To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

NASA Launch Services Program

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

NASA Launch Services Program
Agency overview
JurisdictionUnited States federal government
HeadquartersKennedy Space Center, FL
Annual budgetUS$102 million (FY 2022)
Parent departmentSpace Operations Mission Directorate
Parent agencyNational Aeronautics and Space Administration
WebsiteLaunch Services Program

The NASA Launch Services Program (LSP) is responsible for procurement of launch services for NASA uncrewed missions and oversight of launch integration and launch preparation activity, providing added quality and mission assurance to meet program objectives.[1] LSP operates under the NASA Space Operations Mission Directorate (SOMD).[2]

Since 1990, NASA has purchased expendable launch vehicle launch services directly from commercial providers, whenever possible, for its scientific and applications missions. Expendable launch vehicles can accommodate all types of orbit inclinations and altitudes and are ideal vehicles for launching Earth-orbit and interplanetary missions. The Launch Services Program was established at Kennedy Space Center for NASA's acquisition and program management of expendable launch vehicle missions. A NASA/contractor team is in place to meet the mission of the Launch Services Program, which exists to provide leadership, expertise and cost-effective services in the commercial arena to satisfy Agency wide space transportation requirements and maximize the opportunity for mission success.[3]

Primary launch sites are Cape Canaveral Space Force Station (CCSFS) in Florida, and Vandenberg Space Force Base (VSFB) in California. Other launch locations are NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, Reagan Test Site at Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and Kodiak Launch Complex in Alaska.


The launch history of NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP) since the program formed in 1998 at Kennedy Space Center. The launch of NASA robotic missions occurred from a number of launch sites on a variety of rockets. After the list of launches are descriptions of select historic LSP missions.[4][5]


NASA Launch Services II

The LSP acquires space launch services using the NASA Launch Services (NLS) II Contract.[6] Once a year, launch services contractors can be added to or offloaded from contract.[7] The following contractors are attached to the NLS II Contract.

Venture-Class Acquisition of Dedicated and Rideshare missions

In January 2022, NASA awarded contracts to 12 launch services contractors to support Venture-Class Acquisition of Dedicated and Rideshare (VADR) missions.[11][12] The contractors selected are:

Partnered with spacecraft customers

The LSP works with U.S. Government spacecraft program offices to define launch requirements for their programs and then engage with launch services contractors to deliver a compatible solution. LSP has relationships with various agencies and organizations:

Collaboration with U.S. Space Force

LSP also works with the United States Space Force (USSF),[13] via coordination by the launch services contractors. For launches at Cape Canaveral Space Force Station (CCSFS) and Vandenberg Space Force Base (VSFB), the Space Launch Delta 45 and Space Launch Delta 30[14] commanders, respectively, are the Launch Decision Authority.[15]

For launches from CCSFS, guardians, Space Force civilians and contractors from throughout Space Launch Delta 45 provided vital support, including weather forecasts, launch and range operations, security, safety, medical and public affairs. The wing also provided its vast network of radar, telemetry, and communications instrumentation to facilitate a safe launch on the Eastern Range.[16][17][18][19] Among work done by the Space Force is Mission Flight Control, which ensures public safety during launch.[20][21][22][23]

Operating locations

The LSP management, business office, and engineering teams support from the Operations and Checkout Building at Kennedy Space Center.[24] The Launch Services Program operates Hangar AE on the Cape Canaveral Space Force Station. It is LSP's Launch Communications Center.[25] For Florida launches, many of the primary LSP engineers on console are in Hangar AE. For launches from California and other launch sites, many of support LSP engineers are on console there. Launch services contractors and spacecraft engineers will often operate out of the Hangar also. It gathers telemetry for rocket launches beyond those worked by LSP.

LSP also maintains resident offices at:

Mission risk posture and launch services selection

NASA has specific policies governing launch services.[26] NASA uses a certification system for rockets launched by its contractors, and for validation purposes it requires the certification process to be "instrumented to provide design verification and flight performance data", with post-flight operations, anomaly resolution process, and a flight margin verification process, with 80% predicted design reliability at 95% confidence.[27]

Launch vehicle risk category Vehicle maturity Payload class[28] Flight experience[27]
Cat 1 (High Risk) No flight history D
  • No previous flights required
Cat 2 (Medium Risk) Limited flight history C and D, sometimes B
  • 1 successful flight of a common launch vehicle configuration, or:
  • 3 consecutive successful flights of a common launch vehicle configuration from an evolved vehicle family developed by an LSC with a previously certified launch vehicle for Risk Category 2 or 3
Cat 3 (Low Risk) Significant flight history A, B, C, D
  • 14 consecutive successful flights (95% demonstrated reliability at 50% confidence) of a common launch vehicle configuration, or:
  • 6 successful flights (minimum 3 consecutive) of a common launch vehicle configuration from an evolved vehicle family developed by an LSC with a previously certified launch vehicle for Risk Category 3, or:
  • 3 consecutive successful flights of a common launch vehicle configuration from an evolved vehicle family developed by an LSC with a previously certified launch vehicle for Risk Category 3

Additional advisory services

In addition to providing end-to-end launch services, LSP also offers Advisory Services.[29] This "is a consulting service to government and commercial organizations, providing mission management, overall systems engineering and/or specific discipline expertise; e.g. mission assurance, flight design, systems safety, etc., as requested." By example, the LSP Flight Design team provides general information regarding the launch vehicle performance available via existing NASA contracts.[30] This non-traditional service allows LSP to "expand its customer base and assist these customers in maximizing their mission success by using NASA LSP's unique expertise." The four general categories of advisory services are:

  • SMART (Supplemental Mission Advisory and Risk Team)
  • Design and Development
  • Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V)
  • Independent Review Teams (IRT)
  • Spacecraft naming

Upcoming launches

The schedule below includes only Launch Services Program (LSP) primary and advisory missions. The NASA Launch Schedule has the most up to date public schedule of all NASA launches. The NASA Kennedy News Releases will also have updates on LSP launches and mission accomplishments. Additional NASA pages which mention future launch dates are the Launch Services Education Program, NASA Goddard's Explorers Program, and NASA Goddard's Upcoming Planetary Events and Missions.[31]

The ELaNa Launch Schedule[32] has the upcoming schedule of CubeSat missions, which occur on both NASA and non-NASA launches.

Scheduled Launch Date Mission Vehicle Launch Site Total Launch Cost* (million)
NET 2023.05 Time-Resolved Observations of Precipitation structure and storm Intensity with a Constellation of Smallsats (TROPICS-2) Rocket Lab rocket VADR award[33]
NET 2023.05 Time-Resolved Observations of Precipitation structure and storm Intensity with a Constellation of Smallsats (TROPICS-3) Rocket Lab rocket VADR award[33]
NET 2023.09 Psyche Falcon Heavy Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 (KSC LC-39A) $117[34]
2024[35][36] NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NI-SAR)+[37] Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mark II Satish Dhawan Space Centre
2023.10[36][38] Polarimeter to Unify the Corona and Heliosphere (PUNCH) Vehicle Unassigned
2024.1[36][39] Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) Falcon 9 Cape Canaveral Space Force Station $80.4[40]
2024.04.30 Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-U (GOES-U) Falcon Heavy Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 (KSC LC-39A) $152.5[41]
2023.10[38] Tandem Reconnection and Cusp Electrodynamics Reconnaissance Satellites (TRACERS) Vehicle Unassigned
NET 2024.11[42] Lunar Gateway’s Habitation and Logistics Outpost (HALO) & Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) Falcon Heavy Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 (KSC LC-39A) $331.8[43]
2024.06.17[38][36] Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explore (SPHEREx) Falcon 9 Vandenberg Space Force Base Space Launch Complex 4 East (VSFB SLC-4E) $98.8[44]
2024.10.10[45][31] Europa Clipper Falcon Heavy Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 (KSC LC-39A) $178[46]
2025.2.1[47] Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) & 2 SmallSats (Global Lyman-alpha Imagers of the Dynamic Exosphere (GLIDE) & Solar Cruiser)[48] Falcon 9 Cape Canaveral Space Force Station Space Launch Complex 40 (CCSFS SLC-40) $109.4[49]
2025.11[50] Sentinel-6B Falcon 9 Vandenberg Space Force Base Space Launch Complex 4 East (VSFB SLC-4E) $94[51]
2026.06[36][52] Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope (formerly Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)) Falcon Heavy
2026[31] Dragonfly Vehicle Unassigned
TBD Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) Vehicle Unassigned
TBD On-orbit Servicing, Assembly, and Manufacturing 1 (OSAM-1) (formerly known as Restore-L)[53] Vehicle Unassigned
2027[54] Europa Lander Vehicle Unassigned
2028-2029[31] Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography, and Spectroscopy (VERITAS) Vehicle Unassigned
2029-2030[31] Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble gases, Chemistry, and Imaging, Plus (DAVINCI+) Vehicle Unassigned
TBD Multi-slit Solar Explorer (MUSE)[55] Vehicle Unassigned
TBD HelioSwarm [55] Vehicle Unassigned
NET No Earlier Than (Tentative)
NLT No Later Than
(U/R) Under Review
+ LSP Advisory Mission
* The total cost for NASA to launch the mission includes the launch service, spacecraft processing, payload integration, tracking, data and telemetry, mission unique launch site ground support, and other launch support requirements. All costs listed are approximate. Some spacecraft were awarded as a group, which is why their cost is listed as 1 of a number of spacecraft. Unless the reference specifies otherwise, the value is at award (i.e. when the launch service contract is signed) and does not account for additional costs due to delays and other factors or any cost savings that may have occurred later.

To see latest, go to NASA Procurement's Latest Contract Releases


Technical subject matter expertise

The Launch Services Program team also performs research relating to launching uncrewed NASA spacecraft.[56] Research and technical analysis topics include:

Slosh fluid dynamics experiments

SPHERES SLOSH hardware (photo credit: NASA)
SPHERES SLOSH hardware (photo credit: NASA)

SPHERES-Slosh will be performed on the SPHERES Testbed on the International Space Station. The experiment launched on the Cygnus capsule going to the ISS via Orbital Sciences Corporation Commercial Resupply Services Orb-1 mission on an Antares on 2014.01.09.[69][70][71][72] The Cygnus arrived at the ISS on 2014.01.12 and will spend five weeks unloading the cargo.[73]

The SPHERES-Slosh investigation uses small robotic satellites on the International Space Station to examine how liquids move around inside containers in microgravity. A water bottle's contents slosh around differently in space than on Earth, but the physics of liquid motion in microgravity are not well understood, which affects computer simulations of liquid rocket fuel behavior. LSP leads a team that includes Florida Institute of Technology[74][75][76] and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The research is sponsored by the Game Changing Development (GCD) program (within NASA Technology Demonstration Office (TDO)'s Space Technology Mission Directorate).[77] [78][79] [80][81] [82]

The experiment is a water tank with cameras and sensors that will be mounted between two SPHERES satellites inside the ISS. During testing, the SPHERES will move to purposely agitate the water and cause the fluid inside to slosh around, like it might in a rocket or spacecraft tank during flight. The data collected will be one of a kind. Three initial tests are expected to happen with the first couple months of launch.

"The current inability to accurately predict fuel and oxidizer behavior can result in unnecessary caution, requiring extra propellant to be added along with additional helium for tank pressurization. A better understanding of fluid slosh could not only decrease this uncertainty, but increase efficiency, reduce costs and allow additional payloads to be launched."[83] Understanding from this experiment could help improve design/operations of rocket tanks and control systems.

NASA's Brandon Marsell, co-principal investigator on the Slosh Project: "Modern computer models try to predict how liquid moves inside a propellant tank. Now that rockets are bigger and are going farther, we need more precise data. Most of the models we have were validated under 1 g conditions on Earth. None have been validated in the surface tension-dominated microgravity environment of space." (via Langley Research Center article[84])

Slosh is the first project on the ISS to use 3D printed materials for its experiment. NASA's Jacob Roth, project manager on the Slosh Project, on the first science session: "The results from our first checkout run are proving interesting. While not too unexpected, the bubble/liquid interaction behavior appears to be exhibiting a slightly different interaction than current models predict." The team will be altering the tests for the second session based on the preliminary results.[85]


The 2008-2010 slosh related tests on SPHERES were performed with a single SPHERES spacecraft and, in some cases, the addition of a battery pack Velcroed on to the SPHERES spacecraft. These tests were to better understand the physical properties of the SPHERES spacecraft, notably the mass properties, prior adding any tanks to the system.[86] Some of the tests also attempted to excite and then sense slosh within the SPHERES CO2 tank. Florida Tech designed the slosh experiments for Test Sessions 18/20/24/25.

Date Session Slosh-related Tests on the SPHERES ISS Testbed Report ISS Expedition Media
2008.09.27 13 P221 Tests 2 & 5: Fuel Slosh – Sat only & Batt Proof Mass [87] 17
2008.10.27 14 P236, Tests 7 & 8: Fluid Slosh, Rotate 2: Sat Only & Batt Proof Mass [88] 18
2009.07.11 16 P251, Test 2 Fluid Slosh - X Nutation & Test 3 Fluid Slosh - Rotation Rate High [89] 20
2009.08.15 18 P264, Tests A/2, B/3 Fluid Slosh - Z Motion Fluid Slosh (full tank/partially used tank) [90] 20
2009.12.05 20 P20A, Fluid Slosh Test 3/4: Z Reverse T1/T2, Test 5/6: Fluid Slosh Spin Z Forward/Reverse [91] 21
2010.10.07 24 P24A, Tests 4/5: Fluid Slosh: Lateral/Circular Motion [92] 25
2010.10.28 25 P311, Tests 2/3/5: Fluid Slosh: Z Translation/X Translation/X Rotation [93] 25
2014.01.22 54 Slosh Checkout (1st SPHERES-Slosh Test Session) 38 Expedition 38 Image Gallery[94][95][96]
2014.02.28 58 Slosh Science 1 (2nd SPHERES-Slosh Test Session) 38
2014.06.18 60 Slosh Science 2 (3rd SPHERES-Slosh Test Session) 40 Expedition 40 Image Gallery[97]
2015.07 Slosh Science 3 (4th SPHERES-Slosh Test Session) 44
2015.08.07 Slosh Science 4 (5th SPHERES-Slosh Test Session) 44 [98]
2015.09.10 77 Slosh Science 5 (6th SPHERES-Slosh Test Session) 45 [99]
2015.11.12[100] Slosh Science 6 (7th SPHERES-Slosh Test Session) 45

Cryogenic orbital testbed

The Cryogenic Orbital Testbed (CRYOTE) is a collaboration between NASA and commercial companies to develop an orbital testbed that will demonstrate cryogenic fluid management technologies in space environments. "The testbed provides an in-space environment in which the fluid transfer, handling, and storage of liquid hydrogen (LH2) and/or liquid oxygen (LO2) can be demonstrated."[101][102][103]

The research is funded by the NASA Innovative Partnership Program (IPP) in the Office of the Chief Technologist. "The partners involved in the development of this system include United Launch Alliance (ULA), Sierra Lobo, Innovative Engineering Solutions (IES), Yetispace, and NASA Glenn Research Center, Kennedy Space Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center."[104]


Educational outreach

NASA's Launch Services Program Educational Outreach provides awareness to students, teachers and the public about NASA's exciting spacecraft missions and how the world benefits from them. Distance learning via video conference connects students to LSP experts[105]

The office also coordinates activities and educational booths at events for NASA and the public.[106][107][108][109] The outreach is performed by both members of the LSP Educational Outreach Office and LSP experts throughout the program.

The LSP Educational Outreach Office created the Rocket Science 101 Game. Students can pick a NASA mission, select the right rocket, and build a rocket to send the spacecraft into orbit. There are three different levels for varying ages and it is available for the computer and Apple/Android devices.[110]

CubeSat Launch Initiative and Educational Launch of Nanosatellites

NASA and the Launch Services Program are partnering with several universities to launch small research satellites. These small satellites are called CubeSats. The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) provides opportunities for small satellite payloads to fly on rockets planned for upcoming launches. As of February 2015, CSLI has selected 119 spacecraft since 2010.[111]

The Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa)[112] program is a part of CSLI. ELaNa manifests the CubeSats selected by CSLI onto upcoming rocket launches. CubeSats were first included on the launch of LSP missions in 2011. ELaNa missions are not manifested exclusively on LSP missions; they have been a part of NRO/military launches and ELaNa V will be on an International Space Station resupply launch. ELaNa mission numbers are based on the order they are manifested; due to the nature of launching, the actual launch order differs from the mission numbers.

In 2014, as a part of the White House Maker Initiative, CSLI announced its intention to launch 50 small satellites from 50 states within five years. As of July 2014, there were 21 "rookie states" that had not previously been selected by the CSLI[113]

In October 2015, NASA's LSP, with funding partnered by Earth Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate, "awarded multiple Venture Class Launch Services (VCLS) contracts to provide small satellites (SmallSats) -- also called CubeSats, microsats or nanosatellites -- access to low-Earth orbit." Three companies received $4–7 million firm fixed-price contracts. The intention of the VCLS contracts is to provide alternatives to the current rideshare-type approach for launch of small satellites.[114]

Community Involvement

STEM teams are sponsored and mentored by NASA's Launch Services Program.

FIRST Robotics: Team 1592 - Bionic Tigers

FIRST Robotics Competition Team 1592 (the Bionic Tigers) is out of Cocoa High School (CHS) and Holy Trinity Episcopal Academy. The founding mentors of the team were Analex contractors working for LSP; the team has had NASA LSP engineering mentors ever since 2006.[115]

Merritt Island High School StangSat

Merritt Island High School, in partnership with California Polytechnic State University, has a team building a CubeSat as part of Kennedy Space Center's Creating Understanding and Broadening Education through Satellite (CUBES) pilot project.[116] The team's StangSat was accepted by the CubeSat Launch Initiative[117] and launched 25 June 2019 as part of ELaNa XV, via the Space Test Program, on a SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket.[118]

The satellite, named StangSat after the school's Mustang mascot, will collect data on the amount of shock and vibration experienced by payloads while in orbit.,[119]

On June 15, 2013, the team launched an engineering unit of StangSat on the Prospector-18 rocket;[120] the suborbital flight took off from the Friends of Amateur Rocketry site in California's Mojave Desert.[121] The other satellites on board were Rocket University Broad Initiatives CubeSat, or RUBICS-1 (KSC); PhoneSat (ARC); and CP-9 (CalPoly). Though the parachute deployed early, resulting in a hard landing, all four satellites were able to collect usable data.[122]

The team will be only the second high school to launch a satellite into orbit, after Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology's TJ3Sat in November 2013 (another ELaNa mission).[123]

Social media

NASA's Launch Services Program maintains social media accounts on Facebook[124] and Twitter.[125] NASA Kennedy Space Center social media accounts frequently post news involving LSP activities.[126] [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] NASA has compiled a page will all its flagship social media accounts across many different platforms.[133] The spacecraft section of this page has accounts for many of the spacecraft launched by NASA LSP.[134]

NASA Public Affairs posts pictures and videos of NASA LSP spacecraft and rockets as they go through processing and launch.[135] [136] A launch blog is also stood up for each launch campaign and is always updated on launch day by Kennedy Space Center Public Affairs.[137]

Since NASA Socials were started in 2009, NASA LSP has participated in many for the launch of its missions: Juno, GRAIL, NPP, MSL, KSC 50th/MSL Landing, RBSP, MAVEN and more.[138] NASA Socials allow social media followers to receive VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers. The participants post about their experiences with NASA, performing outreach to their networks. NASA LSP has provided speakers for these events, along with tour guides and other support. NASA Socials were formerly known as Tweetups.[139]

NASA has created many apps, some of which feature NASA LSP and its spacecraft.[140][141] One popular app is Spacecraft 3D, which features several spacecraft launched by LSP. Developed by JPL, the app allows uses to take 3D tours of many JPL spacecraft using a printed piece of paper and their phone or tablet. Users can rotate and zoom in on the spacecraft, along with deploying movable parts of the spacecraft such as solar arrays, masts, and booms. By deploying and retracting these parts, a user can get a sense of how the spacecraft goes from the launch configuration on top of the rocket to operation configuration when it's collecting scientific data.[142][143]

See also


  1. ^ "LSP Overview". Retrieved September 9, 2022.
  2. ^ "Space Operations Mission Directorate". Retrieved September 9, 2022.
  3. ^ "NASA's Launch Services Program NASA Facts" (PDF). NASA. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 17, 2011. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
  4. ^ "NASA's Launch Services Program NASA Facts" (PDF). NASA. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 17, 2011. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
  5. ^ "LSP Brochure" (PDF). NASA's Launch Services Program. 2012.
  6. ^ "NASA Awards Launch Services Contracts". NASA News Release. September 16, 2010.
  7. ^ "V--NASA Launch Services II 2015 On-Ramp". Federal Business Opportunities. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  8. ^ "NASA Awards Launch Services Contracts". NASA News Release. June 26, 2012.
  9. ^ Potter, Sean (15 April 2021). "NASA Adds Vulcan Centaur Launch Services to Launch Services Contract". Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  10. ^ Foust, Jeff (December 17, 2020). "Blue Origin's New Glenn added to NASA launch contract". Space News. Retrieved September 9, 2022.
  11. ^ "12 Companies to Provide Venture Class Launch Services for NASA". prnewswire. January 26, 2022. Retrieved September 9, 2022.
  12. ^ Foust, Jeff (January 27, 2022). "NASA selects a dozen companies for smallsat launch services". Space News. Retrieved September 9, 2022.
  13. ^ "Air Force Space Command". U.S. Air Force. July 11, 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  14. ^ "Launch Center". Vandenberg Air Force Base. US Air Force. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  15. ^ "Delta II launch scheduled". Air Force Space Command. U.S. Air Force. October 7, 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  16. ^ "45th Space Wing Supports Successful NASA Launch". Air Force Space Command. 45th Space Wing Public Affairs. 2014-01-24. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
  17. ^ Winters, Kathy (29 September 2015). "45th Weather Squadron Space Weather Support to Launch" (PDF). NASA Goddard Space Weather Research Center. NASA & Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
  18. ^ "Go for launch: Airmen forecast weather for space missions". U.S. Air Force. March 22, 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  19. ^ "Weather balloons and rocket science". U.S. Air Force. February 26, 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  20. ^ Steve Bauer (5 November 2009). "Team V's MFCOs know how to "Track 'Em or Crack 'Em!"". Air Force Space Command. 30th Space Wing Public Affairs. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
  21. ^ "Limited access ensures launch safety". U.S. Air Force. April 15, 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  22. ^ "Highway to space". January 15, 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  23. ^ "Achieving the Proper Balance Between Crew & Public Safety" (PDF). FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation. October 17, 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  24. ^ "Hangar AE (FS-2014-05-117-KSC)" (PDF). Kennedy Space Center Fact Sheets. NASA. 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  25. ^ "LSP Hangar AE & B836 Capabilities". LSP's Launch Communications Center. NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
  26. ^ Wiles, Jennifer (1 July 2013). "Launch Services Policies". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  27. ^ a b "NASA Launch Vehicle Certification Requirements Matrix" (PDF).
  28. ^ "NPR: Risk Classification for NASA Payloads" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved November 22, 2022.
  29. ^ "Launch Services Program (LSP) Advisory Services Plan" (PDF). NASA. July 29, 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  30. ^ "Performance Website - Home". Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  31. ^ a b c d e "Upcoming Planetary Events and Missions". NASA GSFC. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  32. ^ "Upcoming ELaNa CubeSat Launches". NASA. 22 March 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  33. ^ a b "NASA Awards Launch Service Contract for TROPICS Mission to Study Storm Processes". NASA. 23 November 2022. Retrieved 20 December 2022.
  34. ^ "NASA Awards Launch Services Contract for the Psyche Mission". NASA. 28 February 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  35. ^ "Mission: NISAR". Climate Kids. NASA JPL. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  36. ^ a b c d e "Final Memorandum, COVID-19 Impacts on NASA's Major Programs and Projects (IG-21-016; A-20-010-00)" (PDF). Office of Audits. NASA OIG. 31 March 2021. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  37. ^ "NASA-ISRO SAR Mission (NISAR)". NASA JPL. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  38. ^ a b c "The Explorers Program". NASA GSFC. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  39. ^ "NASA Ocean Ecosystem Mission Preparing to Make Waves". NASA. 4 June 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  40. ^ "NASA Awards Launch Services Contract for Earth Science Mission". NASA. 4 February 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  41. ^ Margetta, Robert (2021-09-10). "NASA Awards Launch Services Contract for GOES-U Mission". NASA. Retrieved 2021-09-23.
  42. ^ "NASA Awards Northrop Grumman Artemis Contract for Gateway Crew Cabin". NASA. 5 June 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  43. ^ "NASA Awards Contract to Launch Initial Elements for Lunar Outpost". NASA. 9 February 2021. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  44. ^ "NASA Awards Launch Services Contract for SPHEREx Astrophysics Mission". NASA. 5 February 2021.
  45. ^ "Mission to Europa – Europa Clipper". NASA JPL. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  46. ^ "NASA Awards Launch Services Contract for Europa Clipper Mission". NASA. 23 July 2021. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  47. ^ "NASA Adjusts IMAP Schedule to Accommodate COVID-19 Precautions". NASA. 11 December 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  48. ^ "NASA Selects Heliophysics Missions of Opportunity for Space Science Research and Technology Demonstration". NASA. 3 December 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  49. ^ "NASA Awards Launch Services Contract for IMAP Mission". NASA. 25 September 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  50. ^ "Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich Satellite Prepared for Launch". NASA. 19 November 2020. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  51. ^ "NASA Awards Launch Services Contract for Sentinel-6B Mission". NASA. 20 December 2022. Retrieved 20 December 2022.
  52. ^ "The Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope". Mission to Exoplanets, Galaxies, and the Universe. NASA JPL. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  53. ^ "On-orbit Servicing, Assembly, and Manufacturing 1". NASA’s Exploration & In-space Services. NASA. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  54. ^ "Europa Lander". Mission to Europa. NASA JPL. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  55. ^ a b Fox, Karen (10 February 2022). "New Sun Missions to Help NASA Better Understand Earth-Sun Environment". NASA. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
  56. ^ Launch Services Program on NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
  57. ^ a b Steven Siceloff (21 March 2012). "Launches Test Flight Design Teams". NASA. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  58. ^ Heiney, Anna. "NASA - Aiming for an Open Window". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  59. ^ Heiney, Anna. "NASA - Remote Launch Locations Challenge Telemetry and Communications Group". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  60. ^ Heiney, Anna (Aug 4, 2017). "Engineers' Telemetry Fix Preserves TDRS-L Launch". NASA. NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
  61. ^ Siceloff, Steven. "NASA - CSI: NASA". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  62. ^ A Geometric Analysis to Protect Manned Assets from Newly Launched Objects - Cola Gap Analysis NASA
  63. ^ Brian Beaver (March 2015). "Recommended Screening Practices for Launch Collision Avoidance" (PDF). NASA Technical Reports Server. NASA. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  64. ^ Assessing Upper-level Winds on Day-of-Launch (by NASA Applied Meteorology Unit)
  65. ^ Betz, Laura (February 26, 2013). "Launching 101: First Weather Balloons, Then Rockets". NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  66. ^ Anna Heiney (March 27, 2014). "Work Begins to Upgrade Doppler Radar Wind Profiler". NASA Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  67. ^ "Development of Wind Pair Databases at Kennedy Space Center, Vandenberg Air Force Base and Wallops Flight Facility" (PDF). NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama. November 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  68. ^ Launch Services Program + Liquid Sloshing on NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
  69. ^ Station Crew Supports Science, Preps for Cargo Ship Capture NASA, 9 December 2013
  70. ^ Roberts, Jason (30 March 2015). "Orbital ATK Commercial Resupply Launch". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  71. ^ Laura Niles (January 6, 2014). "New Science Bound for Station on Orbital's Cygnus". NASA Johnson Space Center. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  72. ^ "ISS Commercial Resupply Services Mission (Orb-1)". Orbital Sciences Corporation. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
  73. ^ "Cygnus Arrives at Station on Orbital-1 Mission". NASA Space Station. January 12, 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  74. ^ "Low-Gravity Fluid Dynamics Research on the International Space Station | Florida Institute of Technology". Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  75. ^ "Low-Gravity Fluid Dynamics Research on the International Space Station". Florida Institute of Technology. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  76. ^ "Faculty-Student Experiment Flies to ISS Jan. 9". Florida Tech Now. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  77. ^ LeVasseur, Darryl (22 September 2013). "Slosh -Microgravity Fluid Slosh". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  78. ^ Schallhorn, Paul Acquisition of Long-Duration, Low-Gravity Slosh Data Utilizing Existing ISS Equipment (SPHERES) for Calibration of CFD Models of Coupled Fluid-Vehicle Behavior NASA Launch Services Program
  79. ^ Chintalapati, Sunil; Charles A. Holicker; Richard E. Schulman; Brian D. Wise; Gabriel D. Lapilli; Hector M. Gutierrez; Daniel R. Kirk (July 2013). "Update on SPHERES Slosh for Acquisition of Liquid Slosh Data aboard the ISS". American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. 49th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. doi:10.2514/6.2013-3903. ISBN 978-1-62410-222-6.
  80. ^ "Space Technology: Game Changing Development - ISS Fluid Slosh". NASA. Archived from the original on 26 January 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  81. ^ "The Strange Way Fluids Slosh on the International Space Station". NASA Langley Research Center. 30 January 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  82. ^ de Luis, Javier The SPHERES ISS Microgravity Testbed as a testbed for AR&D and servicing (Presentation) NASA
  83. ^ Bob Granath (December 16, 2013). "Slosh Experiment Designed to Improve Rocket Safety, Efficiency". NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  84. ^ Denise M. Stefula (17 December 2013). "Slosh Team Readies for Important Launch". NASA Langley Research Center. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  85. ^ Stefula, Denise M. (2014). "Fluid Slosh Results Begin Pouring In" (PDF). Space Technology Game Changing Development Highlights (Jan/Feb 2014). NASA. pp. 2–4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  86. ^ Burke, Caley Nutation in the Spinning SPHERES Spacecraft and Fluid Slosh Massachusetts Institute of Technology, May 2010
  87. ^ SPHERES Thirteenth ISS Test Session (PDF). Lab Report (Report). MIT Space Systems Lab. 2008-11-20. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  88. ^ "SPHERES 14th ISS Test Session" (PDF). Lab Report. MIT Space Systems Lab. 2009-09-02. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  89. ^ "SPHERES 16th ISS Test Session (Draft)" (PDF). Lab Report. MIT Space Systems Lab. 2009-02-24. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  90. ^ "SPHERES 18th ISS Test Session" (PDF). Lab Report. MIT Space Systems Lab. 2009-12-02. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  91. ^ "SPHERES 20th ISS Test Session" (PDF). Lab Report. MIT Space Systems Lab. 2010-04-29. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  92. ^ "SPHERES 24th ISS Test Session" (PDF). Lab Report. MIT Space Systems Lab. 2011-01-31. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  93. ^ "SPHERES 25th ISS Test Session Draft" (PDF). Lab Report. MIT Space Systems Lab. 2010-12-16. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  94. ^ "Mike Hopkins Holds a Plastic Container". NASA - Expedition 38 Image Gallery. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  95. ^ "Mike Hopkins Works With SPHERES". NASA - Expedition 38 Image Gallery. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  96. ^ "SPHERES-Slosh Experiment". NASA - Expedition 38 Image Gallery. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  97. ^ "Test Runs of the SPHERES-Slosh Experiment". NASA - Expedition 40 Image Gallery. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  98. ^ "Slosh Experiment". SPHERES. NASA. 20 October 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  99. ^ "SPHERES Team to Continue Propellant "Slosh" Experiments in Microgravity". Intelligent Systems Division. NASA. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  100. ^ "NASA SPHERES". Twitter. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  101. ^ "Cryogenic Orbital Testbed (CRYOTE) Development Status" (PDF). United Launch Alliance. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  102. ^ CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed (CRYOTE) on NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
  103. ^ "CRYOTE (Cryogenic Orbital Testbed) Concept" (PDF). United Launch Alliance. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  104. ^ "KSC Tech Transfer Spring/Summer 2011" (PDF). NASA. p. 9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  105. ^ Blair, Christopher "NASA's Launch Services Program Connects With Students Around the World" 18 October 2011
  106. ^ Blair, Christopher "Launch Services Program Supports NASA Family Education Nights" 1 August 2011
  107. ^ Blair, Christopher "NASA's Launch Services Program Supports Boy Scout Event" 31 May 2011
  108. ^ Blair, Christopher "Launch Services Program (LSP) Supports 2012 NASA Project Management Challenge" 22 February 2012
  109. ^ Herridge, Linda "NASA's Launch Services Program Helps Promote Black History Month" 20 February 2011
  110. ^ "NASA - Rocket Science 101". Archived from the original on 17 December 2005. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  111. ^ Mahoney, Erin (6 June 2013). "CubeSat Selections". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  112. ^ "NASA - ELaNa: Educational Launch of Nanosatellites". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  113. ^ "CubeSat Launch Initiative: 50 CubeSats from 50 States in 5 Years". NASA. 9 April 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
  114. ^ Kathryn Hambleton; George H. Diller (14 October 2015). "NASA Awards Venture Class Launch Services Contracts for CubeSat Satellites". NASA. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
  115. ^ "NASA - LSP Supports Students in FIRST Robotics Competitions". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  116. ^ "Students to Design Tiny Satellite for Future Launch Services Program Mission"NASA 2011.06.27
  117. ^ "NASA Announces Fourth Round of CubeSat Space Mission Candidates" NASA 2013.02.26
  118. ^ "Rideshare mission for U.S. military confirmed as second Falcon Heavy launch – Spaceflight Now". Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  119. ^ "Merritt Island gets green light to build StangSat". Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  120. ^ Siceloff, Steven "Prospector Rocket Offers Research Opportunities" NASA April 2, 2013
  121. ^ "CubeSat Launch Tests Satellite Innovations" NASA June 12, 2013
  122. ^ Heiney, Anna "Small Satellites Soar in High-Altitude Demonstration" NASA June 18, 2013
  123. ^ Joshua Buck (November 20, 2013). "NASA Helps Launch Student-Built Satellites as Part of CubeSat Launch Initiative". NASA. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  124. ^ "NASA's Launch Services Program". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  125. ^ "NASA_LSP (@NASA_LSP) - Twitter". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  126. ^ "NASA's Kennedy Space Center". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  127. ^ "NASA Kennedy / KSC (@NASAKennedy) - Twitter". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  128. ^ "NASAKennedy". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  129. ^ "NASA's Kennedy Space Center - Google+". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  130. ^ "NASAKennedy (@nasakennedy) • Instagram photos and videos". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  131. ^ "NASA KSC". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  132. ^ "NASA Kennedy". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  133. ^ Wilson, Jim (16 December 2014). "Social Media at NASA". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  134. ^ Wilson, Jim (16 December 2014). "Social Media at NASA". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  135. ^ KSC Video and Photo Search Archived 2012-08-14 at the Wayback Machine search for "Launch Services Program" or by specific mission
  136. ^ Wilson, Jim (8 January 2015). "NASA Videos". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  137. ^ Heiney, Anna (21 June 2013). "Kennedy - Launch Blogs". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  138. ^ "NASA - SOCIAL". 23 January 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  139. ^ "NASA Social Wiki". Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  140. ^ Daines, Gary (8 December 2014). "NASA Apps For Smartphones and Tablets". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  141. ^ "Mobile Apps". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  142. ^ "Spacecraft 3D on the App Store". Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  143. ^ "Spacecraft 3D - Android Apps on Google Play". Retrieved 22 March 2017.

External links

This page was last edited on 29 January 2023, at 17:00
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.