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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rhyolitic lava dome of Chaitén Volcano during its 2008–2010 eruption
Rhyolitic lava dome of Chaitén Volcano during its 2008–2010 eruption
One of the Mono Craters, an example of a rhyolite dome
One of the Mono Craters, an example of a rhyolite dome
Nea Kameni seen from Thera, Santorini
Nea Kameni seen from Thera, Santorini

In volcanology, a lava dome or volcanic dome is a roughly circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano. Dome-building eruptions are common, particularly in convergent plate boundary settings[1]. Around 6% of eruptions on earth are lava dome forming.[1] The geochemistry of lava domes can vary from basalt (e.g. Semeru, 1946) to rhyolite (e.g. Chaiten, 2010) although the majority are of intermediate composition (such as Santiaguito, dacite-andesite, present day)[2] The characteristic dome shape is attributed to high viscosity that prevents the lava from flowing very far. This high viscosity can be obtained in two ways: by high levels of silica in the magma, or by degassing of fluid magma. Since viscous basaltic and andesitic domes weather fast and easily break apart by further input of fluid lava, most of the preserved domes have high silica content and consist of rhyolite or dacite.

Existence of lava domes has been suggested for some domed structures on the Moon, Venus, and Mars,[1] e.g. the Martian surface in the western part of Arcadia Planitia and within Terra Sirenum.[3][4]

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  • ✪ Lava Dome That Can DESTROY The World To Erupt
  • ✪ Merapi Volcano Lava Dome Collapsed Night Time at 29 December 2018
  • ✪ Sinabung Lava Dome Collapse and Pyroclastic Flow 2016
  • ✪ Merapi Volcano Lava Dome at the End of December
  • ✪ Merapi Volcano Lava Dome Observation February 19, 2019

Transcription

Scientists at Kobe University are warning everyone about a gigantic supervolcano off the coast of Japan this supervolcano has created a lava dome and if it erupts it could kill 100 million people I'm gonna tell you everything you need to know here for you on io welcome back to io where we overload you with scary apocalypse videos and occasionally interesting information I'm Charlotte and I'm your host as if we didn't have enough apocalypse scenarios to worry about aliens Planet X World War 3 asteroids etc now we have to worry about a supervolcano we've talked about the Kukai volcano on this channel before but now there is new information about it available 31 miles south of the Japanese island of kyushu there is a massive supervolcano beneath the ocean the last time this volcano erupted it was seven thousand three hundred years ago and when it collapsed onto itself it left a 12 mile wide hole called a caldera the eruption is also believed to have wiped out an ancient civilization known as the Jomon people the volcano has created a lava dome that's 5.9 miles wide and has forced upward around 2,000 feet or 600 meters of lava now the top of that volcano is only ten feet below the surface of the ocean beneath the top of that dome is 31 cubic kilometers of lava and many that lava is magma that's building up pressure eventually the top of that dome is going to burst sending 40 cubic kilometers of magma into the air at once it's also probable that the eruption could cause a tsunami that would hit Japan Taiwan and China you might be thinking yeah it's all the way over in Japan we're totally fine on this side of the world well unfortunately even though the volcano is off the coast of Japan the tsunami it could create could hit the west coast of North and South America an eruption will almost indefinitely spew tons and tons of volcanic ash and soot into the air blocking out the Sun and creating a sort of volcanic winter it is estimated by experts that this eruption could kill 100 million people so what is the likelihood that the Kukai volcano could erupt according to professor Tatsumi of the COBE ocean bottom exploration center the chances are about 1% in the next hundred years these findings were published in the journal scientific reports alright guys I'm gonna take this opportunity to respond to some comments from my last video about the Kukai supervolcano ix gaming said I watched this video for a 1% chance that it's going to erupt in 100 years hey 1% is still a chance it's more than 0% Erica stone said sounds similar to Pompeii and we know how that went yeah Pompeii was catastrophic and I've actually been there it's crazy you're lucky that you have channels like IO to warn you about 1% chances of super volcanoes erupting Pompeii didn't have that look where they are Aaron O'Herlihy said this is the only place where I get my news from well hey we're glad you like our channel if this is your first time here show us some love like giving us a thumbs up and subscribe if you need a place to get your trending news on YouTube and if you want to keep watching there's a great playlist over here that you should check out and maybe I'll see you in the next video see ya

Contents

Dome dynamics

Lava domes in the crater of Mount St. Helens
Lava domes in the crater of Mount St. Helens

Lava domes evolve unpredictably, due to non-linear dynamics caused by crystallization and outgassing of the highly viscous lava in the dome's conduit.[5] Domes undergo various processes such as growth, collapse, solidification and erosion.

Lava domes grow by endogenic dome growth or exogenic dome growth. The former implies the enlargement of a lava dome due to the influx of magma into the dome interior, and the latter refers to discrete lobes of lava emplaced upon the surface of the dome.[2] It is the high viscosity of the lava that prevents it from flowing far from the vent from which it extrudes, creating a dome-like shape of sticky lava that then cools slowly in-situ. Spines and lava flows are common extrusive products of lava domes.[1] Domes may reach heights of several hundred meters, and can grow slowly and steadily for months (e.g. Unzen volcano), years (e.g. Soufrière Hills volcano), or even centuries (e.g. Mount Merapi volcano). The sides of these structures are composed of unstable rock debris. Due to the intermittent buildup of gas pressure, erupting domes can often experience episodes of explosive eruption over time. If part of a lava dome collapses and exposes pressurized magma, pyroclastic flows can be produced.[6] Other hazards associated with lava domes are the destruction of property from lava flows, forest fires, and lahars triggered from re-mobilization of loose ash and debris. Lava domes are one of the principal structural features of many stratovolcanoes worldwide. Lava domes are prone to unusually dangerous explosions since they can contain rhyolitic silica-rich lava.

Characteristics of lava dome eruptions include shallow, long-period and hybrid seismicity, which is attributed to excess fluid pressures in the contributing vent chamber. Other characteristics of lava domes include their hemispherical dome shape, cycles of dome growth over long periods, and sudden onsets of violent explosive activity.[7] The average rate of dome growth may be used as a rough indicator of magma supply, but it shows no systematic relationship to the timing or characteristics of lava dome explosions.[8]

Gravitational collapse of a lava dome can produce a block and ash flow.[9]

Related landforms

Cryptodomes

The bulging cryptodome of Mt. St. Helens on April 27, 1980
The bulging cryptodome of Mt. St. Helens on April 27, 1980

A cryptodome (from Greek κρυπτός, kryptos, "hidden, secret") is a dome-shaped structure created by accumulation of viscous magma at a shallow depth.[10] One example of a cryptodome was in the May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, where the explosive eruption began after a landslide caused the side of the volcano to fall, leading to explosive decompression of the subterranean cryptodome.[11]

Lava spine/Lava spire

Soufrière Hills lava spine before the 1997 eruption
Soufrière Hills lava spine before the 1997 eruption

A lava spine or lava spire is a growth that can form on the top of a lava dome. A lava spine can increase the instability of the underlying lava dome. A recent example of a lava spine is the spine formed in 1997 at the Soufrière Hills Volcano on Montserrat.

Lava coulées

Chao dacite coulée flow-domes (left center), northern Chile, viewed from Landsat 8
Chao dacite coulée flow-domes (left center), northern Chile, viewed from Landsat 8

Coulées (or coulees) are lava domes that have experienced some flow away from their original position, thus resembling both lava domes and lava flows.[2]

The world's largest known dacite flow is the Chao dacite dome complex, a huge coulée flow-dome between two volcanoes in northern Chile. This flow is over 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) long, has obvious flow features like pressure ridges, and a flow front 400 metres (1,300 ft) tall (the dark scalloped line at lower left).[12] There is another prominent coulée flow on the flank of Llullaillaco volcano, in Argentina,[13] and other examples in the Andes.

Examples of lava domes

Lava domes
Name of lava dome Country Volcanic area Composition Last eruption
or growth episode
Chaitén lava dome Chile Southern Volcanic Zone Rhyolite 2009
Ciomadul lava domes Romania Carpathians Dacite Pleistocene
Cordón Caulle lava domes Chile Southern Volcanic Zone Rhyodacite to Rhyolite Holocene
Galeras lava dome Colombia Northern Volcanic Zone Unknown 2010
Katla lava dome Iceland Iceland hotspot Rhyolite 1999 onwards[14]
Lassen Peak United States Cascade Volcanic Arc Dacite 1917
Bridge River Vent lava dome Canada Cascade Volcanic Arc Dacite ca. 300 BC
Mount Merapi lava dome Indonesia Sunda Arc Unknown 2010
Nea Kameni Greece South Aegean Volcanic Arc Dacite 1950
Novarupta lava dome Alaska (United States) Aleutian Arc Rhyolite 1912
Nevados de Chillán lava domes Chile Southern Volcanic Zone Dacite 1986
Puy de Dôme France Chaîne des Puys Trachyte ca. 5760 BC
Santa María lava dome Guatemala Central America Volcanic Arc Dacite 2009
Sollipulli lava dome Chile Southern Volcanic Zone Andesite to Dacite 1240 ± 50 years
Soufrière Hills lava dome Montserrat Lesser Antilles Andesite 2009
Mount St. Helens lava domes United States Cascade Volcanic Arc Dacite 2008
Torfajökull lava dome Iceland Iceland hotspot Rhyolite 1477
Tata Sabaya lava domes Bolivia Andes Unknown ~ Holocene
Tate-iwa Japan Japan Arc Dacite Miocene[15]
Valles lava domes United States Jemez Mountains Rhyolite 50,000-60,000 BP
Wizard Island lava dome United States Cascade Volcanic Arc Rhyodacite[16] 2850 BC

References

  1. ^ a b c d Calder, Eliza S.; Lavallée, Yan; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Bernstein, Marc (2015). The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. Elsevier. pp. 343–362. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-385938-9.00018-3. ISBN 9780123859389.
  2. ^ a b c Fink, Jonathan H., Anderson, Steven W. (2001), "Lava Domes and Coulees", in Sigursson, Haraldur (ed.), Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, Academic Press, pp. 307–319.
  3. ^ Rampey, Michael L.; Milam, Keith A.; McSween, Harry Y.; Moersch, Jeffrey E.; Christensen, Philip R. (28 June 2007). "Identity and emplacement of domical structures in the western Arcadia Planitia, Mars". Journal of Geophysical Research. 112 (E6): E06011. Bibcode:2007JGRE..112.6011R. doi:10.1029/2006JE002750.
  4. ^ Brož, Petr; Hauber, Ernst; Platz, Thomas; Balme, Matt (April 2015). "Evidence for Amazonian highly viscous lavas in the southern highlands on Mars". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 415: 200–212. Bibcode:2015E&PSL.415..200B. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2015.01.033.
  5. ^ Melnik, O; Sparks, R. S. J. (4 November 1999), "Nonlinear dynamics of lava dome extrusion" (PDF), Nature, 402 (6757): 37–41, Bibcode:1999Natur.402...37M, doi:10.1038/46950
  6. ^ Parfitt, E.A.; Wilson, L (2008), Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology, Massachusetts, USA: Blackwell Publishing, p. 256
  7. ^ Sparks, R.S.J. (August 1997), "Causes and consequences of pressurisation in lava dome eruptions", Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 150 (3–4): 177–189, Bibcode:1997E&PSL.150..177S, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(97)00109-X
  8. ^ Newhall, C.G.; Melson., W.G. (September 1983), "Explosive activity associated with the growth of volcanic domes", Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 17 (1–4): 111–131, Bibcode:1983JVGR...17..111N, doi:10.1016/0377-0273(83)90064-1)
  9. ^ Cole, Paul D.; Neri, Augusto; Baxter, Peter J. (2015). "Chapter 54 – Hazards from Pyroclastic Density Currents". In Sigurdsson, Haraldur (ed.). Encyclopedia of Volcanoes (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Academic Press. pp. 943–956. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-385938-9.00037-7. ISBN 978-0-12-385938-9.
  10. ^ "USGS: Volcano Hazards Program Glossary - Cryptodome". volcanoes.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2018-06-23.
  11. ^ "USGS: Volcano Hazards Program CVO Mount St. Helens". volcanoes.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2018-06-23.
  12. ^ Chao dacite dome complex at NASA Earth Observatory
  13. ^ Coulées! by Erik Klemetti, an assistant professor of Geosciences at Denison University.
  14. ^ Eyjafjallajökull and Katla: restless neighbours
  15. ^ Goto, Yoshihiko; Tsuchiya, Nobutaka (July 2004). "Morphology and growth style of a Miocene submarine dacite lava dome at Atsumi, northeast Japan". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 134 (4): 255–275. Bibcode:2004JVGR..134..255G. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2004.03.015.
  16. ^ Map of Post-Caldera Volcanism and Crater Lake USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory. Retrieved 2014-01-31.

External links

This page was last edited on 30 September 2019, at 15:35
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