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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Legnica
Flag of Legnica

Flag
Coat of arms of Legnica

Coat of arms
Legnica is located in Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Legnica
Legnica
Legnica is located in Poland
Legnica
Legnica
Coordinates: 51°12′30″N 16°9′37″E / 51.20833°N 16.16028°E / 51.20833; 16.16028
CountryPoland
VoivodeshipLower Silesian
Countycity county
Established1149
Town rights1264
Government
 • MayorTadeusz Krzakowski
Area
 • Total56.29 km2 (21.73 sq mi)
Elevation
113 m (371 ft)
Population
(31.12.2012)
 • Total102,708
 • Density1,800/km2 (4,700/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
59-200 to 59-220
Area code+48 76
Car platesDL
Websitehttp://www.legnica.um.gov.pl

Legnica [lɛɡˈɲit͡sa] (About this soundlisten) (archaic Polish: Lignica, German: Liegnitz, Czech: Lehnice, Latin: Lignitium) is a city in southwestern Poland, in the central part of Lower Silesia, on the Kaczawa River (left tributary of the Oder) and the Czarna Woda. Between 1 June 1975 and 31 December 1998 Legnica was the capital of the Legnica Voivodeship. It is currently the seat of the county and since 1992 the city has been the seat of a Diocese. As of 2012, Legnica had a population of 102,708 inhabitants.

The city was first referenced in chronicles dating from the year 1004, although previous settlements could be traced back to the 7th century. The name "Legnica" was mentioned in 1149 under High Duke of Poland Bolesław IV the Curly. Legnica was most likely the seat of Bolesław and it became the residence of the High Dukes that ruled the Duchy of Legnica from 1248 until 1675, when it was inherited by the Habsburgs after the death of George William of Silesia.[1]

Legnica became renowned for the fierce battle that took place at Legnickie Pole near the city on 9 April 1241 during the Mongol invasion of Europe. The Christian coalition under the command of the Polish Duke Henry II the Pious, supported by nobles, knights, and mercenaries, was decisively defeated by the Mongols. This, however, was a turning point in the war as the Mongols, having killed Henry II, halted their advance into Europe and retreated to Hungary through Moravia.[1]

During the High Middle Ages, Legnica was one of the most important cities of Central Europe, having a population of nearly 16,000 inhabitants.[1] The city began to rapidly develop after the sudden discovery of gold in the Kaczawa River between Legnica and the town of Złotoryja. In 1742 the city was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia after King Frederick the Great's victory over Austria in the War of the Austrian Succession. It remained, as a city with a German majority, a part of Germany until the end of World War II, when all Silesia east of the Neisse (Nysa), was transferred to Poland following the Potsdam Conference in 1945 following demands by the Polish delegation that Poland be compensated for the loss of the Kresy.

Legnica is an economic, cultural and academic centre in Lower Silesia, together with Wrocław. The city is renowned for its varied architecture, spanning from early medieval to modern period, and its preserved Old Town with the Piast Castle, one of the largest in Poland.[2] According to the Foreign direct investment ranking (FDI) from 2016, Legnica is one of the most progressive high-income cities in the Silesian region.[3][4]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Opuszczony poradziecki szpital w Legnicy - Urbex History
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  • ✪ A Beautiful City Legnica POLAND
  • ✪ Legnica 1991
  • ✪ Legnica Kwadrat cz. 1

Transcription

Welcome on next exploration! Today we bring you to the biggest abondoned hospital in Poland 250meters length and several floors Build by germans in 1929 for Wermacht soldiers after 1945 occupied by soviets. in the area of hospital, there is more abondoned buildings.. swimming pool, cinema, dissecting room This is the first episode of our movie series from Hospital in Legnica before we enter, look on this badge related with hospitals :) oath the hypocrates, but im not sure its related with this badge -actually is it related, it's also marked on ambulances.. but when you enter you can see first russian sentence Ok so lets go! :) medicine at the service of soldiers (Konrad trying read in russian :) ) (Łukasz Also) -Cool :) - let's go further This hospital is enormous, propably even exploring in 3 take a lot of time corridor got 250 meters length, and there is 3 floors another russian sentences operating room on picture i can't read the whole poster Советский Союз (soviet union) присяга врача (oath of the soviet union doctor) i suspect it is some kind of medical kodex look on bottom, chalice with a snake unfortunatly it's no working anymore lets go further 9- lucky 9 :) I propose: This object is huge, so eweryone check another room ok good idea another room, check out this door.. it was always someone on other site if you knock, someone on other site will release the equipment or medicine storeroom? for sure something was stored here, because it is only one entrance and someone give out stuff from this site my first association, it was hunging on this wall.. full of medicine, and other hospital stuff :) what we can find here? oh man.. this corridor is endless.. zoom in my aparat is set for maximum.. but anyway i can't record whole. it's huge another sanitary room every room look like doctor's office and all of them got exit it is very long hospital i wonder do you see end of tunnel? ;) but if not, remember it's 250 metres finally something interested.... Wardrobe? ( :D) yep For me this is wardrobe for medications and section for specific medicines fascinating i very like post-soviet atmosphere, its always something interested bsflkjsfdk ( i have no idea what Łukasz said) bsflkjsfdk part 2( i have no idea what Łukasz said) interesting, signatures on this stove are made in Russian.. ....and Polish Propably you can't see it on this part but here is more visible (not much ;) ) ventilation, water.. and russian signature but it's no working :( toilet Do you remember old Polish ambulatorys? identical stave btw think about.. How many km per day made nurse, whitch worked here but every staircase, we're going through is propably finish of one hospital ward, and start of another one so propably every nurse, worked only on her own hospital ward - Konrad, you told nurse didn't need going through every hospital ward? Even without that it's huge distance, look how wide it is :) chest with some russian letters set.. sterile set sterile set b1 -bedclothes :D! sterile and rest unreadable for sure it's from 1972 We still talking about sterile set, nothing interesting :) we found a mistical door we didn't open it yet with number 3 Łukasz can you open it? :) palette! we found a palette (yay) when you going through highly damaged object, you must check even small artifact floor description upstairs! hop! your impressions after first floor? honestly? i'm not impressed, a lot of ASG balls everything is stolen not much equipment but maybe we find something.. but the hospital is guite big it's look better, this floor got the ground :) Do you know what is the worst... Stay on it:) it's look like a blood :) stay on it :) something happened?:) do you see that handles? many years ago it was heater head of the pharmacy, so propably on that floor was pharmacy.. it was a pharmacy somewhere here.. If it was pharmacy, maybe this is a chest for medicine? this is look like military chest, but maybe in this room was storeroom or that chest was adapted for medical use ground floor in russian mean first floor so this is post soviet hospital means we are on the second floor now :) but unfortunatly we didn't find anything on this floor :/ but we keep looking!:) abondoned hospital, and in middle: stool really creepy :) kuba is tired :) i'm not tired, i'm thinking now how creepy is that stool :) -you know what is more creepy?...(Łukasz) It's remind me photo of Zbigniew Religa (after first heart transplantation in 1985)(Konrad) You know what is more creepy? this stool is located .. under abrupt lamp :) that stool.. don't say that. did you hear that noise? do not come here (graffiti) pentagrams, pentagrams ewerywhere :) all the time :) 66, third number is unfinished, i wonder what author want said to us :) next floor, Russian third, but in Polish second :) "second floor" (kuba imitates sounds of elevator ) "second floor" an infectious ward,surgery, underwear, rtv nothing special, but another door nice.. but as usual almost nothing here over me sloping attic window this floor is just under attic propably the most interesting room on this floor let's make a closer look on this chest :) lock on the other site what is inside? :( it's empty but nice military chest chemistry :) this bench is very similar to bench from cinemas but this object got own cinema, so maybe someone bring it here Lenin poster reworked i already open this chest and it's empty -btw this is bed? i don't know but i also think about it it's not a bed look on this pegs something was mounted here. Do you have idea, why this cornice is oblique? Maybe this is imagination of architect :) or if someone use trolley, this shape make easier entrance? i think that's the point because that shape is on both sites Propably it's almost finish of this floor, only attic left We find few interesting things on this floor, so maybe attic will be much better? :) what would you do if on corridor someone appear and disappear? I will run very fast to our car :) firstible scream second squeak third run :) ok attic :) (Russian Names) two homies made own signatures this is the end our I episode from series of Post-Soviet hospital We invite you for the next one in next friday :) when we show you basements If you enjoy that episode, please subscribe, check one of our previous movies. And? See You on next exploration! :)

Contents

Population

As of 31 December 2012 Legnica has 102,708 inhabitants and is the third largest city in the voivodeship (after Wrocław and Wałbrzych) and 38th in Poland. It also constitutes the southernmost and the largest urban center of a copper deposit (Legnicko-Głogowski Okręg Miedziowy) with agglomeration of 448,617 inhabitants. Legnica is the largest city of the conurbation and is a member of the Association of Polish Cities.

History

Market Square filled with baroque and neoclassical architecture
Market Square filled with baroque and neoclassical architecture
One of the preserved streets in Legnica's Old Town with the Castle in the background
One of the preserved streets in Legnica's Old Town with the Castle in the background
Eclectic tenements located at Witelona Street
Eclectic tenements located at Witelona Street
Local high school, formerly a Christian monastery
Local high school, formerly a Christian monastery
"Under the Quail Basket House"
"Under the Quail Basket House"
Cemetery chapel
Cemetery chapel

Early history

A settlement of the Lusatian culture people existed in the 8th century B.C. Around the 5th century B.C. After Celtic invasions beyond upper danube basin the area of Legnica was inhabited by their tribes. Tacitus and Ptolemy recorded the Germanic Lugii (Lygii) in the area, and mentioned their town of Lugidunum, which has been attributed to both Legnica[5] and Głogów.[6]

Slavic borough

Slavic Lechitic tribes moved into the area in the 8th century.

The city was first officially mentioned in chronicles from 1004,[7] although settlement dates to the 7th century. It is mentioned in 1149 when the High Duke of Poland Bolesław IV the Curly funded a chapel at the St. Benedict monastery.[8] Legnica was the most likely place of residence for Bolesław[9] and it became the residence of the High Dukes of Poland in 1163 and was the seat of a principality ruled from 1248–1675.

Battle of Legnica

Legnica became famous for the battle that took place at Legnickie Pole near the city on 9 April 1241 during the Mongol invasion of Europe. The Christian army of the Polish duke Henry II the Pious of Silesia, supported by feudal nobility, which included in addition to Poles, Bavarian miners and military orders and Czech troops, was decisively defeated by the Mongols. The Mongols killed Henry and destroyed his forces, then turned south to rejoin the rest of the Mongol armies, which were massing at the Plain of Mohi in Hungary via Moravia against a coalition of King Bela IV and his armies, and Bela's Kipchak allies.

Duchy of Legnica

As the capital of the Duchy of Legnica at the beginning of the 14th century, Legnica was one of the most important cities of Central Europe, having a population of nearly 16,000 residents. The city began to expand quickly after the discovery of gold in the Kaczawa River between Legnica and Złotoryja (Goldberg). Unfortunately, such a growth rate can not be maintained long. Shortly after the city reached its maximum population increase, wooden buildings arising during this rapid growth has been devastated by, a huge fire which decreased number of inhabitants and halted any significant further development for many decades.

Holy Roman Empire

Legnica, along with other Silesian duchies, became a vassal of the Kingdom of Bohemia during the 14th century and was included within the Holy Roman Empire. The Protestant Reformation was introduced in the duchy as early as 1522 and the population became Lutheran. After the death of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia at Mohács in 1526, Legnica was inherited by the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria. The first map of Silesia was made by native son Martin Helwig. In 1676, Legnica passed to direct Habsburg rule after the death of the last Silesian Piast duke, Georg Wilhelm (son of Duke Christian of Brieg), despite the earlier inheritance pact by Brandenburg and Silesia, by which it was to go to Brandenburg. Silesian aristocracy was trained at the Liegnitz Ritter-Akademie.

War of the Austrian Succession

In 1742 most of Silesia, including Liegnitz, became part of the Kingdom of Prussia after King Frederick the Great's defeat of Austria in the War of the Austrian Succession. In 1760 during the Seven Years' War, Liegnitz was the site of the Battle of Liegnitz when Frederick's army defeated an Austrian army led by Laudon.

Congress of Vienna

In 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars, the Prussians, under Field Marshal Blücher, defeated the French forces of MacDonald in the Battle of Katzbach nearby. After the administrative reorganization of the Prussian state following the Congress of Vienna, Liegnitz and the surrounding territory (Landkreis Liegnitz) were incorporated into the Regierungsbezirk (administrative district) of Liegnitz, within the Province of Silesia on 1 May 1816. Along with the rest of Prussia, the town became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany. On 1 January 1874 Liegnitz became the third city in Lower Silesia (after Breslau and Görlitz) to be raised to an urban district, although the district administrator of the surrounding Landkreis of Liegnitz continued to have his seat in the city. Its military garrison was home to Königsgrenadier-Regiment Nr. 7 a military unit formed almost exclusively out of Polish soldiers.[10]

The 20th century

The census of 1910 gave Liegnitz's population as 95.86% German, 0.15% German and Polish, 1.27% Polish, 2.26% Wendish, and 0.19% Czech. On 1 April 1937 parts of the Landkreis of Liegnitz communities of Alt Beckern, Groß Beckern, Hummel, Liegnitzer Vorwerke, Pfaffendorf und Prinkendorf were incorporated into the city of Liegnitz. After the Treaty of Versailles following World War I, Liegnitz was part of the newly created Province of Lower Silesia from 1919 to 1938, then of the Province of Silesia from 1938 to 1941, and again of the Province of Lower Silesia from 1941 to 1945.

After the defeat of Nazi Germany during World War II, Liegnitz and all of Silesia east of the Neisse was transferred to Poland following the Potsdam Conference in 1945. The German population was expelled from their home town between 1945 and 1947 and Poles took their place. As the medieval Polish name Lignica was considered archaic, the town was renamed Legnica. The transfer to Poland decided at Potsdam in 1945 was officially recognized by East Germany in 1950, by West Germany under Chancellor Willy Brandt in the Treaty of Warsaw signed in 1970, and finally by the reunited Germany by the Two Plus Four Agreement in 1990. By 1990 only a handful of Polonized Germans, prewar citizens of Liegnitz, remained of the pre-1945 German population. In 2010 the city celebrated the 65th anniversary of the "return of Legnica to Poland" and its liberation from the Nazis.[11]

The city was only partly damaged in World War II. After 1965 most parts of the preserved old town with its town houses were demolished, the historical layout was abolished, and the city was rebuilt in modern form.[12]

From 1945 to 1990, during the Cold War, the headquarters of the Soviet forces in Poland, the so-called Northern Group of Forces, was located in the city. This fact had a strong influence on the life of the city. For much of the period, the city was divided into Polish and Soviet areas, with the latter closed to the public. These were first established in July 1945, when the Soviets forcibly ejected newly arrived Polish inhabitants from the parts of the city they wanted for their own use. The ejection was perceived by some as a particularly brutal action, and rumours circulated exaggerating its severity, though no evidence of anyone being killed in the course of it has come to light. In April 1946 city officials estimated that there were 16,700 Poles, 12,800 Germans, and 60,000 Soviets in Legnica.[13] The last Soviet units left the city in 1993.

Economy

In the 1950s and 1960s the local copper and nickel industries became a major factor in the economic development of the area. Legnica houses industrial plants belonging to KGHM Polska Miedź, one of the largest producers of copper and silver in the world. The company owns a large copper mill on the western outskirts of town. There is a Special Economic Zone in Legnica, where Lenovo was going to open a factory in summer 2008.[14][15]

Education

Legnica is a regional academic center with seven universities enrolling approximately 16,000 students.

International relations

Twin towns — sister cities

As of 2007, Legnica is twinned with other European towns.

Environment

Legnica is noted for its parks and gardens, and has seven hundred hectares of green space, mostly along the banks of the Kaczawa; the Tarninow district is particularly attractive.[16]

Roads

To the south of Legnica is the A4 motorway. Legnica has also a district, which is a part of national road no 3. The express road S3 building has been planned nearby.

Public transport

In the city there are 20 regular bus lines, 1 belt-line, 2 night lines and 3 suburban.

The town has an airport (airport code EPLE) with a 1600-metre runway, the remains of a former Soviet air base, but it is (as of 2007) in a poor state and not used for commercial flights.

Until the winter of 2003, the longest train service in Poland ran from Katowice to Legnica (via Kędzierzyn-Koźle, Nysa, and Jaworzyna Śląska).

Sports

Films produced in Legnica

In recent years Legnica has been frequently used as a film set for the following films as a result of its well preserved German-built old town, proximity to Germany and low costs: Przebacz (dir. M. Stacharski) - 2005 Anonyma - Eine Frau in Berlin (dir. M. Färberböck) - 2007 Wilki (dir. F. Fromm) - 2007 Little Moscow (dir. W. Krzystek) - 2008 Moje życie (dir. D. Zahavi) - 2008[2]

Politics

Municipal politics

Legnica tends to be a left-of-center town with a considerable influence of workers' unions. The Municipal Council of Legnica (Rada miejska miasta Legnica) is the legislative branch of the local government and is composed of 25 members elected in local elections every five years. The mayor or town president (Prezydent miasta) is the executive branch of the local government and is directly elected in the same municipal elections.

Legnica - Jelenia Góra constituency

Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from Legnica-Jelenia Gora constituency:

  • Ryszard Bonda, Samoobrona
  • Bronisława Kowalska, SLD-UP
  • Adam Lipiński, PiS
  • Tadeusz Maćkała, PO
  • Ryszard Maraszek, SLD-UP
  • Olgierd Poniźnik, SLD-UP
  • Władysław Rak, SLD-UP
  • Tadeusz Samborski, PSL
  • Jerzy Szmajdziński, SLD-UP
  • Halina Szustak, LPR
  • Michał Turkiewicz, SLD-UP
  • Ryszard Zbrzyzny, SLD-UP .

Notable residents

In fiction

Legnica and its then ruler Count Conrad figures prominently in the alternate history series The Crosstime Engineer, set in the period of 1230 to 1270, by Leo Frankowski.

References

  1. ^ a b c "Legnica History". Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  2. ^ "*** LEGNICA ***  ZAMEK W LEGNICY *** LEGNICA ***". Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  3. ^ https://www.um.olawa.pl/attachments/article/601/Polish%20Cities%20of%20the%20Future%202015_16.pdf
  4. ^ "Dolny Śląsk najbogatszy w Polsce, a Wrocław zaraz za Warszawą (RANKING NAJBOGATSZYCH) - Gazetawroclawska.pl". Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  5. ^ Pierre Deschamps. Dictionnaire de géographie ancienne et moderne. Straubling & Müller, 1922.
  6. ^ James Cowles Prichard. Researches Into the Physical History of Mankind. Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper. London, 1841.
  7. ^ http://www.staypoland.com/cityHistory.aspx?TownId=71&lang=pl
  8. ^ Naczelna Dyrekcja Archiwów Państwowych, Zakład Naukowo-Badawczy Archiwistyki (1997). Archeion. 97: 143. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ Bar, Joachim Roman (1986). "Polscy święci". Akademia Teologii Katolickiej. 9–10: 36.
  10. ^ Sedan 1870 Ryszard Dzieszyńsk, page 52, Bellona 2009
  11. ^ Wala, Grzegorz (2010-02-09). "65. rocznica wyzwolenia Legnicy - foto relacja". Legniczanin.pl (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2012-03-20. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
  12. ^ Dehio - Handbuch der Kunstdenkmäler in Polen: Schlesien, Herder-Institut Marburg and Krajowy Osrodek Badan i Dokumentacji Zabytkow Warszawa, Deutscher Kunstverlag 2005, ISBN 3-422-03109-X, page 521
  13. ^ "ARMIA CZERWONA NA DOLNYM ŚLĄSKU" (in Polish). Institute of National Remembrance. Archived from the original on 2005-03-21.
  14. ^ "Lenovo to open big Polish PC factory". The Inquirer. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  15. ^ "Lenovo scraps investment plan in Poland". Evertiq New Media AB. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  16. ^ Legnica: Welcome to Legnica Archived 9 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine

External links


This page was last edited on 19 February 2019, at 16:29
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