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Leader of the Opposition (Australia)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Leader of the Opposition of the Commonwealth of Australia
Incumbent
Anthony Albanese

since 30 May 2019
Opposition of Australia
Shadow Cabinet of Australia
Member of
Reports toParliament
Term lengthWhile leader of the largest political party in the House of Representatives that is not in government
Inaugural holderGeorge Reid
Formation1901
Salary$390,000
Websiteanthonyalbanese.com.au

In Australian federal politics, the Leader of the Opposition is the elected member of parliament (MP) in the House of Representatives who leads the opposition. The Leader of the Opposition is, by convention, the leader of the largest political party in the House of Representatives that is not in government.[1]

When in parliament, the Leader of the Opposition sits on the left-hand side of the centre table, in front of the Opposition and opposite the Prime Minister. The Opposition Leader is elected by his or her party according to its rules. A new Opposition Leader may be elected when the incumbent dies, resigns, or is challenged for the leadership.

The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system and is based on the Westminster model. The term Opposition has a specific meaning in the parliamentary sense. It is an important component of the Westminster system, with the Opposition directing criticism at the Government and attempts to defeat and replace the Government. The Opposition is therefore known as the "Government in waiting" and it is a formal part of the parliamentary system. It is in opposition to the Government, but not to the Crown; hence the term "Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition".[2]

To date there have been 34 Opposition Leaders, 18 of whom have served terms as Prime Minister.[3] The current Leader of the Opposition is Anthony Albanese of the Australian Labor Party, following an election of the new Parliamentary Labor Leader by caucus and ALP members on 30 May 2019. The current Deputy Leader of the Opposition is Richard Marles, who was elected deputy leader of the ALP on the same date.

Role

The opposition leader is the opposition's counterpart to the prime minister. The opposition leader is expected to be ready to form a new government if the incumbent government is unable to continue in office. This typically occurs when the opposition wins a federal election, after which the opposition leader is appointed prime minister. However, the opposition leader may also be called upon to form government if the incumbent government loses the confidence of the House (most recently in 1941) or that of the governor-general (most recently in 1975).[1]

The opposition leader is the head of the shadow ministry, allocating portfolios and, in the case of the Coalition, determining its membership. The opposition leader is assisted by a deputy leader of the opposition, who is also recognised in the standing orders and entitled to an additional salary. Both the opposition leader and deputy opposition leader are entitled to a degree of special preference from the Speaker of the House.[1]

The position of opposition leader has no constitutional basis but exists as a matter of convention in the Westminster system. A 1960 inquiry into parliamentary salaries and allowances observed:[1]

The Leader of the Opposition has to make himself master of all the business which comes before the House (not merely that of one or two departments); he has to do this at times at short notice and under constant pressure; and he gets no help from permanent officials. At all times he is the spokesman for those who are critical of or opposed to the Government, and he must be unceasingly vigilant and active. He and the Prime Minister should be the most powerful agents in guiding and forming public opinion on issues of policy.

History

George Reid became the de facto leader of the opposition in the lead-up to the inaugural 1901 federal election, following the appointment of Edmund Barton to lead a caretaker government as Australia's first prime minister. His status was confirmed when the House of Representatives met for the first time after the election. The opposition leader was initially not entitled to any salary or entitlements beyond those of an ordinary member of parliament. As a result, Reid had to maintain his legal practice in Sydney to support himself and was able to attend just over one-third of the sitting days in the first session of parliament.[4]

Although the role was firmly established, the House did not formally recognise the position of opposition leader in its records until 1920.[1] It was recognised by statute for the first time with the passage of the Parliamentary Allowances Act 1920, which granted its holder an additional allowance.[4] Prime Minister Andrew Fisher had previously offered Opposition Leader Alfred Deakin an allowance in 1910. Deakin declined, but did accept a paid secretary.[5] In 1931, the office was incorporated into the House's standing orders for the first time, with the opposition leader granted the right to exceed the time limit for speeches in certain instances.[1]

Salary

The opposition leader's salary is determined by the Remuneration Tribunal, an independent statutory body.[6] As of 1 July 2019, the incumbent is entitled to a parliamentarian's base salary of A$211,250 plus an additional 85% loading, equating to a salary of around $390,000.[7]

List of Leaders of the Opposition

No. Leader Party Constituency Took office Left office Prime Minister Ref
1 George Reid[a]
George Reid crop.jpg
  Free Trade East Sydney (NSW) 19 May 1901 17 August 1904   Barton 1901–03 [8]
Deakin 1903–04
  Watson 1904
2 Chris Watson[b]
ChrisWatsonBW crop.jpg
  Labor Bland (NSW) 18 August 1904 5 July 1905   Reid 1904–05
(1) George Reid[b]
George Reid crop.jpg
  Free Trade / Anti-Socialist East Sydney (NSW) 7 July 1905 16 November 1908   Deakin 1905–08
  Fisher 1908–09
3 Joseph Cook[a]
Joseph Cook - Broothorn Studios.jpg
Anti-Socialist Parramatta (NSW) 17 November 1908 26 May 1909
4 Alfred Deakin[a][b] Alfred Deakin 1910 (crop).tif   Liberal Ballaarat (Vic) 26 May 1909 2 June 1909
5 Andrew Fisher[a][b]
Andrew Fisher 1908.jpg
  Labor Wide Bay (Qld) 2 June 1909 29 April 1910   Deakin 1909
(4) Alfred Deakin[b] Alfred Deakin 1910 (crop).tif   Liberal Ballaarat (Vic) 1 July 1910 20 January 1913   Fisher 1910–13
(3) Joseph Cook[a]
Joseph Cook - Crown Studios 03.jpg
Parramatta (NSW) 20 January 1913 24 June 1913
(5) Andrew Fisher[a][b]
AndrewFisher.jpg
  Labor Wide Bay (Qld) 8 July 1913 17 September 1914   Cook 1913–14
(3) Joseph Cook[b]
Joseph Cook - Crown Studios 03.jpg
  Liberal Parramatta (NSW) 8 October 1914 17 February 1917   Fisher 1914–15
  Hughes 1915–23
 
6 Frank Tudor
Frank Tudor - Humphrey & Co.jpg
  Labor Yarra (Vic) 17 February 1917 10 January 1922  
7 Matthew Charlton
Matthew Charlton 1925.jpg
Hunter (NSW) 25 January 1922 29 March 1928  
  Bruce 1923–29
8 James Scullin[a]
James Scullin October 1928-02.jpg
Yarra (Vic) 29 March 1928 22 October 1929  
9 John Latham
Johnlatham.jpg
  Nationalist Kooyong (Vic) 20 November 1929 7 May 1931   Scullin 1929–32
10 Joseph Lyons[a]
Joseph Lyons.jpg
  United Australia Wilmot (Tas) 7 May 1931 6 January 1932
(8) James Scullin[b]
James H. Scullin.jpg
  Labor Yarra (Vic) 6 January 1932 1 October 1935   Lyons 1932–39
11 John Curtin[a]
JohnCurtin1938.png
Fremantle (WA) 1 October 1935 7 October 1941  
  Page 1939
  Menzies 1939–41
  Fadden 1941
12 Arthur Fadden[b]
FaddenPEO.jpg
  Country Darling Downs (Qld) 7 October 1941 23 September 1943   Curtin 1941–45
13 Robert Menzies[a][b]
Portrait Menzies 1950s.jpg
  United Australia Kooyong (Vic) 23 September 1943 19 December 1949
  Liberal   Forde 1945
  Chifley 1945–49
14 Ben Chifley[b]
Benchifley.jpg
  Labor Macquarie (NSW) 19 December 1949 13 June 1951   Menzies 1949–66
15 H. V. Evatt
Herbert V. Evatt.jpg
Barton (NSW) 1940–58
Hunter (NSW) 1958–60
20 June 1951 9 February 1960  
16 Arthur Calwell
Arthur Calwell 1966.jpg
Melbourne (Vic) 7 March 1960 8 February 1967  
  Holt 1966–67
17 Gough Whitlam[a]
Gough Whitlam - Leader of the Opposition (cropped).jpg
Werriwa (NSW) 8 February 1967 2 December 1972  
  McEwen 1967–68
  Gorton 1968–71
  McMahon 1971–72
18 Billy Snedden
Billy Snedden 1971.jpg
  Liberal Bruce (Vic) 20 December 1972 21 March 1975   Whitlam 1972–75
19 Malcolm Fraser[a]
Fraser Malcolm BANNER.jpg
Wannon (Vic) 21 March 1975 11 November 1975
(17) Gough Whitlam[c]
Gough Whitlam headshot.jpg
  Labor Werriwa (NSW) 11 November 1975 22 December 1977   Fraser 1975–83
20 Bill Hayden
Bill Hayden 1971.jpg
Oxley (Qld) 22 December 1977 3 February 1983
21 Bob Hawke[a]
Hawke Bob BANNER.jpg
Wills (Vic) 3 February 1983 11 March 1983
22 Andrew Peacock
Andrew Peacock.jpg
  Liberal Kooyong (Vic) 11 March 1983 5 September 1985   Hawke 1983–91
23 John Howard[a]
John howard.jpg
Bennelong (NSW) 5 September 1985 9 May 1989 [10]
(22) Andrew Peacock
Andrew Peacock.jpg
Kooyong (Vic) 9 May 1989 3 April 1990   [8]
24 John Hewson
John Hewson 2016 01.jpg
Wentworth (NSW) 3 April 1990 23 May 1994  
  Keating 1991–96
25 Alexander Downer
Alexander Downer 1990s.jpg
Mayo (SA) 23 May 1994 30 January 1995 [11]
(23) John Howard[a]
John howard.jpg
Bennelong (NSW) 30 January 1995 11 March 1996 [10]
26 Kim Beazley
Kim Beazley crop.jpg
  Labor Brand (WA) 19 March 1996 22 November 2001   Howard 1996–07 [12]
27 Simon Crean
Simon Crean 1990s.jpg
Hotham (Vic) 22 November 2001 2 December 2003 [13]
28 Mark Latham
Ac.marklatham.jpg
Werriwa (NSW) 2 December 2003 18 January 2005 [14]
(26) Kim Beazley
Kim Beazley crop.jpg
Brand (WA) 28 January 2005 4 December 2006 [12]
29 Kevin Rudd[a]
Kevin Rudd official portrait.jpg
Griffith (Qld) 4 December 2006 3 December 2007 [15]
30 Brendan Nelson
BrendanNelson.JPG
  Liberal Bradfield (NSW) 3 December 2007 16 September 2008   Rudd 2007–10 [16]
31 Malcolm Turnbull[a]
Turnbull.JPG
Wentworth (NSW) 16 September 2008 1 December 2009   [17]
32 Tony Abbott[a]
Tony Abbott - 2010.jpg
Warringah (NSW) 1 December 2009 18 September 2013   [18]
  Gillard 2010–13
  Rudd 2013
Chris Bowen (acting)
Chris Bowen.JPG
  Labor McMahon (NSW) 18 September 2013 13 October 2013   Abbott 2013–15 [19]
33 Bill Shorten
Bill Shorten-crop.jpg
Maribyrnong (Vic) 13 October 2013 30 May 2019   [20]
  Turnbull 2015–18
  Morrison 2018–
34 Anthony Albanese
Anthony Albanese - 2016.jpg
Grayndler (NSW) 30 May 2019 Incumbent   [21]

List of Deputy Leaders of the Opposition

Deputy Leader Party Constituency Took office Left office Leader Ref
Joseph Cook
Joseph Cook - Broothorn Studios.jpg
  Commonwealth Liberal Party Parramatta (NSW) 26 May 1909 2 June 1909   Deakin 1909
Gregor McGregor
Gregor McGregor1.jpg
  Labor Party Senator for South Australia (SA) 2 June 1909 29 April 1910   Fisher 1909–10
Joseph Cook
Joseph Cook - Crown Studios 03.jpg
  Commonwealth Liberal Party Parramatta (NSW) 1 July 1910 20 January 1913   Deakin 1910–13
Sir John Forrest
JohnForrest1909.jpg
Swan (WA) 20 January 1913 24 June 1913 Cook 1913
Gregor McGregor
Gregor McGregor1.jpg
  Labor Party Senator for South Australia (SA) 8 July 1913 7 September 1914   Fisher 1913–14
Sir John Forrest
JohnForrest1909.jpg
  Commonwealth Liberal Party Swan (WA) 8 October 1914 17 February 1917   Cook 1914–17
Albert Gardiner
Albert Gardiner.jpg
  Labor Party Senator for New South Wales (NSW) 17 February 1917 March 1927   Tudor 1917–22
  Charlton 1922–28
James Scullin
James Scullin October 1928-02.jpg
Yarra (Vic) 17 March 1927 29 March 1928   [22]
Arthur Blakeley
Arthur Blakeley.jpg
Darling (NSW) 29 March 1928 1929   Scullin 1928–29
Ted Theodore
Ted Theodore 1931.jpg
Dalley (NSW) 1929 22 October 1929
Henry Gullett
Henrygullett.jpg
  Nationalist Party Henty (Vic) 20 November 1929 7 May 1931   Latham 1929–31
John Latham
Johnlatham.jpg
  United Australia Party Kooyong (Vic) 7 May 1931 6 January 1932   Lyons 1931–32
Frank Forde
Frank Forde.jpg
  Labor Party Capricornia (Qld) 7 January 1932 7 October 1941   Scullin 1932–35
  Curtin 1935–41
Billy Hughes
BillyHughes1945.jpg
  United Australia Party North Sydney (NSW) 9 October 1941 14 April 1944   Fadden 1941–43
  Menzies 1943–49
Eric Harrison
Eric John Harrison.jpg
Wentworth (NSW) 14 April 1944 19 December 1949  
  Liberal Party  
H. V. Evatt
Herbert V. Evatt.jpg
  Labor Party Barton (NSW) 19 December 1949 13 June 1951   Chifley 1949–51
Arthur Calwell
ArthurCalwell.jpg
Melbourne (Vic) 13 June 1951 9 February 1960   Evatt 1951-60
Gough Whitlam
Gough Whitlam 1962.jpg
Werriwa (NSW) 7 March 1960 8 February 1967   Calwell 1960–67
Lance Barnard
Lance Barnard 1970 (cropped).jpg
Bass (Tas) 9 February 1967 5 December 1972   Whitlam 1967–72
Phillip Lynch
Phillip Lynch 1969.jpg
  Liberal Party Flinders (Vic) 20 December 1972 11 November 1975   Snedden 1972–75
Fraser 1975
Frank Crean
FrankCrean1967.jpg
  Labor Party Melbourne Ports (Vic) 11 November 1975 22 December 1975   Whitlam 1975–77
Tom Uren
TomUren1966.jpg
Reid (NSW) 22 December 1975 22 December 1977
Lionel Bowen
Lionel Bowen 1971.jpg
Kingsford Smith (NSW) 22 December 1977 11 March 1983 Hayden 1977–83
Hawke 1983
John Howard
John howard.jpg
  Liberal Party Bennelong (NSW) 11 March 1983 5 September 1985   Peacock 1983–85 [10]
Neil Brown
Neil Brown 1970.png
Menzies (Vic) 5 September 1985 17 July 1987   Howard 1985–89
Andrew Peacock
Andrew Peacock.jpg
Kooyong (Vic) 17 July 1987 9 May 1989
Fred Chaney
Recognise Campaign Fred Chaney Presser.jpg
Senator for Western Australia (WA) 1989–90
Pearce (WA) 1990
9 May 1989 24 March 1990   Peacock 1989–90
Peter Reith
Peter Reith cropped.jpg
Flinders (Vic) 24 March 1990 13 March 1993   Hewson 1990–94 [23]
Michael Wooldridge
No image.svg
Chisholm (Vic) 13 March 1993 23 May 1994 [24]
Peter Costello
Peter Costello.jpg
Higgins (Vic) 23 May 1994 19 March 1996 Downer 1994–95 [25]
Howard 1995–96
Gareth Evans
Gareth Evans 2000 (cropped).jpg
  Labor Party Holt (Vic) 19 March 1996 19 October 1998   Beazley 1996–2001 [26]
Simon Crean
Simon Crean 1990s.jpg
Hotham (Vic) 19 October 1998 22 November 2001 [13]
Jenny Macklin
Jenny Macklin (cropped).jpg
Jagajaga (Vic) 22 November 2001 18 September 2006   Crean 2001–03 [27]
  Latham 2003–05
  Beazley 2005–06
Julia Gillard
Juliagillard-CROP.jpg
Lalor (Vic) 4 December 2006 3 December 2007   Rudd 2006–07 [28]
Julie Bishop
Portrait of Julie Bishop.jpg
  Liberal Party Curtin (WA) 3 December 2007 18 September 2013   Nelson 2007–08 [29]
  Turnbull 2008–09
  Abbott 2009–13
Anthony Albanese
Anthony Albanese - 2016.jpg
  Labor Party Grayndler (NSW) 18 September 2013 14 October 2013   Bowen 2013 [30]
Tanya Plibersek
Tanya-plibersek2015.jpg
Sydney (NSW) 14 October 2013 30 May 2019 Shorten 2013–19 [31]
Richard Marles
Richard Marles crop.jpg
Corio (Vic) 30 May 2019 Incumbent Albanese 2019– [32]

See also

In the Australian House of Representatives, the Leader of the Opposition sits at the front table to the left of the Speaker's Chair (on the right-hand side in this photo).
In the Australian House of Representatives, the Leader of the Opposition sits at the front table to the left of the Speaker's Chair (on the right-hand side in this photo).

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Opposition Leader who later became Prime Minister.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Opposition Leader who had previously been Prime Minister.
  3. ^ Gough Whitlam refused to use the title Leader of the Opposition between the dismissal of his government in November 1975 and the first meeting of the new parliament in February 1976. During the election campaign in December 1975 he styled himself as the Leader of the Majority in the House of Representatives.[9]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Chapter 2: House, Government and Opposition, the (official) Opposition". House of Representatives Practice. May 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  2. ^ Jaensch, Dean (1997). The Politics of Australia. Melbourne: MacMillan Education Australia. p. 100. ISBN 0-7329-4128-8.
  3. ^ "A House for the nation". Commonwealth of Australia. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007. Retrieved 14 December 2007.
  4. ^ a b Heriot, Dianne (12 February 2019). "Australia's first Parliament: Her Majesty's loyal opposition" (PDF). FlagPost. Australian Parliamentary Library. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  5. ^ Brett, Judith (14 August 2017). The Enigmatic Mr Deakin. Text Publishing. p. 397. ISBN 9781925498660.
  6. ^ "Salary". Department of Finance. Archived from the original on 23 June 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  7. ^ Doran, Matthew (8 June 2019). "Pay rise coming for federal politicians as they prepare to return to Canberra". ABC News. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  8. ^ a b "Appendix 4: Leaders of the Opposition". House of Representatives Practice. May 2018. pp. 805–806. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  9. ^ Gough, Whitlam. "Whitlam Speeches – 1975 Election Policy Speech". Whitlam Dismissal. Archived from the original on 16 November 2006. Retrieved 12 April 2006.
  10. ^ a b c "Hon John Howard MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  11. ^ "Hon Alexander Downer MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  12. ^ a b "The Hon Kim Beazley MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  13. ^ a b "Hon Simon Crean MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  14. ^ "Mr Mark Latham MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  15. ^ "Hon Kevin Rudd MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  16. ^ "Hon Brendan Nelson MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  17. ^ "Hon Malcolm Turnbull MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  18. ^ "Hon Tony Abbott MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  19. ^ "Hon Chris Bowen MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  20. ^ "Hon Bill Shorten MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  21. ^ "Hon Anthony Albanese MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  22. ^ "Inter-state". The Mercury. 18 March 1927. p. 6. Retrieved 7 November 2021 – via Trove.
  23. ^ "Hon Peter Reith MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  24. ^ "Hon Dr Michael Wooldridge MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  25. ^ "Hon Peter Costello MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  26. ^ "Hon Gareth Evans QC, MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  27. ^ "Hon Jenny Macklin MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  28. ^ "Hon Julia Gillard MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  29. ^ "83P". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  30. ^ "Hon Anthony Albanese MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  31. ^ "Hon Tanya Plibersek MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  32. ^ "Hon Richard Marles MP". Senators and Members of the Parliament of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2021.

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