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Launch Services Program

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Launch Services Program
HeadquartersKennedy Space Center, FL
ProductsExpendable Launch Vehicles: Atlas V , Delta II, Delta IV, Pegasus, Taurus
WebsiteLaunch Services Program

Launch Services Program (LSP) is responsible for NASA oversight of launch operations and countdown management, providing added quality and mission assurance in lieu of the requirement for the launch service provider to obtain a commercial launch license. It operates under the Human Exploration and Operations (HEO) Mission Directorate of NASA.[1]

Since 1990, NASA has purchased expendable launch vehicle (ELV) launch services directly from commercial providers, whenever possible, for its scientific and applications missions. ELVs can accommodate all types of orbit inclinations and altitudes and are ideal vehicles for launching Earth-orbit and interplanetary missions. The Launch Services Program was established at Kennedy Space Center for NASA's acquisition and program management of ELV missions. A NASA/contractor team is in place to meet the mission of the Launch Services Program, which exists to provide leadership, expertise and cost-effective services in the commercial arena to satisfy Agency wide space transportation requirements and maximize the opportunity for mission success.[2]

Primary launch sites are Cape Canaveral Space Force Station (CCSFS) in Florida, and Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. Other launch locations are NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, Reagan Test Site at Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and Kodiak Launch Complex in Alaska.

In 2012, the program posted electronic copies of its brochure[3] and poster.[4]


Spacecraft customers

Launch vehicle contractors (LVC)

The Launch Services Program (LSP) is currently awarding new contracts under the NASA Launch Services (NLS) II Contract.[5] Once a year, new launch vehicles can be on (or off) ramped onto the contract.[6] The following vehicles are attached to the NLS II Contract.

NASA has specific policies governing launch services.[9] LSP Flight Design provides general information regarding the launch vehicle performance available via existing NASA contracts.[10] This information is all available on publicly available websites.

NASA uses a certification system for rockets launched by its contractors, and for validation purposes it requires the certification process to be "instrumented to provide design verification and flight performance data", with post-flight operations, anomaly resolution process, and a flight margin verification process, with 80% predicted design reliability at 95% confidence.[11]

Launch vehicle risk category Vehicle maturity Payload class[12] Flight experience[11]
Cat 1 (High Risk) No flight history D
  • No previous flights required
Cat 2 (Medium Risk) Limited flight history C and D, sometimes B
  • 1 successful flight of a common launch vehicle configuration, or:
  • 3 consecutive successful flights of a common launch vehicle configuration from an evolved vehicle family developed by an LSC with a previously certified launch vehicle for Risk Category 2 or 3
Cat 3 (Low Risk) Significant flight history A, B, C, D
  • 14 consecutive successful flights (95% demonstrated reliability at 50% confidence) of a common launch vehicle configuration, or:
  • 6 successful flights (minimum 3 consecutive) of a common launch vehicle configuration from an evolved vehicle family developed by an LSC with a previously certified launch vehicle for Risk Category 3, or:
  • 3 consecutive successful flights of a common launch vehicle configuration from an evolved vehicle family developed by an LSC with a previously certified launch vehicle for Risk Category 3

Advisory Services

In addition to providing end-to-end launch services, LSP also offers Advisory Services.[13] This "is a consulting service to government and commercial organizations, providing mission management, overall systems engineering and/or specific discipline expertise; e.g. mission assurance, flight design, systems safety, etc., as requested." This non-traditional service allows LSP to "expand its customer base and assist these customers in maximizing their mission success by using NASA LSP's unique expertise." The four general categories of advisory services are:

  • SMART (Supplemental Mission Advisory and Risk Team)
  • Design and Development
  • Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V)
  • Independent Review Teams (IRT)

U.S. Space Force support

LSP also works with the United States Space Force (USSF),[14] via coordination by the LVCs. For launches at Cape Canaveral Space Force Station (CCSFS) and Vandenberg Space Force Base (VSFB), the Space Launch Delta 45 and Space Launch Delta 30[15] commanders, respectively, are the Launch Decision Authority.[16]

For launches from CCSFS, guardians, Space Force civilians and contractors from throughout the 45th Space Wing provided vital support, including weather forecasts, launch and range operations, security, safety, medical and public affairs. The wing also provided its vast network of radar, telemetry, and communications instrumentation to facilitate a safe launch on the Eastern Range.[17][18][19][20] Among work done by the Space Force is Mission Flight Control, which ensures public safety during launch.[21][22][23][24]

The weather conditions acceptable for launch vary by rocket and even the configurations of the rocket.[25][26][27][28][29] Prior to liftoff are multiple sets of acceptable weather conditions that depend on the state of the rocket, particularly where the rocket is in the fuel loading process.

Launch history

Upcoming launches

The schedule below includes only Launch Services Program (LSP) primary and advisory missions. The NASA Launch Schedule has the most up to date public schedule of all NASA launches. The NASA Kennedy News Releases will also have updates on LSP launches and mission accomplishments. Additional NASA pages which mention future launch dates are the Launch Services Education Program, NASA Goddard's Explorers Program, and NASA Goddard's Upcoming Planetary Events and Missions.

The ELaNa Launch Schedule[30] has the upcoming schedule of CubeSat missions, which occur on both NASA and non-NASA launches.

Scheduled Launch Date Mission Vehicle Launch Site Total Launch Cost* (million)
mid-2021 to late-2021[31] Cislunar Autonomous Positioning System Technology Operations and Navigation Experiment (CAPSTONE) CubeSat Electron Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport Launch Complex 2 (Wallops Flight Facility) (MARS LC-2) $9.95[32]
2021.09[33] Landsat-9 Atlas V-401 Vandenberg Space Force Base Space Launch Complex 3 East (VSFB SLC-3E) $153.8 [34]
NET 2021.10.16 Lucy Atlas V-401 Cape Canaveral Space Force Station Space Launch Complex 41 (CCSFS SLC-41) $148.3[35]
NET 2021.10.31 [36][37] James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)+ Ariane 5 ECA Guiana Space Centre ELA-3
2021.11[38] Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) Falcon 9 Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 (CCSFS SLC-39A) $50.3[39]
NET 2021.11.24[40][31] Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) Falcon 9 Vandenberg Space Force Base Space Launch Complex 4 East (VSFB SLC-4E) $69[41]
2021.12[42] Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-T (GOES-T) Atlas V-541 Cape Canaveral Space Force Station Space Launch Complex 41 (CCSFS SLC-41) $165.7[43]
NET 2022.01.08 Time-Resolved Observations of Precipitation structure and storm Intensity with a Constellation of Smallsats (TROPICS) Rocket 3 Reagan Test Site, Kwajalein Atoll $7.95[44]
2022[45] Surface Water Ocean Topography Mission (SWOT) Falcon 9 Vandenberg Space Force Base Space Launch Complex 4 East (VSFB SLC-4E) $112[46]
2022.08[47][31] Psyche Falcon Heavy Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 (KSC LC-39A) $117[48]
2022.12[49][50] Joint Polar Satellite System-2 (JPSS-2) & Low-Earth Orbit Flight Test of an Inflatable Decelerator (LOFTID)[51] Atlas V-401 Vandenberg Space Force Base Space Launch Complex 3 East (VSFB SLC-3E) $170.6[52]
2023.01[53][50] NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NI-SAR)+[54] Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mark II Satish Dhawan Space Centre
2023.11[50][55] Polarimeter to Unify the Corona and Heliosphere (PUNCH) Vehicle Unassigned
2023.12[50][56] Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) Falcon 9 Full Thrust Cape Canaveral Space Force Station $80.4[57]
2024.05[55] Tandem Reconnection and Cusp Electrodynamics Reconnaissance Satellites (TRACERS) Vehicle Unassigned
NET 2024.05[58] Lunar Gateway’s Habitation and Logistics Outpost (HALO) & Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) Falcon Heavy Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 (KSC LC-39A) $331.8[59]
2024.06[55][50] Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explore (SPHEREx) Falcon 9 Vandenberg Space Force Base Space Launch Complex 4 East (VSFB SLC-4E) $98.8[60]
2024[42] Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-U (GOES-U) Vehicle Unassigned (intermediate)
2023-2025[61][31] Europa Clipper Falcon Heavy Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 (KSC LC-39A) $178[62]
2025[63] Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) & 2 SmallSats (Global Lyman-alpha Imagers of the Dynamic Exosphere (GLIDE) & Solar Cruiser)[64] Falcon 9 Cape Canaveral Space Force Station Space Launch Complex 40 (CCSFS SLC-40) $109.4[65]
2025[66] Sentinel-6B Vehicle Unassigned
2026.06[50][67] Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope (formerly Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)) Vehicle Unassigned
2026[31] Dragonfly Vehicle Unassigned
TBD Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) Vehicle Unassigned
TBD On-orbit Servicing, Assembly, and Manufacturing 1 (OSAM-1) (formerly known as Restore-L)[68] Vehicle Unassigned
TBD[69] Europa Lander Vehicle Unassigned
2028-2030[70] Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography, and Spectroscopy (VERITAS) Vehicle Unassigned
2028-2030[70] Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble gases, Chemistry, and Imaging, Plus (DAVINCI+) Vehicle Unassigned
NET No Earlier Than (Tentative)
NLT No Later Than
(U/R) Under Review
+ LSP Advisory Mission
* The total cost for NASA to launch the mission includes the launch service, spacecraft processing, payload integration, tracking, data and telemetry, mission unique launch site ground support, and other launch support requirements. All costs listed are approximate. Some spacecraft were awarded as a group, which is why their cost is listed as 1 of a number of spacecraft. Unless the reference specifies otherwise, the value is at award (i.e. when the launch service contract is signed) and does not account for additional costs due to delays and other factors or any cost savings that may have occurred later.

To see latest, go to NASA Procurement's Latest Contract Releases


Launching Rockets

The engineers at NASA's Launch Services Program are rocket experts.[71] Below are some examples of jobs within LSP that NASA has written articles on.

  • Flight Design analysts work on the intended course, or trajectory, of the rocket.[72][73]
  • Telemetry engineers get tracking stations to cover all the mandatory portions of flight.[72][74][75] Analysts from many disciplines review this data post-flight.
  • Weather Forecasters Balance Experience with Technology
  • The Failure Analysis and Materials Evaluation Lab assists the program by examining failures and figuring out what went wrong [76]

The Launch Services Program operates Hangar AE on the Cape Canaveral Space Force Station. It is LSP's Launch Communications Center.[77] For Florida launches, many of the primary LSP engineers on console are in Hangar AE. For launches from California and other launch sites, many of support LSP engineers are on console there. Launch vehicle contractors and spacecraft engineers will often operate out of the Hangar also. It gathers telemetry for rocket launches beyond those worked by LSP.


Members of the Launch Services Program perform research relating to launching unmanned NASA spacecraft.[78] Research topics include (partial list):

Slosh Fluid Dynamics Experiments


SPHERES SLOSH hardware (photo credit: NASA)
SPHERES SLOSH hardware (photo credit: NASA)

SPHERES-Slosh Experiment will be performed on the SPHERES Testbed on the International Space Station. The experiment launched on the Cygnus capsule going to the ISS via Orbital Sciences Corporation Commercial Resupply Services Orb-1 mission on an Antares on 2014.01.09.[86][87][88][89] The Cygnus arrived at the ISS on 2014.01.12 and will spend five weeks unloading the cargo.[90]

The SPHERES-Slosh investigation uses small robotic satellites on the International Space Station to examine how liquids move around inside containers in microgravity. A water bottle's contents slosh around differently in space than on Earth, but the physics of liquid motion in microgravity are not well understood, which affects computer simulations of liquid rocket fuel behavior. LSP leads a team that includes Florida Institute of Technology[91][92][93] and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The research is sponsored by the Game Changing Development (GCD) program (within NASA Technology Demonstration Office (TDO)'s Space Technology Mission Directorate).[94] [95][96] [97][98] [99]

The experiment is a water tank with cameras and sensors that will be mounted between two SPHERES satellites inside the ISS. During testing, the SPHERES will move to purposely agitate the water and cause the fluid inside to slosh around, like it might in a rocket or spacecraft tank during flight. The data collected will be one of a kind. Three initial tests are expected to happen with the first couple months of launch.

"The current inability to accurately predict fuel and oxidizer behavior can result in unnecessary caution, requiring extra propellant to be added along with additional helium for tank pressurization. A better understanding of fluid slosh could not only decrease this uncertainty, but increase efficiency, reduce costs and allow additional payloads to be launched."[100] Understanding from this experiment could help improve design/operations of rocket tanks and control systems.

NASA's Brandon Marsell, co-principal investigator on the Slosh Project: "Modern computer models try to predict how liquid moves inside a propellant tank. Now that rockets are bigger and are going farther, we need more precise data. Most of the models we have were validated under 1 g conditions on Earth. None have been validated in the surface tension-dominated microgravity environment of space." (via Langley Research Center article[101])

Slosh is the first project on the ISS to use 3D printed materials for its experiment. NASA's Jacob Roth, project manager on the Slosh Project, on the first science session: "The results from our first checkout run are proving interesting. While not too unexpected, the bubble/liquid interaction behavior appears to be exhibiting a slightly different interaction than current models predict." The team will be altering the tests for the second session based on the preliminary results.[102]


The 2008-2010 slosh related tests on SPHERES were performed with a single SPHERES spacecraft and, in some cases, the addition of a battery pack Velcroed on to the SPHERES spacecraft. These tests were to better understand the physical properties of the SPHERES spacecraft, notably the mass properties, prior adding any tanks to the system.[103] Some of the tests also attempted to excite and then sense slosh within the SPHERES CO2 tank. Florida Tech designed the slosh experiments for Test Sessions 18/20/24/25.

Date Session Slosh-related Tests on the SPHERES ISS Testbed Report ISS Expedition Media
2008.09.27 13 P221 Tests 2 & 5: Fuel Slosh – Sat only & Batt Proof Mass [104] 17
2008.10.27 14 P236, Tests 7 & 8: Fluid Slosh, Rotate 2: Sat Only & Batt Proof Mass [105] 18
2009.07.11 16 P251, Test 2 Fluid Slosh - X Nutation & Test 3 Fluid Slosh - Rotation Rate High [106] 20
2009.08.15 18 P264, Tests A/2, B/3 Fluid Slosh - Z Motion Fluid Slosh (full tank/partially used tank) [107] 20
2009.12.05 20 P20A, Fluid Slosh Test 3/4: Z Reverse T1/T2, Test 5/6: Fluid Slosh Spin Z Forward/Reverse [108] 21
2010.10.07 24 P24A, Tests 4/5: Fluid Slosh: Lateral/Circular Motion [109] 25
2010.10.28 25 P311, Tests 2/3/5: Fluid Slosh: Z Translation/X Translation/X Rotation [110] 25
2014.01.22 54 Slosh Checkout (1st SPHERES-Slosh Test Session) 38 Expedition 38 Image Gallery[111][112][113]
2014.02.28 58 Slosh Science 1 (2nd SPHERES-Slosh Test Session) 38
2014.06.18 60 Slosh Science 2 (3rd SPHERES-Slosh Test Session) 40 Expedition 40 Image Gallery[114]
2015.07 Slosh Science 3 (4th SPHERES-Slosh Test Session) 44
2015.08.07 Slosh Science 4 (5th SPHERES-Slosh Test Session) 44 [115]
2015.09.10 77 Slosh Science 5 (6th SPHERES-Slosh Test Session) 45 [116]
2015.11.12[117] Slosh Science 6 (7th SPHERES-Slosh Test Session) 45

The Cryogenic Orbital Testbed (CRYOTE) is a collaboration between NASA and commercial companies to develop an orbital testbed that will demonstrate cryogenic fluid management technologies in space environments. "The testbed provides an in-space environment in which the fluid transfer, handling, and storage of liquid hydrogen (LH2) and/or liquid oxygen (LO2) can be demonstrated."[118][119][120]

The research is funded by the NASA Innovative Partnership Program (IPP) in the Office of the Chief Technologist. "The partners involved in the development of this system include United Launch Alliance (ULA), Sierra Lobo, Innovative Engineering Solutions (IES), Yetispace, and NASA Glenn Research Center, Kennedy Space Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center." [121]

Educational Outreach

Outreach Support to the Public

NASA's Launch Services Program Educational Outreach provides awareness to students, teachers and the public about NASA's exciting spacecraft missions and how the world benefits from them. Distance learning via video conference connects students to LSP experts[122]

The office also coordinates activities and educational booths at events for NASA and the public.[123][124][125][126] The outreach is performed by both members of the LSP Educational Outreach Office and LSP experts throughout the program.

The LSP Educational Outreach Office created the Rocket Science 101 Game. Students can pick a NASA mission, select the right rocket, and build a rocket to send the spacecraft into orbit. There are three different levels for varying ages and it is available for the computer and Apple/Android devices.[127]

CubeSat Launch Initiative & ELaNa

NASA and the Launch Services Program are partnering with several universities to launch small research satellites. These small satellites are called CubeSats. CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) provides opportunities for small satellite payloads to fly on rockets planned for upcoming launches. As of February 2015, CSLI has selected 119 spacecraft since 2010.[128]

Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa)[129] and is a part of CSLI. ELaNa manifests the CubeSats selected by CSLI onto upcoming rocket launches. CubeSats were first included on the launch of LSP missions in 2011. ELaNa missions are not manifested exclusively on LSP missions; they have been a part of NRO/military launches and ELaNa V will be on an International Space Station resupply launch. ELaNa mission numbers are based on the order they are manifested; due to the nature of launching, the actual launch order differs from the mission numbers.

In 2014, as a part of the White House Maker Initiative, CSLI announced its intention to launch 50 small satellites from 50 states within five years. As of July 2014, there were 21 "rookie states" that had not previously been selected by the CSLI[130]

In October 2015, NASA's LSP, with funding partnered by Earth Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate, "awarded multiple Venture Class Launch Services (VCLS) contracts to provide small satellites (SmallSats) -- also called CubeSats, microsats or nanosatellites -- access to low-Earth orbit." Three companies received $4–7 million firm fixed-price contracts. The intention of the VLCS contracts is to provide alternatives to the current rideshare-type approach for launch of small satellites.[131]

Launch history

ELaNa Launch History

Future missions[132]

Launch Date (GMT) Fact Sheet CubeSats Deployed Mission Vehicle Launch Site
ELaNa 29 1 LauncherOne Anderson Air Force Base, Guam
ELaNa 33 1 Cygnus NG-15 Antares/Cygnus Wallops Flight Facility (WFF)
ELaNa 36 10 SpaceX CRS-22 Falcon 9 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Space Launch Complex 40 (CCAFS SLC-40)
2021.09[33] ELaNa 34 2 Landsat-9 Atlas V-401 Vandenberg Air Force Base Space Launch Complex 3 East (VAFB SLC-3E)

Community Involvement

These two high school STEM teams are sponsored and mentored by NASA's Launch Services Program.

FIRST Robotics: Team 1592 - Bionic Tigers

FIRST Robotics Competition Team 1592 (the Bionic Tigers) is out of Cocoa High School (CHS) and Holy Trinity Episcopal Academy. The founding mentors of the team were Analex contractors working for LSP; the team has had NASA LSP engineering mentors ever since 2006.[133]

Merritt Island High School StangSat

Merritt Island High School, in partnership with California Polytechnic State University, has a team building a CubeSat as part of Kennedy Space Center's Creating Understanding and Broadening Education through Satellite (CUBES) pilot project.[134] The team's StangSat was accepted by the CubeSat Launch Initiative[135] and launched 25 June 2019 as part of ELaNa XV, via the Space Test Program, on a SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket.[136]

The satellite, named StangSat after the school's Mustang mascot, will collect data on the amount of shock and vibration experienced by payloads while in orbit.,[137]

On June 15, 2013, the team launched an engineering unit of StangSat on the Prospector-18 rocket;[138] the suborbital flight took off from the Friends of Amateur Rocketry site in California's Mojave Desert.[139] The other satellites on board were Rocket University Broad Initiatives CubeSat, or RUBICS-1 (KSC); PhoneSat (ARC); and CP-9 (CalPoly). Though the parachute deployed early, resulting in a hard landing, all four satellites were able to collect usable data.[140]

The team will be only the second high school to launch a satellite into orbit, after Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology's TJ3Sat in November 2013 (another ELaNa mission).[141]

Social media

NASA's Launch Services Program has social media accounts on Facebook[142] and Twitter.[143] In addition to maintaining a YouTube playlist specifically for LSP on its channel,[144] NASA's Kennedy Space Center social media accounts frequently post LSP news.[145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150] [151] NASA has compiled a page will all its flagship social media accounts across many different platforms.[152] The spacecraft section of this page has accounts for many of the spacecraft launched by NASA LSP.[153]

NASA Public Affairs posts pictures and videos of NASA LSP spacecraft and rockets as they go through processing and launch.[154] [155] A launch blog is also stood up for each launch campaign and is always updated on launch day by Kennedy Space Center Public Affairs.[156]

Since NASA Socials were started in 2009, NASA LSP has participated in many for the launch of its missions: Juno, GRAIL, NPP, MSL, KSC 50th/MSL Landing, RBSP, MAVEN and more.[157] NASA Socials allow social media followers to receive VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers. The participants post about their experiences with NASA, performing outreach to their networks. NASA LSP has provided speakers for these events, along with tour guides and other support. NASA Socials were formerly known as Tweetups.[158]

NASA has created many apps, some of which feature NASA LSP and its spacecraft.[159][160] One popular app is Spacecraft 3D, which features several spacecraft launched by LSP. Developed by JPL, the app allows uses to take 3D tours of many JPL spacecraft using a printed piece of paper and their phone or tablet. Users can rotate and zoom in on the spacecraft, along with deploying movable parts of the spacecraft such as solar arrays, masts, and booms. By deploying and retracting these parts, a user can get a sense of how the spacecraft goes from the launch configuration on top of the rocket to operation configuration when it's collecting scientific data.[161][162]


LSP management, business office, and most engineers work in the Operations and Checkout Building at Kennedy Space Center.[163] Engineers involved with telemetry work at Hangar AE, which is across the Banana River on Cape Canaveral Space Force Station.

LSP also maintains resident offices at:

See also


  1. ^ Pline, Alex (30 April 2015). "Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  2. ^ "NASA's Launch Services Program NASA Facts" (PDF). NASA. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 17, 2011. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
  3. ^ "LSP Brochure" (PDF). NASA's Launch Services Program. 2012.
  4. ^ "LSP Poster" (PDF). NASA's Launch Services Program. 2012.
  5. ^ "NASA Awards Launch Services Contracts". NASA News Release. September 16, 2010.
  6. ^ "V--NASA LAUNCH SERVICES II 2015 ON-RAMP". Federal Business Opportunities. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  7. ^ "NASA Awards Launch Services Contracts". NASA News Release. June 26, 2012.
  8. ^ Potter, Sean (15 April 2021). "NASA Adds Vulcan Centaur Launch Services to Launch Services Contract". Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  9. ^ Wiles, Jennifer (1 July 2013). "Launch Services Policies". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  10. ^ "Performance Website - Home". Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  11. ^ a b "NASA Launch Vehicle Certification Requirements Matrix" (PDF).
  12. ^ "NPR 8705.4 - AppendixB". Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  13. ^ "Launch Services Program (LSP) Advisory Services Plan" (PDF). NASA. July 29, 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  14. ^ "Air Force Space Command". U.S. Air Force. July 11, 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  15. ^ "Launch Center". Vandenberg Air Force Base. US Air Force. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  16. ^ "Delta II launch scheduled". Air Force Space Command. U.S. Air Force. October 7, 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  17. ^ "45th Space Wing Supports Successful NASA Launch". Air Force Space Command. 45th Space Wing Public Affairs. 2014-01-24. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
  18. ^ Winters, Kathy (29 September 2015). "45th Weather Squadron Space Weather Support to Launch" (PDF). NASA Goddard Space Weather Research Center. NASA & Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
  19. ^ "Go for launch: Airmen forecast weather for space missions". U.S. Air Force. March 22, 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  20. ^ "Weather balloons and rocket science". U.S. Air Force. February 26, 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  21. ^ Steve Bauer (5 November 2009). "Team V's MFCOs know how to "Track 'Em or Crack 'Em!"". Air Force Space Command. 30th Space Wing Public Affairs. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
  22. ^ "Limited access ensures launch safety". U.S. Air Force. April 15, 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  23. ^ "Highway to space". January 15, 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  24. ^ "Achieving the Proper Balance Between Crew & Public Safety" (PDF). FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation. October 17, 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  25. ^ "Atlas V Launch Weather Criteria (FS-2013-01-010-KSC)" (PDF). Kennedy Space Center Fact Sheets. NASA. 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  26. ^ "Falcon 9 Launch Weather Criteria" (PDF). NASA. 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  27. ^ "Delta II Launch Weather Criteria (FS-2012-03-062-KSC)" (PDF). Kennedy Space Center Fact Sheets. NASA. 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  28. ^ "Space Shuttle Weather Launch Commit Criteria and KSC End of Mission Weather Landing Criteria" (PDF). Kennedy Space Center Fact Sheets. NASA. 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  29. ^ "Challenges of Getting to Mars: Weather Dangers and Delays". Mars Videos. NASA JPL. May 24, 2002. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  30. ^ "Upcoming ELaNa CubeSat Launches". NASA. 22 March 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  31. ^ a b c d e "Upcoming Planetary Events and Missions". NASA GSFC. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  32. ^ "NASA Awards Contract to Launch CubeSat to Moon from Virginia". NASA. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  33. ^ a b "Landsat 9". NASA. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  34. ^ "NASA Awards Launch Services Contract for Landsat 9 Mission". NASA. Oct 19, 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
  35. ^ "NASA Awards Launch Services Contract for Lucy Mission". NASA Kennedy Press Releases. NASA. January 31, 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  36. ^ "NASA Launch Schedule". Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  37. ^ "Webb Vital Facts". James Webb Space Telescope. NASA GSFC. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
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External links

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