To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Liberty (advocacy group)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The National Council for Civil Liberties (NCCL)
Liberty advocacy group logo 2018.png
MottoTo protect civil liberties and promote human rights for everyone
Formation22 February 1934; 86 years ago (1934-02-22)
TypePolitical pressure group
Legal statusTrust
PurposeHuman rights
HeadquartersLondon, England
Martha Spurrier

Liberty, formerly called the National Council for Civil Liberties (NCCL),[1] is an advocacy group and membership organisation based in the United Kingdom, which campaigns to challenge injustice, protect civil liberties and promote human rights – through the courts, in Parliament and in the wider community.

The NCCL was founded in 1934 by Ronald Kidd and Sylvia Crowther-Smith (later Scaffardi).[2]

Liberty's aim is to not only protect civil liberties but also to engender a "rights culture" within British society.[2]

Liberty announced Martha Spurrier as its new director on 31 March 2016.[3]


Foundation and early years

The immediate spur to the organisation's formation was the National Hunger March of 1932.[4] The first Secretary was Ronald Kidd, and first President E. M. Forster; Vice-Presidents were the politician and author A. P. Herbert and the journalist Kingsley Martin of the New Statesman. H. G. Wells, Vera Brittain, Clement Attlee, Rebecca West, Edith Summerskill and Harold Laski were also founder members.[5]

The National Council for Civil Liberties (NCCL) was founded in 1934. The inaugural meeting took place in the church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields in London on 22 February. A letter published in The Times and The Guardian newspapers announced the formations of the group, citing "the general and alarming tendency to encroachment on the liberty of the citizen" as the reason for its establishment.[6] The first campaign was against the criminalisation of pacifist or anti-war literature. Under the proposed Incitement to Disaffection Bill, commonly known as the 'Sedition Bill', it would have been a criminal offence to possess pacifist literature, for example anti-war pamphlets. Although the Bill became law as the Incitement to Disaffection Act 1934, NCCL succeeded in watering it down.[5] Other prominent early themes included campaigning against fascists, against film censorship and support for striking miners in Nottinghamshire.[7]

World War II

When Oswald Mosley was released from prison in 1943 (he had been imprisoned without trial under Defence Regulation 18B), the National Council for Civil Liberties oddly demanded his continued imprisonment. A.W. Brian Simpson notes that the NCCL "had become an enthusiastic supporter of detention without trial".[8] Harold Nicolson and 38 others resigned from the NCCL over the issue.[9]


In 1989 NCCL changed its name to "Liberty". During this period, the organisation was headed by Andrew Puddephatt and John Wadham.

On 10 September 2001, Shami Chakrabarti joined Liberty.[10] After working as in-house counsel, she was appointed director of Liberty in 2003. As director, she began campaigning against what the pressure group saw as the "excessive" anti-terrorist measures that followed the 11 September 2001 attacks in the United States, such as the Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 (ATCSA).[11] Liberty became increasingly high-profile, with Chakrabarti making regular appearances in the media. She was described in The Times newspaper as "the most effective public affairs lobbyist of the past 20 years".[12][13]

Since the 2015 UK general election, Liberty has spearheaded the campaign to save the Human Rights Act. In August 2015, Chakrabarti said Liberty intended to become "more vigilant and active" in Scotland.[14] She later shared a platform with Scotland's First Minister Nicola Sturgeon to jointly defend the HRA.[15]

In January 2016 it emerged that Chakrabarti was standing down as Liberty's director.[16] Martha Spurrier took up the post at the end of May.[3][17]

Since 2016, Liberty's work has been dominated by taking a High Court challenge to the Investigatory Powers Act, and campaigning against the so-called 'hostile environment' policies and for an end to the use of indefinite immigration detention in the UK.[18][19]



BBC ban

During the 1940s, the NCCL led protests against a BBC ban on artists who attended a 'People's Convention' organised by the Communist Party.[5]

Soldiers' civil liberties

In the years following the Second World War, the NCCL campaigned for better civil liberties protections for members of the Armed Forces, including for better education and vocational training, a fairer military justice system and freedom of voluntary association.[20]

Miscarriages of justice

At this time NCCL was also involved in several miscarriage of justice cases, including that of Emery, Powers and Thompson, who were sentenced to between four and ten years imprisonment for assaulting a police officer, even though someone else confessed to the crime and the prosecution evidence was flawed. NCCL found a witness who confirmed the men's alibi and they were released from prison and granted a royal pardon.[21]

Reform of the Mental Health System

During the 1950s NCCL campaigned for reform of the mental health system, under which people known to be sane but deemed 'morally defective' – unmarried mothers, for example – could be locked up in an asylum.

By 1957, the campaign had seen the release of around 2,000 former inmates, the abolition of the Mental Health Act 1913 and the establishment of new Mental Health Review Tribunals and the Mental Health Act 1959.[22]


The 1960s saw the organisation broaden its scope, particularly from 1966 under new general secretary Tony Smythe. It campaigned on racial issues, on behalf of gypsies, children, prisoners and servicemen who had changed their decision about joining the forces.[7] This broader range of campaigning resulted in a large rise in membership and a higher profile in the media.[23]

Opposition to racial discrimination

After 1960, NCCL responded to the tightening of immigration laws and a rise in race-hate incidents by lobbying for the Race Relations Act, which came into force in 1965. NCCL also published pamphlets exposing the effective 'colour bar', whereby black and Asian people were refused service in certain pubs and hotels.[5]

Following Conservative MP Enoch Powell's Rivers of Blood speech in 1968 the NCCL set about organising an emergency "Speak out on Race" meeting and also presented an NCCL petition to the Prime Minister.

Women's rights

Campaigning for women's rights was also a major part of NCCL's work in this period, including successfully calling for reform of jury service laws that effectively prevented women and the poor from serving on juries by means of a property qualification.[5]

Right to public protest

NCCL intervened on behalf of groups refused permission to protest and monitoring the policing of demonstrations such as those against the Vietnam War.[5]

Support for reluctant servicemen

NCCL also campaigned to raise awareness of the difficulty faced by 'reluctant servicemen' – men in the armed forces who had often signed-up as teenagers then realised they'd made a mistake but were prevented from discharging themselves for anything up to 16 years.[5]

Northern Ireland

In 1972 NCCL campaigned for civil rights in Northern Ireland.[24]

Data protection

In 1975 NCCL bought 3 million credit rating files from Konfax Ltd after they were offered for sale in the Evening Standard. The files were destroyed and the major privacy protection 'Right to Know' campaign to give individuals greater control over their personal information was launched in 1977.[5]


Near the end of 1974, Patricia Hewitt, later a Labour cabinet minister, was appointed as general secretary.[7] A number of other future high-profile Labour politicians worked at the organisation at this time, such as Harriet Harman, who worked as the legal officer from 1978 to 1982, Jack Dromey, later her husband, was a member (1970–79) and chairman of the Executive Committee, and Diane Abbott was employed as Race Relations Officer (1978–80).[25]


In 1976, the NCCL in a submission to the Criminal Law Revision Committee of the British Parliament argued that "Childhood sexual experiences, willingly engaged in, with an adult result in no identifiable damage… The real need is a change in the attitude which assumes that all cases of paedophilia result in lasting damage". The NCCL also sought to place the "onus of proof on the prosecution to show that the child was actually harmed" rather than having a blanket ban on child pornography and advocated the decriminalisation of incest.[26] Organisations such as Paedophile Information Exchange (P.I.E.), a pro-paedophile activist group, and Paedophile Action for Liberation became affiliated to the pressure group.[27] Prominent pro-paedophile activist Tom O'Carroll also sat on the NCCL's sub-committee for gay rights.[28] Shami Chakrabarti, the former director of Liberty, issued an apology about the links between the NCCL and the PIE. In December 2013, she said: "It is a source of continuing disgust and horror that even the NCCL had to expel paedophiles from its ranks in 1983 after infiltration at some point in the 70s."[29][30]

Gay rights and censorship

NCCL acted for the owners of Gay's the Word bookshop, whose stock was confiscated by Customs officers in 1984. All charges were dropped in 1986.[31]

Miners' strike

During the miners' strike, NCCL campaigned on behalf of miners stopped from picketing outside their home regions.[5]

MI5 surveillance

The European Court of Human Rights ruled that MI5 surveillance of Harriet Harman and Patricia Hewitt during the pair's tenure at Liberty breached the European Convention on Human Rights.[21]


Detention without charge

During the Gulf War, Liberty successfully campaigned for the release of over 100 Iraqi nationals – some of whom were openly opposed to Saddam Hussein – detained without charge in Britain on the grounds that they posed a risk to national security.[5]

Miscarriage of justice

Throughout the 1990s Liberty focused again on miscarriage of justice cases and campaigned for reform of the criminal justice system. High-profile cases included that of the Birmingham Six, who were released after 16 years in prison for IRA bombings they did not commit.[5]

Human Rights Act

At the start of the 2000s, Liberty used the protections in the new Human Rights Act 1998 to fight a number of landmark cases, including supporting terminally ill Diane Pretty's fight to die with dignity and Christine Goodwin's fight for transgender rights.

A and others v Secretary of State for the Home Department

Liberty intervened in the long-running A and others v Secretary of State for the Home Department case following which the Law Lords ruled that detaining non-British nationals without trial was unlawful. In a 2005 judgment the Law Lords also confirmed that evidence obtained through torture was not admissible in British courts.[32]

Katherine Gun

In 2004, Liberty acted for the translator and whistleblower Katharine Gun who claimed that the American National Security Agency had requested the British Government's help in illegal surveillance on the UN. She was prosecuted under the Official Secrets Act 1989. The charges were dropped when the prosecution failed to offer any evidence.[21]


Pre-charge detention

During 2007 and 2008 Liberty led the opposition to government plans to extend detention without charge for those suspected of terrorism to 42 days.[33] Chakrabarti and Liberty claimed a major campaign victory when the government dropped the proposal after it was rejected by the House of Lords in October 2008.[34]

Gooch Gang

In April 2009, Liberty protested against a poster campaign by Greater Manchester Police which depicted a series of notorious Manchester gangsters, the Gooch Gang, as pensioners. The billboard campaign used computer-generated images of Colin Joyce and Lee Amos to show how the "aged" criminals would look when they are finally released from prison in the 2040s. Liberty supported claims that the posters should be removed following complaints from family members of the gangsters, not involved with their relative's criminality, who claimed they were being targeted in the community after the posters were erected.[35]

Cream of Conscience

November 2011 saw Liberty successfully assist in preventing Westminster City Council from implementing a proposed byelaw which would have essentially criminalised "soup runs" within areas of Southwark.[36][37]

Freedom Games?

In response to the vast security systems which were put in place ahead of the London 2012 Olympic Games, Liberty raised concerns with regards to the infringements to civil liberties which would subsequently occur. Liberty argued that neither peaceful protest nor the right to free speech were a factor in ensuring the safety of the Games.[38]

For their eyes only

Another prominent campaign in 2012 was "For their eyes only"[39] in response to the proposed Justice and Security Bill which was introduced in the House of Lords on 28 May 2012. The Bill was introduced as a result of prolific media investigations and litigation surrounding the UK Government and proposed "secret courts"[40] and evidence which would be non-disclosable. A campaign presence and attendance by Shami Chakrabarti at the Liberal Democrats Conference in September 2012 in Brighton successfully led to the passing of a motion by Jo Shaw, Liberal Democrat Parliamentary Spokesperson for Holborn and St Pancras, against the Bill.[41] Nevertheless, the substantially unchanged Bill became law in April 2013.[42]

Extradition Watch

A prominent campaign by Liberty was in relation to fairer extradition laws and the opposition of unfair extradition proceedings, the most prominent case being that of Gary McKinnon who gained world wide press attention. Other prolific cases included that of Babar Ahmed, Talha Ahsan and Christopher Tappin.

Gary McKinnon

16 October 2012 saw a victory for Gary McKinnon, after a decade-long ordeal, as the Home Secretary, Theresa May, announced that she was refusing to allow Gary's extradition to the US on the basis that doing so would breach his Human Rights.[43] Gary McKinnon was charged in 2002 of hacking into US military and NASA systems, but maintains that he was looking for UFOs and evidence of free energy suppression. Gary, who has Asperger syndrome, could have spent up to 70 years in a US jail if convicted[44] and it was argued by his lawyers in an appeal to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) that because of this factor and because the crime was committed in the UK that he should be tried in the UK. Director of Liberty, Shami Chakrabarti said of the Home Secretary's decision "This is a great day for rights, freedoms and justice in the United Kingdom."[45] The Home Office also admitted that it was the Human Rights Act which essentially prevented the extradition.[46][47]

Gay rights

Liberty intervened in the case of gay couple Michael Black and John Morgan who were turned away from a bed and breakfast because of the owner's religious views. On 18 October 2012 it was ruled that the B&B owner was in breach of equality legislation by unlawfully discriminating against the couple on the basis of their sexual orientation. Liberty's Legal Director James Welch said of the decision "Hopefully today's ruling signals the death knell of such 'no gays' policies – policies that would never be tolerated if they referred to a person's race, gender or religion."[48][49]

2015 onwards

Save our Human Rights Act

Immediately following the 2015 General Election result, Liberty launched a campaign to save the Human Rights Act. The Conservative Party – which had won a majority – had included a pledge in its manifesto to repeal the Act.[50] Liberty called this "a knowing attempt by Government ministers to hand itself the right to end the universality of human rights and choose when and to whom they apply".[51]

In May 2016, Liberty, Amnesty International UK and the British Institute of Human Rights published a statement opposing repeal of the Act, backed by more than 130 organisations including UK Families Flight 103, Friends of the Earth, Refuge, Quakers in Britain, Stonewall, the Terrence Higgins Trust, the Down's Syndrome Association and the Football Supporters' Federation.[52]

In July 2015, Liberty coordinated an intervention from a number of former Anti-Apartheid campaigners including Archbishop Njongonkulu Ndungane and Denis Goldberg.[53]

The Deepcut inquests

Liberty represents the families of three of four young soldiers who died of gunshot wounds at Deepcut army barracks between 1995 and 2002 – Cheryl James, Sean Benton and James Collinson.[54] Liberty used the Human Rights Act to compel Surrey Police to disclose evidence about the deaths to the families, which they were then able to use to apply for fresh inquests.

The second inquest into the death of Cheryl James took place at Woking Coroner's Court from January to April 2016. On 3 June 2016, Coroner Brian Barker QC recorded a verdict of suicide, delivering a narrative verdict that strongly condemned the culture at Deepcut.[55] Following the verdict, Liberty called for reform to tackle the "pervasive sexualised culture" in the Armed Forces.

The second inquest into the death of Sean Benton also took place from January to June 2018, also in Woking. On 18 July 2018, Coroner Peter Rook QC also recorded a verdict of suicide and again strongly criticised failings at Deepcut and in the Surrey Police investigation.[56] Following the verdict, Liberty and Sean's family called for all serious crimes within the Armed Forces to be investigated by the civilian police, rather than the Royal Military Police.[57]

Corporal Anne-Marie Ellement

Liberty represented the family of Corporal Anne-Marie Ellement, a Royal Military Police Office who took her own life in 2011 after alleging that she had been raped by two colleagues.[54] The allegations were investigated by military police themselves, and no charges were brought.[58]

An initial inquest in March 2012 recorded a verdict of suicide, but Anne-Marie's family, represented by Liberty, used the Human Rights Act to secure a second, more thorough inquest. They alleged that Anne-Marie had been bullied and that the Royal Military Police had failed in their duty of care.[59]

On 3 July 2014, Nicholas Rheinberg – Coroner in the second inquest – ruled that bullying, the lingering effect of the alleged rape and "work-related despair" had contributed to Anne-Marie's suicide.[58]

In 2013, Anne-Marie's family, represented by Liberty, also used the threat of legal action under the Human Rights Act to compel the Ministry of Defence and Royal Military Police to agree to refer the Anne-Marie's rape allegations for a fresh, independent investigation. This was carried out by RAF Police and Bedfordshire Police, overseen by the Crown Prosecution Service.[60]

On 29 October 2015, the Service Prosecuting Authority announced that two former soldiers had been charged with raping Anne-Marie and stated that "the original decision by the SPA not to prosecute was "wrong.[61] The two men were acquitted on 20 April 2016.[62]

In October 2016, the Royal Military Police apologised to Anne-Marie's family for failings and mistakes in the original rape investigation.[63]

In November 2017, the Ministry of Defence announced it would stop Commanding Officers investigation allegations of sexual assault themselves – a call Liberty had made from Corporal Ellement's 2014 inquest.[64]

Mass surveillance

Following Edward Snowden's whistleblowing in 2013, mass surveillance became a major part of Liberty's work.

Shortly after the revelations, Liberty brought a legal challenge to the UK government's practices with a coalition of other organisations, including Amnesty International, Privacy International and ACLU.[65] In September 2018, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that GCHQ's bulk interception practices had violated privacy rights and failed to provide sufficient safeguards.[66]

In 2014, Liberty represented MPs David Davis and Tom Watson in a legal challenge to the Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Act (DRIPA), claiming that it breached privacy rights.[67] The case was referred to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) by the Court of Appeal, and in December 2016 the ECJ ruled that the general and indiscriminate retention of emails and electronic communications by governments was illegal.[68] In January 2018, the Court of Appeal found DRIPA unlawful.[69]

Throughout 2016, Liberty campaigned against what it believed to be a serious lack of privacy safeguards in the Investigatory Powers Bill. The Bill passed in November 2016. In January 2017, Liberty launched a crowdfunder to raise funds to challenge the Act in the High Court, raising more than £53,000 in a week.[70]

Liberty's challenge to various parts of the Investigatory Powers Act is ongoing. In April 2018, the High Court issued its ruling on the first part of the challenge, giving the government six months to rewrite core parts of the Act, which it found incompatible with EU law.[71]

Equal pensions for same-sex couples

Liberty represented John Walker in a legal challenge to a loophole in the Equality Act which let employers exempt same-sex spouses from spousal pension benefits. Upon retirement from Innospec, John had discovered that his husband would only receive a few hundred pounds a year. If he were married to a woman, she would have received around £45,000.

In July 2017, the Supreme Court found the loophole unlawful under EU law.[72]

Hostile environment policies

Liberty campaigned against the introduction of the 'hostile environment' policies and has since campaigned for their repeal.[73] It has also campaigned against data-sharing arrangements between immigration enforcement and public services including hospitals, schools and police. In August 2017, Liberty exposed that the Home Office had secretly gained access to nationality data on homeless people in London.[74]

Facial recognition

In June 2018, Liberty announced it would be representing Cardiff resident Ed Bridges in a legal challenge to South Wales Police's use of facial recognition technology in public spaces.[75] Liberty argues that the technology "is dangerously inaccurate and has the potential to trample on the freedoms we all take for granted".[76]

Immigration detention

In January 2017, Liberty launched a campaign calling for a 28-day statutory limit on immigration detention in the UK.[19]


Liberty is both a non-profit company that employs staff and runs campaigns, and a member-based association. Both work closely with the Civil Liberties Trust. Liberty is divided into three organisations:

  • Liberty – an unincorporated association

A democratically run membership association, which individuals can join.[77]

  • Liberty – the company

A non-profit company that employs staff and runs campaigns etc. It leases buildings and works closely with the Civil Liberties Trust (see below).[77]

  • The Civil Liberties Trust

The Civil Liberties Trust (CLT) is a registered charity (No. 1024948), independent of Liberty. The CLT has no staff, but commissions Liberty to conduct charitable work such as providing public advice and information, also research, policy work, and litigation.[78]

Causes and associations

The main issues Liberty is campaigning in 2018 include:

In addition, Liberty campaigns on a number of 'core' issues that remain constant:

General secretaries and directors

1932: Ronald Kidd
1942: Elizabeth Acland Allen
1960: Martin Ennals
1966: Tony Smythe
1973: Martin Loney
1974: Patricia Hewitt
1984: Larry Gostin
1985: Sarah Spencer
1989: Andrew Puddephatt
1995: John Wadham
2003: Shami Chakrabarti
2016: Martha Spurrier


Liberty produces briefings on its campaign issues, as well as researching and writing reports on particular areas of human rights and civil liberties.


Policy Papers

Being a cross-party, non-party political organisation, Liberty regularly publishes briefings to MPs and peers, to provide consultation to parliamentary committees and to respond to consultations on issues relating to human rights and civil liberties in the UK.[89]

See also


  1. ^ Liberty – Constitution and Rules Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine | As amended by the AGM 19 May 2007
  2. ^ a b Liberty  Archived 7 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine | Entry in the Encyclopedia of British and Irish Political Organisations
  3. ^ a b Bowcott, Owen (31 March 2016). "Liberty names barrister Martha Spurrier as new director". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 31 March 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  4. ^ "Liberty". Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Dyson, Brian (1994): Liberty in Britain 1934–1994: a diamond jubilee history of the National Council for Civil Liberties. Civil Liberties Trust.
  6. ^ "The Guardian and Observer digital archive". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 November 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  7. ^ a b c Administrative/Biographical History Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine of Liberty | Liberty Archive on the Archives hub at the Centre of great research [retrieved: 16 January 2013]
  8. ^ In the Highest Degree Odious: Detention without Trial in Wartime Britain. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. 12 January 1995. p. 391. ISBN 978-0-19-825949-7.
  9. ^ Richard Thurlow, "Fascism in Britain", I.B. Tauris, 1998, p. 199.
  10. ^ "Desert Island Discs featuring Shami Chakrabarti". Desert Island Discs. 2 November 2008. BBC. Radio 4. Archived from the original on 10 February 2009.
  11. ^ Chakrabarti, Shami (20 May 2007). "So much freedom lost and on my watch". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  12. ^ Column Archived 31 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine by David Aaronovitch for The Times
  13. ^ Jamie Doward. "Profile: Shami Chakrabarti, the undaunted freedom fighter". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  14. ^ Beaton, Connor (20 August 2015). "Shami Chakrabarti's Liberty sets sights on Scotland". Scottish Legal News. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  15. ^ Beaton, Connor (23 September 2015). "Human Rights Act repeal would diminish UK reputation, says Sturgeon". Scottish Legal News. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  16. ^ Bowcott, Owen (14 January 2016). "Shami Chakrabarti steps down as Liberty director after 12 years". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 January 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  17. ^ "Liberty names barrister Martha Spurrier as new director". BBC News. 31 March 2016. Archived from the original on 31 March 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  18. ^ katiebamber (27 April 2018). "Liberty wins first battle in landmark challenge to mass surveillance powers in the Investigatory Powers Act". Liberty Human Rights. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  19. ^ a b LaurenceHolmes (25 January 2018). "End Indefinite Detention". Liberty Human Rights. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  20. ^ Lilly, Mark (1984). The National Council for Civil Liberties: The First Fifty Years. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 64. ISBN 978-1-349-17483-6.
  21. ^ a b c Liberty Legal Work Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine | on
  22. ^ Swain, J. & French, S. (1999): Therapy and Learning Difficulties: Advocacy, Participation and Partnership. Oxford: Butterworth–Heinemann.
  23. ^ "Obituary: Tony Smythe". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  24. ^ Brian Dooley (1998). Black and Green: The Fight for Civil Rights in Northern Ireland & Black America. Pluto Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7453-1295-8.
  25. ^ "BBC NEWS - VOTE 2001 - CANDIDATES". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  26. ^ "How Hattie's friends defended paedophilia". News - Telegraph Blogs. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  27. ^ Martin Beckford, Social Affairs Correspondent (9 March 2009). "Harriet Harman under attack over bid to water down child pornography law". Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  28. ^ Bindel, Julie (September 2015). "Britain's Apologists For Child Abuse". Standpoint. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  29. ^ Hope, Christopher (24 February 2014). "Harriet Harman, Jack Dromey, Patricia Hewitt and the Paedophile Information Exchange". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  30. ^ Mason, Rowena. "Harriet Harman rejects allegations of 1970s link to paedophile campaign | Politics". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  31. ^ McKerrow, Graham; Northmore, David (27 June 1986). "Newsflash" (PDF). Defend Gay's the Word Campaign. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  32. ^ Judgments – A and others v. Secretary of State for the Home Department Archived 15 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine | House of the Lords, Session 2005–06
  33. ^ Owen, Paul (16 July 2008). "Chakrabarti attacks Asian MPs over support for 42-day detention". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  34. ^ Chakrabarti, Shami (14 October 2008). "On 42 days, their lordships were glorious". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  35. ^ Gooch crime gang relatives sue police for 'breaching human rights'  Archived 19 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine Richard Edwards for The Daily Telegraph, 17 June 2009 (retrieved: 16 January 2013)
  36. ^ Liberty Serves Up Cream Of Conscience To Council Archived 8 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine | The Londonist, 3 June 2011 (retrieved: 16 January 2013)
  37. ^ Soup Run Campaign Archived 2011-06-11 at the Wayback Machine | on
  38. ^ Freedom Games Campaign Archived 10 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine | on
  39. ^ For Their Eyes Only Campaign Archived 28 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine | on
  40. ^ "Secret courts – the essential guide". Lawyers for London. 25 September 2012. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  41. ^ Tide turns on secret courts Archived 13 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine | Isabella Sankey, Director of Liberty Policy | on
  42. ^ "Bill stages — Justice and Security Act 2013". Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
  43. ^ Judgments – Mckinnon V Government of The United States of America and Another Archived 22 April 2012 at WebCite | House of Lords, Session 2007–08
  44. ^ Alan Travis. "Gary McKinnon will not be extradited to US, Theresa May announces". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  45. ^ Gary McKinnon: how unknown hacker sparked political and diplomatic storm Archived 10 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine | The Guardian, 16 October 2013 [retrieved: 16 January 2013]
  46. ^ "Liberty launches McKinnon paper plane campaign". Archived from the original on 10 August 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  47. ^ Home Secretary accepts it was the Human Rights Act that saved Gary Archived 1 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine | Shami Chakrabarti, Director of Liberty | on
  48. ^ Furness, Hannah (18 October 2012). "Gay couple turned away from B&B win discrimination case". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2020.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  49. ^ "Liberty welcomes B&B discrimination case ruling" (Press release). Liberty. 19 October 2012. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2020 – via Ekklesia.
  50. ^ Watt, Nicholas (10 May 2015). "Conservatives to push forward on manifesto and scrap Human Rights Act". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  51. ^ "A British Bill of Rights Will Diminish the Rights of Everyone in the UK - And the Most Vulnerable Will Suffer Most". HuffPost UK. 11 May 2015. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  52. ^ sophiearmour (18 May 2016). "Lockerbie relatives, football supporters and domestic violence survivors among more than 100 groups standing together against Human Rights Act repeal". Liberty Human Rights. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  53. ^ Townsend, Mark (18 July 2015). "Anti-apartheid heroes urge Cameron not to repeal Human Rights Act". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  54. ^ a b SophieLock (9 November 2015). "Soldiers' Rights". Liberty Human Rights. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  55. ^ Davies, Caroline (3 June 2016). "Cheryl James died from 'self-inflicted shot', Deepcut inquest rules". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  56. ^ "Private Sean Benton was failed by Army, coroner concludes in Deepcut inquest". The Independent. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  57. ^ sophiearmour (18 July 2018). "Liberty calls for civilian police to investigate all military crimes after Coroner delivers highly critical verdict in Private Sean Benton inquest". Liberty Human Rights. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  58. ^ a b "Bullying 'factor in soldier suicide'". BBC News. 3 March 2014. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  59. ^ "New inquest for 'raped' soldier". BBC News. 8 August 2012. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  60. ^ volunteer (25 July 2013). "Anne-Marie Ellement: Fresh investigation into rape allegation as Liberty launches "Military Justice" campaign". Liberty Human Rights. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  61. ^ Farmer, Ben (29 October 2015). "Former soldiers charged with rape of Anne-Marie Ellement". ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  62. ^ "Army corporals cleared of barracks rape". BBC News. 20 April 2016. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  63. ^ Morris, Steven (19 October 2016). "Royal Military Police apologise to family of corporal who killed herself". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  64. ^ sophiearmour (13 December 2017). "Government to scrap archaic loophole that lets Armed Forces Commanding Officers investigate sexual assaults themselves". Liberty Human Rights. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  65. ^ "Court hearing GCHQ surveillance case". BBC News. 14 July 2014. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  66. ^ Bowcott, Owen (13 September 2018). "GCHQ data collection regime violated human rights, court rules". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  67. ^ Bowcott, Owen (4 June 2015). "MPs David Davis and Tom Watson in court challenge over surveillance act". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 November 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  68. ^ Bowcott, Owen (21 December 2016). "EU's highest court delivers blow to UK snooper's charter". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  69. ^ Travis, Alan (30 January 2018). "UK mass digital surveillance regime ruled unlawful". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  70. ^ "The People vs the Snoopers' Charter". CrowdJustice. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  71. ^ Cobain, Ian (27 April 2018). "UK has six months to rewrite snooper's charter, high court rules". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 January 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  72. ^ "Gay man wins case for equal pension rights". BBC News. 12 July 2017. Archived from the original on 5 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  73. ^ LaurenceHolmes (6 November 2015). "Immigration Act 2016". Liberty Human Rights. Archived from the original on 5 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  74. ^ Townsend, Mark (19 August 2017). "Home Office used charity data map to deport rough sleepers". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 January 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  75. ^ Bowcott, Owen (14 June 2018). "Police face legal action over use of facial recognition cameras". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 January 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  76. ^ "The police's use of facial recognition technology will affect our daily freedoms". Metro. 10 August 2018. Archived from the original on 5 November 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  77. ^ a b Liberty Archived 3 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine | on
  78. ^ The Civil Liberties Trust Archived 10 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine | on
  79. ^ Litigating the Public Interest | Liberty, July 2006
  80. ^ Twelve Point Terror Package Initial Thoughts | Liberty, August 2005
  81. ^ Prevention of Terrorism Act | Liberty, Summary 2005
  82. ^ Impact of Anti-Terror Measures on British Muslims | Liberty, June 2004
  83. ^ ID Card Bill key points | Liberty, December 2004
  84. ^ A New 'Suspect Community' | Liberty, October 2003
  85. ^ Rights of victims of crime | Liberty, February 2003
  86. ^ Magistrates Court Review | Liberty, February 2003
  87. ^ Casualty of War – Counter Terror Legislation in Rural England | Liberty, 2003
  88. ^ An Independent Police Complaints Commission Archived 12 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine | Liberty, April 2000
  89. ^ Liberty Policy Papers Archived 10 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine | on
  90. ^ Weinraub, Judith (13 December 1975). "In Britain a Move Is Afoot To Update Laws on Rape". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)

External links

This page was last edited on 25 October 2020, at 13:43
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.