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Government of Minneapolis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Minneapolis City Hall circa 1900.jpg

Minneapolis /ˌmɪniˈæplɪs/ is the largest city in the state of Minnesota in the United States, and the county seat of Hennepin County.

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  • ✪ 10 People Who Exposed Government Secrets

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Hello, this is Alltime10s. There’s a reason we’ve got so many conspiracy theories - the government has proved time and time again that it is keeping secrets. Here we’re going to count down 10 of the insiders, hackers, and spies who exposed them. 10 People Who Exposed Government Secrets 10. Coleen Rowley The attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001 seemed to come out of nowhere, but could the government have prevented them? Did they really not know until it was too late? Coleen Rowley was an FBI Special Agent based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. She had been working on a case involving a man arrested at a Minnesota flying school for acting suspiciously in August 2001. Rowley’s department repeatedly questioned him; they even accused him of being a terrorist, but she couldn’t get a search warrant authorized. He turned out to be Zacarias Moussaoui, a conspirator behind 9/11. Rowley wrote a 13-page letter to the FBI Director six months later, claiming that she had been prevented from aggressively investigating Moussaoui by her supervisor in Washington. She even accused the Director himself of making deliberately misleading public statements in the wake of the attacks to cover up this mistake. 9. Peter Buxtun In 1965, 27-year-old Peter Buxtun joined the United States Public Health Service in San Francisco to work in the venereal disease department. However, he quickly learned from his colleagues that something sinister was going on. They were experimenting on people. Back in 1932 the Public Health Service set up The Tuskegee Experiment, designed to see how syphilis affects the body. But their methodology didn’t take a particularly ethical approach, to say the least. The study involved 600 black men, two thirds of whom had the disease. Without their informed consent, researchers left the men untreated for 40 years. When Buxtun found out that the Health Service was withholding treatment from sick people on purpose, he launched an official complaint. Despite 128 deaths, 40 of the men’s wives contracting the disease, and 19 children being born with it, nothing came of the internal review. So in 1972 Buxtun leaked the story to the press and testified in Congress, finally putting an end to the horrific practice. 8. Joseph Darby US forces seized Abu Ghraib prison, near Baghdad, after the invasion of Iraq in 2003. Joseph Darby was working as a military police soldier there and decided to send some photos of the beautiful surroundings home. He approached prison guard Charles Graner, known to be good with a camera, to ask if he had any pictures. Without hesitating, Graner gave Darby two CDs full of images, which Darby copied over to his hard drive. To Darby’s horror, the CDs contained images of Graner and others torturing detainees in the prison complex. He reported this breach of the Geneva Convention to the army’s investigatory unit. In the end, eleven soldiers were convicted and the prison was handed over to the Iraqi government. 7. David Shayler Renegade British spy David Shayler exposed the devious practices Her Majesty’s Secret Service had been getting up to in the 1990s. The former-MI5 Agent began work by vetting politicians for the British Labour Party, but claimed the agency was actually keeping files on them. In 1997 he sold his story to the Mail on Sunday newspaper for $50,000, including the most serious allegations that MI6 had attempted to assassinate Colonel Gaddafi and that a bombing of an Israeli Embassy in London could have been prevented. Shayler went on the run to France, but ended up in prison twice. Many of his friends think he has suffered a nervous breakdown as a result of pressure from the Security Services. He is part of the 9/11 Truther Movement, and in 2007 he declared he was the Messiah. He now lives in a squat as Delores Kane. 6. Alexander Litvinenko After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, the notorious secret agency known as the KGB morphed into the FSB of contemporary Russia. Alexander Litvinenko was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in this transition, but he didn’t like what he saw as the penetration of the security services by organized crime. He described Putin’s Russia as a mafia state, and they understandably fell out over these accusations of corruption. He was arrested in 1998 after exposing an alleged attempted assassination of a Russian businessman. He then published a book claiming that the FSB was responsible for blowing up apartments in Moscow - which it had blamed on separatists - before he fled to the UK. Sadly, the story does not end there. In 2006, Litvinenko was fed radioactive poisoned tea by visiting FSB agents and he died a slow and public death. The result of a British inquiry found that Putin himself was ‘probably’ behind the assassination. 5. Mordechai Vanunu There are just nine countries in the world with nuclear capabilities and Israel is presumed to be one of them, although it won’t quite admit it. One man who tried to force them to do so was nuclear technician Mordechai Vanunu. In September 1986, Vanunu flew to London to give an interview and hand secret photographs to The Sunday Times, which revealed the scope of the nuclear weapons program that Israel was running. Mossad, Israel’s security service, allegedly went after him using a ‘honeytrap’ to get him to travel to Italy where a boat lay in wait. Vanunu was kidnapped and transported back to Israel where he was put on trial. He ended up serving 18 years in prison. Israel has called Vanunu "embittered and vengeful" and claims he has been “imagining things”. Although it is estimated they possess 80 nuclear warheads, they still refuse to confirm or deny it. 4. Chelsea Manning 700,000 documents were stolen from military computers in 2010; they were distributed to Wikileaks, who published them for the world to see. But who was the source of this leak? And what secrets were revealed? Chelsea Manning, who at the time was known as Bradley, was sent to Iraq as a Junior Intelligence Analyst. While there she was horrified by the inhumanity of much of what the military was doing, and so she resolved to begin a global debate. However, a hacker she had been communicating with in California reported her to the FBI, fearing that national security was at stake. Among the information that Manning revealed were US figures on an Iraqi death toll of over 100,000, despite the UK and US previously saying that there were no official statistics. There was also an infamous video showing helicopter crew laughing as they killed people in an airstrike, and a damaging diplomatic cable that showed the King of Saudi Arabia urging the US to attack Iran. Government prosecutors said the leak amounted to “aiding the enemy” and Chelsea Manning was sentenced to 35 years in jail - the longest ever term for a whistleblower. 3. Jan Karski During the Second World War the Nazis invaded Poland and put the Jewish population into ghettos; by July 1942 they were being moved en masse to extermination camps. But did the Allied Forces know before the war was over? Jan Karski was a top of the class diplomat sent to Warsaw in late 1942 to gather intelligence. He entered the Ghetto and met leaders of the Jewish underground who informed him that a Holocaust was underway. According to their estimates, 1.8 million Jews had already been killed, as well as 300,000 Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto being sent to a death camp 60 miles away. Karski returned safely to London where he met the Foreign Secretary and told him what the German government was up to, but he was snubbed. He then traveled to America and met President Roosevelt, but again he was met with inaction. Why didn’t they believe him? Karski himself later said of the Holocaust: “The Nazis did it because they could. The Allies denied it because they did nothing about it.” 2. Julian Assange The notorious website Wikileaks, which we saw earlier helped distribute Chelsea Manning’s documents, was founded by Australian internet activist Julian Assange in 2006. From Guantanamo Bay to the Church of Scientology, Julian Assange has been behind a huge number of damaging leaks for the past ten years. When a warrant was issued for his arrest by Sweden in 2010, he took refuge in the Ecuadorian Embassy in London. The charges are for alleged sexual assault, and Assange claims he could be extradited to the US and suffer a similar fate to Manning. Despite still being stuck in the embassy, he has still managed to facilitate one of his biggest leaks yet: Hillary Clinton’s emails. In July, over a thousand emails from her personal mail server and 20,000 DNC emails were leaked. This was followed by her campaign manager John Podesta’s hacked emails being leaked throughout October. The emails Assange leaked revealed worrying relationships between the Clinton Foundation and donors, showed her back room dealings in Wall Street, and ultimately contributed to her loss of the election. 1. Edward Snowden The National Security Agency, or NSA, is the leading intelligence organization in the US and we didn’t really have a clue what the hell they were up to. That is, until Edward Snowden came along. Having been a contracted infrastructure analyst for consulting firm Booz Allen Hamilton, in 2012 he was stationed at an NSA facility in Hawaii to work as a high-level systems administrator. While there, he was disturbed by the degree of surveillance and government encroachment on US citizen’s privacy. Snowden registered complaints with more than 10 officials, but nothing changed. He got a hard drive and downloaded 200,000 files, flew to Hong Kong and gave them to journalists from the Washington Post and the Guardian. The contents of those files changed the world. Government agencies on both sides of the Atlantic were shown to be collecting vast swathes of data from their own people in a seemingly unchecked manner and many people were furious. Privacy campaigners continue to push for greater government transparency. Snowden meanwhile, fearful for his freedom, is currently living in Russia in exile. Thanks for watching AllTime10s - do you think you would take the plunge if you saw something wrong, or just keep quiet? Let me know in the comments. And if you want to see something else, head over here and check out ‘10 Disturbing Alien Conspiracies’. Cheers.

Contents

Neighborhoods

The city is divided into communities, each containing neighborhoods. For example, the Near North community is composed of the Hawthorne, Jordan, Near North, Sumner-Glenwood and Willard-Hay neighborhoods. Neighborhoods coordinate activities under the Neighborhood Revitalization Program. In some cases two or more neighborhoods act together under one organization. Some areas are commonly known by nicknames of business associations like Dinkytown, Downtown, Midtown and Uptown.[1]

Mayor of Minneapolis R.T. Rybak and his family at a 2007 antiwar rally
Mayor of Minneapolis R.T. Rybak and his family at a 2007 antiwar rally

Former Mayor Rybak and the city have engaged five local "Great City Design Teams" for massive citywide landscaping projects including parks, signage and streetcars. A Web site was registered in June 2007 to the City of Minneapolis for this purpose although it bears the name and insignia of the Minnesota chapter of the American Institute of Architects. The first six projects involve Washington, Nicollet, Penn, Lowry, Central and Lyndale Avenues, and 18th, 40th and 46th Streets.[2]

Government and politics

Minneapolis is a stronghold for the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL), an affiliate of the Democratic Party. The Minneapolis City Council holds the most power and represents the city's thirteen districts called wards. The council has twelve DFL members and one from the Green Party. Jacob Frey, also of the DFL, is the current mayor of Minneapolis. The office of mayor is relatively weak but has some power to appoint individuals such as the chief of police. Parks, taxation, and public housing are semi-independent boards and levy their own taxes and fees subject to Board of Estimate and Taxation limits.[3]

Crime

Percent Change in Reported Crime[4]
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008[5]
Homicide -19 +6 -14 +9 -2 +17 -11 +21 -17
Major Crime -11 -11 -3 0 -7 -4 +16 +4 -13
All Crime -6 -4 -2 -4 -8 -5 +6 +7 -8

The early years of the city were noted for crime. 150 brothels operated in hotels and candy stores earning the city $50,000 annually in 1900 dollars. Two historical figures are remembered in particular. Four-term mayor "Doc" Ames turned the Minneapolis Police Department into organized criminals who directed swindlers, pickpockets and burglaries. Ames earned income from prostitution, 45% of the profit from a stacked game of poker, and $15,000 a year from slot machines. During Prohibition, Kid Cann processed what some estimates say was 600 gallons of liquor per day and by 1933 had made himself a nationally known bookmaker. Shortly after this time, depleted forests and a drop in the price of iron ore in northern Minnesota, loss of the seat as milling capital of the country to Buffalo, New York, and cheap water transport combined into an economic downturn and drop in crime. Since 1950 the city lost 150,000 people and lost much of downtown to urban renewal and highway construction, resulting in a "moribund and peaceful" environment during the second half of the 20th century.[6]

During the 1990s the murder rate climbed. After 97 people died in 1995, people called the city "Murderapolis," a T-shirt slogan mentioned by The New York Times when reporting that Minneapolis had nearly 70% more murders per capita and had surpassed the annual rate of homicides in New York City.[7] Under police chief Robert Olson, Minneapolis imported a computerized New York City system known as CODEFOR or Computer Optimized Deployment Focused On Results that sent officers to high crime areas despite accusations of racial profiling. By 1998 the overall rate of major crime dropped by 16 percent, the department's largest one year improvement in two decades, and continued to drop for seven more years until 2005.[8] The number of homicides increased three times during that period and rose to its highest in recent history in 2006. Politicians debate the causes and solutions, from improving on the lack of police officers caused by balancing the city's budget, to providing youths with alternatives to gangs and drugs, to helping families in poverty. For 2007, the city invested in public safety infrastructure, hired over forty new officers, and has a new police chief, Tim Dolan.[9]

Former Minneapolis mayor R. T. Rybak is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition,[10] an organization formed in 2006 and co-chaired by New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg and Boston mayor Thomas Menino.

List of foreign consulates in Minneapolis

The following list are countries that currently have Consulate offices in Minneapolis, Minnesota:[12][better source needed]

In the United States, the consular network (rank in descending order: Consul-General, Consul, Vice-Consul, Honorary Consul)

(Consul General) – A consul general heads a consulate general and is a consul of the highest rank serving at a principal location and usually responsible for other consular offices within a country.

(Consulate) – The office of a Consul is termed a Consulate, and is usually subordinate to the state's main representation in that foreign country, nowadays usually an Embassy or High Commission usually in the capital city of the host nation. In the capital, the consulate may be a part of the embassy itself.

(Vice Consul) – Vice consul is a subordinate officer, authorized to exercise consular functions in some particular part of a district controlled by a consulate.

(Honorary Consul) – Honorary consul may not be a citizen of the sending country, and may well combine the job with their own (often commercial) private activities, in which case they are usually given the title of honorary consul.

(Consul General)
(Honorary Consul)

Notes

  1. ^ GIS Business Services, City of Minneapolis (2004, updated January 2006). "City of Minneapolis. Neighborhoods & Communities" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-02-10. Check date values in: |date= (help) and Minneapolis Neighborhood Revitalization Program (2001–2005). "Neighborhood Organizations". Archived from the original on 2007-02-22. Retrieved 2007-02-10. and Minneapolis Community Planning and Economic Development (CPED) Department (November 17, 2005). "City of Minneapolis Business Associations" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-02-10.
  2. ^ "The Washington Boulevard Great City Design Team". American Institute of Architects Minnesota (domain registrant: City of Minneapolis). Archived from the original on 2007-06-30. Retrieved 2007-07-31. and Mayor R. T. Rybak's great city design teams: a collaboration with American Institute of Architects Minneapolis, Urban Land Institute and Minnesota Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects (2007-06-12). "a vision study for the new WASHINGTON BOULEVARD" (PDF). American Institute of Architects Minnesota (domain registrant: City of Minneapolis). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
  3. ^ "City Council". City of Minneapolis. Archived from the original on 2016-02-07. and "Minneapolis City Council candidates". E-Democracy (e-democracy.org). October 26, 2005. Retrieved 2007-03-24. and Anderson, G.R. Jr. (2002-07-10). "The Compulsiveness of the Long-Distance Runner". City Pages. Village Voice Media. 23 (1127). Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-03-21. and "Board of Estimate and Taxation". City of Minneapolis. Retrieved 2007-06-27.
  4. ^ Minneapolis Police Department, CODEFOR Unit (1999–2007). "Uniform Crime Reports". Archived from the original on 2007-02-05. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
  5. ^ Minneapolis Police Department. "2008 Year-End Citywide Crime and Arrest Statistics" (PDF). City of Minneapolsi. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
  6. ^ Moskowitz, Dara (October 11, 1995). "Minneapolis Confidential". City Pages, Volume 16 – Issue 775. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
  7. ^ Johnson, Dirk (June 30, 1996). "Nice City's Nasty Distinction: Murders Soar in Minneapolis". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-04.
  8. ^ Olson, Dan (November 7, 2001). "The political legacy of Sharon Sayles Belton". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved 2007-01-18. and City of Minneapolis (1998). "Police Annual Report 1998 (PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-01-18.
  9. ^ Williams, Brandt (January 9, 2007). "Homicide problem awaits Minneapolis' new police chief". Minneapolis Public Radio. Retrieved 2007-02-10. and Scheck, Tom (August 25, 2005). "Sparks fly at Minneapolis mayoral debate". Minneapolis Public Radio. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
  10. ^ "Mayors Against Illegal Guns: Coalition Members". Archived from the original on 2007-11-17. Retrieved on June 19, 2007
  11. ^ 2013 Neighborhood Crime Statistics & 1990 to 2000 Population Change by Neighborhood. Retrieved May-21-2014
  12. ^ "Foreign Consular Offices in the United States." United States Department of State. August 4, 2006. Retrieved on December 8, 2006. Public domain This article incorporates public domain material from this U.S government document.

External links

This page was last edited on 1 January 2020, at 06:34
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