of Rudy Perpich, was the first female lieutenant governor of Minnesota. All eight of her successors in that office have also been women.

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Transcription

This is The United States of America. Wait, no. This is the United States of America. These islands aren’t states, but rather territories of the United States. There are 16 islands here, most of which are in the caribbean, polynesia, or micronesia. 11 of these island territories are less significant than the rest because they have no permanent population. In fact, some of them have an area of less than 5 square miles. The other 5 of the 16 islands are inhabited, and those are the ones you’ve probably heard of. So, what are these 5 islands? First let’s talk about how these territories are organized. Incorporated organized territories are the first of these subclasses. Territories under this group are incorporated, meaning they are not a state, but are still entitled to all parts of the Constitution, besides for parts specifically reserved for states. The organized in the title refers to the Organic Acts, which were acts that gave certain territories the right to self-govern. Organic Acts have been passed for territories in the past, some of which are now states, including my home state of Illinois, Hawaii, Colorado, and even the District of Columbia, to name a few. There are currently no territories in the Incorporated Organized subclass, the last territories in the group being Alaska and Hawaii, both granted statehood in 1959. The second group, Incorporated Unorganized territories, are the same as Incorporated Organized territories except for their lack of a “normal” government. Territories in this group also usually have no or a very small permanent population. The Minnesota, California, and Dakota territories, for example, were all part of this group before becoming states. Currently, the group only includes one territory, Palmyra Atoll. U.S. coastal waters, extending out to about 12 nautical miles, are also Incorporated Unorganized “territories”, along with U.S. flagged vessels, including the Coast Guard, Navy, and U.S. Merchant Marine ships. The U.S. Merchant Marine refers to both federally and civilian owned merchant vessels. The third group, Unincorporated Organized territories, consists of the territories you’ve probably heard of, including Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. The last group, Unincorporated Unorganized territories, are all desolate islands with no inhabitants, with one exception, the American Samoa. This island is in this group simply because Congress hasn’t done anything about it yet. An uninformed person would expect to see yet another desolate island, just like the others in the group, but instead they’d find over 50,000 people and a lot of tourists. Since these islands are unincorporated, some fundamental rights are given, but other Constitutional rights are not. Of course, the American Samoa is self governing, but it doesn’t fit the description of a not “normally” constituted system of government. So, now that you have a better understanding of the way these territories are grouped, how did they become territories in the first place? The largest territory of all, both population and land wise, is Puerto Rico. This island boasts a large population of 3.7 million making it more populous than 21 states, and has a land area of 3,515 square miles. Puerto Rico was first settled by humans between 3,000 BCE and 2,000 BCE. However, Puerto Rico, in its modern form, was founded on November 19th, 1493 by Columbus himself. He originally named the island San Juan Bautista, but Spanish traders referred to the island as Puerto Rico, meaning rich port, and that name stuck. After enslaving the natives and establishing ports, Columbus sailed onwards to Florida, but the island remained an important trade port. After the United States gained independence from Britain, trade between the nations grew to the point where the US rivaled Spain in trade importance on the island. On September 23rd, 1868, an army of Puerto Ricans claimed independence from Spain for their island in a movement known as Grito de Lares. However, the army was soon defeated by the mightier Spanish army. The island was granted autonomy by Spain in 1897, but a year later the Spanish American war broke out. The United States launched an invasion of Puerto Rico in July of 1898, and claimed the island with little resistance from the inhabitants. In December of the same year, the Treaty of Paris (the 3rd one that involved the US) was signed, officially ending the Spanish American war. It also approved of the cession of Puerto Rico. Because of this, Puerto Rico, the now colony of the US, switched to the US’s monetary system and placed it under tariff protection. Things remained the same until 1947, when the American government gave Puerto Rico the right to elect their own governor. Luis Munoz Marin became the first governor of Puerto Rico that was elected by the people. 3 years later, in 1950, the US government gave the island the right to draft its own Constitution. Another 3 years later, Puerto Rico was changed from a US territory to commonwealth. This means it's a state in every way except name. 4 states, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Virginia, and Pennsylvania are commonwealths in their full, official state names. There is no difference between these 4 commonwealths/states and the 46 other states nowadays. However, when the states were founded they drafted their own Constitutions, written in order to ensure the monarchy doesn’t return. Commonwealth status gives Puerto Ricans common citizenship to the US, common defense, and a common market. But, because the island is not a state, they do not pay federal taxes, and are not able to vote in Congress. They do however send delegates to Congress, but they can’t vote. This makes for an awkward situation when the island has a larger population than 21 states. Guam, with a population of 170,000 and a land area of 210 square miles, is the second largest US territory both population and land wise. The island was purely inhabited by natives until March 6th, 1521 when a Spanish expedition, led by Ferdinand Magellan, arrived with a 3 ship fleet. Magellan was Portuguese, but was sailing for King Charles I of Spain. Magellan's fleet had consisted of 5 ships when they first left from Spain, but 2 ships were lost along the way, and the 3 remaining lost about half their crew. This was because of storms, disease, and mutiny. Magellan's fleet first landed at Umatac, a village on the southwestern coast of the island. Guam wasn’t officially claimed by Spain until 1565, 44 years after Magellan first landed on the island. From 1565 on, the island was a regular port for Spanish traders sailing from Mexico to the Philippines. A few hundred years later, on June 21st, 1898, American troops captured Guam in a bloodless takeover. This was during the Spanish-American war, and Guam was an important Spanish port island. The island wasn’t officially owned by the US until the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1898. From this point on, the island was an important naval station for the US. Because of this, the US made the naval commandant governor of the island. The Navy governed the island as “USS Guam”, and refused any proposals of a civilian government. Besides for serving as a military base, the island was also used for farming. Maize, copra (essentially dried coconut), rice, sugar, and timber were exported, along with fish and refined petroleum. The island continued exporting goods until, on December 8th, 1941, Guam was invaded by the Japanese. The Japanese renamed the island “Omiya Jima”, which means Great Shrine Island. This was one of the countless islands captured by Imperial Japan during World War 2. However, the second Battle of Guam began on July 21st, 1944. It ended when Japanese forces surrendering to US troops on August 10th. Sumay and Hagåtña, Guam’s previous largest towns, were destroyed. With the island back in US hands, they converted it into a naval base like it had been previously, now with airfields. However, Guam’s natives weren’t too happy with this. The result was the Guam Organic Act of 1950, which established Guam as an unincorporated organized territory of the US, the same status held by Puerto Rico. The Immigration Act of 1952, section 307, associated the island with the US even more. It granted everyone born on the island after April 11th, 1899, full US citizenship. 18 years later, on September 11, 1968, Congress passed the Elective Governor Act. This allowed the people of Guam to elect their own governor and lieutenant governor (a lieutenant governor is basically a “vice governor”, if you will). In the current day, the island is still used as an important strategic location for air force and naval bases. In fact, after the US’s leases in the Philippines expired in the 90’s, they relocated many of the troops located there to Guam. The United States Virgin Islands, or USVI, with a population of 106,000 and a land area of 133 square miles, is the third most populous territory island of the United States. The USVI consists of 4 large islands and 50 plus smaller islets and cays. The first European to discover the islands was Christopher Columbus, when he was blown off course during his 1493-1496 voyage. He first landed in modern day Saint Croix island, and continued exploring Saint Thomas and Saint John. By the 1600s, many European countries were interested in establishing colonies on the islands, including England, France, Spain, Denmark, and the Netherlands. England and the Netherlands followed through with their plans in the 1620s, when they jointly settled Saint Croix island. Puerto Rico, still under Spanish control, invaded the small colony, causing the French to intervene. They were able to fend off the invasion, and took the colony for themselves. It remained under French control until 1733. The Danish West India and Guinea Company founded the second settlement on the islands in 1665, which was on modern day Saint Thomas island. Their new settlement had a mere 113 residents. Wanting to expand, they founded their second settlement, which was in modern day Saint John island in 1692. The Danish had claimed the island since the 1680s, but they hadn’t been able to settle due to their feud with the neighboring British city Tortola. In order to maintain their relationship with the Danish, they eventually ceased their opposition. The Danes joined the West India Company and settled Saint John. After they settled, the agricultural business exploded on the island. The Danish West Indian Company purchased St. Croix from the French in 1733, uniting St. Thomas, St. Croix, and St. John together as the Danish West Indies. The island remained under Danish control until 1917, until the US bought the islands for strategic reasons in the ongoing World War 1. The islands of St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John became the United States Virgin Islands. The Northern Mariana Islands, officially known as the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, with a population of 77,000 and a land area of 179 square miles, is the 4th most populous territory of the United States. The commonwealth consists of 22 islands, all of which are part of the larger chain of islands simply known as the Mariana Islands. The Mariana Islands chain even includes Guam, though it is politically separated. Saipan is the largest of the islands with a land area of 46.5 square miles, and is where the capital, Chalan Kanoa, is located. The islands were only inhabited by the Chamorro people until European explorers settled the islands in 1668. The Chamorro people are believed to have come from Southeast Asia to the islands around 2,000 BCE. They were skilled sailors and craftsmen, making intricate weavings and pottery. Chamorro farmers mainly grew sweet potatoes and yams, planting the seeds based on the phases of the moon and ocean tides. The islands were under Spanish rule from their first meeting with Ferdinand Magellan until 1899, when they were sold to Germany. Germany then relinquished the islands to Japan as the empire went against Germany. The islands did not become US owned until the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands was put into effect in 1947, following World War 2. Initially the islands included in the trust were under the control of the US Navy, but in 1951, they were transferred to the Department of the Interior. This would remain this way until the trust was dissolved by the UN in 1990. This made the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands an American territory. The American Samoa, officially known as the Territory of American Samoa, with a population of 56,000 and a land area of 76 square miles, is the least populated of the populated island territories. The island has been inhabited by Samoan people since around 1,500 BCE. In 1722, Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen was the first European to encounter the islands. Even after Europeans knew of the island, their influence was limited to occasionally trading with the islanders. In the 1830s, missionaries from the London Missionary Society arrived on the Samoa Islands. The missionaries converted the islanders to Christianity with great success. Some of these missionaries, along with traders, enjoyed the islands so much that they settled there. They established their own communities, with governments and laws. The natives and the settlers lived in peace for many years. 42 years later, in 1872, the United States asked the high chief of tribes on the eastern Samoa islands for permission to establish a naval base in exchange for military protection. The base was greenlighted, and was built 6 years later in 1878. By the end of the century, both Britain and Germany were competing for control of the island. As a result of the second Samoan Civil War, a treaty between Great Britain, Germany, and the US was drafted, making island became an official territory of the United States. Uniquely, citizens of this island territory are not granted citizenship to the United States because of the territory’s odd classification under Unincorporated unorganized. Instead of citizens, the islanders are American nationals. This means that they can live and work in the states and other territories but cannot vote in elections unless they go through normal immigration processes. So that’s the US, 50 states and 13 islands (5 of which aren’t desolate), with, like everything else, a deeper history than you would have thought.

Contents

List

Parties

  Democratic/Democratic–Farmer–Labor   Farmer–Labor   Republican/Independent Republican   Reform/Independence

No. Lt. Governor Took office Left office Governor(s) served under Party
1 William Holcombe May 24, 1858 January 2, 1860 Henry H. Sibley Democratic
2 Ignatius L. Donnelly January 2, 1860 March 4, 1863 Alexander Ramsey Republican
3 Henry Adoniram Swift March 4, 1863 July 10, 1863 Alexander Ramsey Republican
Vacant July 10, 1863 January 11, 1864 Alexander Ramsey
4 Charles D. Sherwood January 11, 1864 January 8, 1866 Stephen Miller Republican
5 Thomas H. Armstrong January 8, 1866 January 7, 1870 William R. Marshall Republican
6 William H. Yale January 7, 1870 January 9, 1874 Horace Austin Republican
7 Alphonso Barto January 9, 1874 January 7, 1876 Cushman K. Davis Republican
8 James Wakefield January 7, 1876 January 10, 1880 John S. Pillsbury Republican
9 Charles A. Gilman January 10, 1880 January 4, 1887 John S. Pillsbury
Lucius F. Hubbard
Republican
10 Albert E. Rice January 4, 1887 January 5, 1891 Andrew R. McGill
William R. Merriam
Republican
11 Gideon S. Ives January 5, 1891 January 3, 1893 William R. Merriam
Knute Nelson
Republican
12 David Marston Clough January 3, 1893 January 31, 1895 Knute Nelson Republican
13 Frank A. Day January 31, 1895 January 5, 1897 David M. Clough Republican
14 John L. Gibbs January 5, 1897 January 3, 1899 David M. Clough Republican
15 Lyndon Ambrose Smith January 3, 1899 January 5, 1903 John Lind (Democratic)
Samuel R. Van Sant (Republican)
Republican
16 Ray W. Jones January 5, 1903 January 7, 1907 Samuel R. Van Sant
John A. Johnson
Republican
17 Adolph Olson Eberhart January 7, 1907 September 21, 1909 John A. Johnson (Democratic)
Adolph O. Eberhart (Republican)
Republican
18 Edward Everett Smith September 25, 1909 January 3, 1911 Adolph O. Eberhart Republican
19 Samuel Y. Gordon January 3, 1911 January 7, 1913 Adolph O. Eberhart Republican
20 Joseph A. A. Burnquist January 7, 1913 December 30, 1915 Adolph O. Eberhart
Winfield S. Hammond
Republican
Vacant December 30, 1915 October 28, 1916 J. A. A. Burnquist
21 George H. Sullivan October 28, 1916 January 2, 1917 J. A. A. Burnquist Republican
22 Thomas Frankson January 2, 1917 January 4, 1921 J. A. A. Burnquist Republican
23 Louis L. Collins January 4, 1921 January 6, 1925 J. A. O. Preus Republican
24 William I. Nolan January 6, 1925 June 1929 Theodore Christianson Republican
25 Charles Edward Adams June 25, 1929 January 6, 1931 Theodore Christianson Republican
26 Henry M. Arens January 6, 1931 January 3, 1933 Floyd B. Olson Farmer Labor
27 Konrad K. Solberg January 3, 1933 January 8, 1935 Floyd B. Olson Farmer Labor
28 Hjalmar Petersen January 8, 1935 August 24, 1936 Floyd B. Olson Farmer Labor
* William B. Richardson1 August 24, 1936 January 1, 1937 Hjalmar Petersen Republican
29 Gottfrid Lindsten January 5, 1937 January 2, 1939 Elmer A. Benson Farmer Labor
30 C. Elmer Anderson January 2, 1939 January 4, 1943 Harold E. Stassen Republican
31 Edward John Thye January 4, 1943 April 27, 1943 Harold E. Stassen Republican
32 Archie H. Miller May 6, 1943 January 2, 1945 Edward John Thye Republican
33 C. Elmer Anderson January 2, 1945 September 27, 1951 Luther W. Youngdahl Republican
Vacant September 27, 1951 January 5, 1953 C. Elmer Anderson
34 Ancher Nelsen January 5, 1953 May 1, 1953 C. Elmer Anderson Republican
Vacant May 1, 1953 September 3, 1954 C. Elmer Anderson
35 Donald O. Wright2 September 3, 1954 January 3, 1955 C. Elmer Anderson Republican
36 Karl Rolvaag January 3, 1955 January 8, 1963 Orville L. Freeman
Elmer L. Andersen
Democratic Farmer Labor
37 Alexander M. Keith January 8, 1963 January 2, 1967 Elmer L. Andersen
Karl F. Rolvaag
Democratic Farmer Labor
38 James B. Goetz January 2, 1967 January 4, 1971 Harold LeVander Republican
39 Rudy Perpich January 4, 1971 December 29, 1976 Wendell R. Anderson Democratic Farmer Labor
40 Alec G. Olson3 December 29, 1976 January 4, 1979 Rudy Perpich Democratic Farmer Labor
41 Lou Wangberg January 4, 1979 January 3, 1983 Al Quie Independent Republican
42 Marlene Johnson January 3, 1983 January 7, 1991 Rudy Perpich Democratic Farmer Labor
43 Joanell Dyrstad January 7, 1991 January 3, 1995 Arne H. Carlson Independent Republican
44 Joanne Benson January 3, 1995 January 4, 1999 Arne H. Carlson IR/Republican
45 Mae Schunk January 4, 1999 January 6, 2003 Jesse Ventura Reform/Independence
46 Carol Molnau January 6, 2003 January 3, 2011 Tim Pawlenty Republican
47 Yvonne Prettner Solon January 3, 2011 January 5, 2015 Mark Dayton Democratic Farmer Labor
48 Tina Smith January 5, 2015 January 2, 2018 Democratic Farmer Labor
49 Michelle Fischbach4 January 2, 2018 January 7, 2019 Republican
50 Peggy Flanagan January 7, 2019 Incumbent Tim Walz Democratic Farmer Labor

1 Richardson was actually president pro tem of the Minnesota Senate; became acting lieutenant governor when lieutenant governor Hjalmar Petersen became governor on the death of Floyd B. Olson, but Richardson was never sworn in.

2 Wright was president pro tem of the Minnesota Senate and assumed the office of lieutenant governor in 1954 after Lieutenant Governor Ancher Nelsen resigned to become administrator of the Rural Electric Administration.

3 As president of the Minnesota Senate, Olson assumed office of lieutenant governor when Rudy Perpich, then lieutenant governor, became governor on the resignation of Wendell Anderson, who had appointed himself to the United States Senate on resignation of Walter Mondale who had been elected vice president.

4 As president of the Minnesota Senate, Fischbach became lieutenant governor following the resignation of Tina Smith. Smith was appointed by Governor Mark Dayton to fill the United States Senate seat vacated by Al Franken. Fischbach resigned from the state Senate and took the oath of office for lieutenant governor on May 25, 2018.

Note on Minnesota political parties names

Living former Lieutenant Governors of Minnesota

As of January 2019, there are 12 former lieutenant governors of Minnesota who are currently living, the oldest lieutenant governor being Alexander M. Keith (served 1963–1967, born 1928). The most recent death of a former lieutenant governor of Minnesota was that of C. Elmer Anderson (served 1939–1943 and 1945–1951, born 1912), on January 22, 1998. The most recently serving lieutenant governor to die was Rudy Perpich (1971–1976) on September 21, 1995.

Lt. Governor Lt. Gubernatorial term Date of birth (and age)
Alexander M. Keith 1963–1967 (1928-11-22) November 22, 1928 (age 91)
James B. Goetz 1967–1971 (1936-05-28) May 28, 1936 (age 83)
Alec G. Olson 1976–1979 (1930-09-11) September 11, 1930 (age 89)
Lou Wangberg 1979–1983 (1941-03-27) March 27, 1941 (age 78)
Marlene Johnson 1983–1991 (1946-01-11) January 11, 1946 (age 73)
Joanell Dyrstad 1991–1995 (1942-10-15) October 15, 1942 (age 77)
Joanne Benson 1995–1999 (1943-01-04) January 4, 1943 (age 76)
Mae Schunk 1999–2003 (1934-05-21) May 21, 1934 (age 85)
Carol Molnau 2003–2011 (1949-09-17) September 17, 1949 (age 70)
Yvonne Prettner Solon 2011–2015 (1946-02-03) February 3, 1946 (age 73)
Tina Smith 2015–2018 (1958-03-04) March 4, 1958 (age 61)
Michelle Fischbach 2018–2019 (1965-11-03) November 3, 1965 (age 54)

See also

References

This page was last edited on 3 May 2019, at 22:57
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