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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Latins were originally an Italic tribe in ancient central Italy from Latium. As Roman power and colonization[1] spread Latin culture, Latins came to mean mostly unified Italic people and the Latin-speaking people of Dacia, Iberia, Illyria, and Gaul whose land was settled by Latin colonists (see Latin peoples).

In the late 15th–16th centuries, a millennium after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Portugal and Spain began to create world empires. In consequence, by the mid-19th century, the former American colonies of these nations became known as Latin America and this region's inhabitants as Latin Americans.

Map of 5th century-BC Latium (Latium Vetus) and surrounding regions in central Italy that were eventually annexed by Rome to form "New Latium". The Alban Hills, a region of early Latin settlement (from c. 1000 BC) and the site of the Latiar, the most important Latin communal festival, are located under the "U" in LATIUM. The region's two main lakes, Nemi and Albanus, are visible under the "I". The leading Latin city-states of Rome, Tibur (Tivoli), Praeneste (Palestrina), Ardea and Gabii are shown.
Map of 5th century-BC Latium (Latium Vetus) and surrounding regions in central Italy that were eventually annexed by Rome to form "New Latium". The Alban Hills, a region of early Latin settlement (from c. 1000 BC) and the site of the Latiar, the most important Latin communal festival, are located under the "U" in LATIUM. The region's two main lakes, Nemi and Albanus, are visible under the "I". The leading Latin city-states of Rome, Tibur (Tivoli), Praeneste (Palestrina), Ardea and Gabii are shown.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ What Latin Sounded Like - and how we know
  • ✪ Latin vs Italian - How Much do They Actually Differ?
  • ✪ Numbers in Latin
  • ✪ Basic Latin Word Order
  • ✪ Les états latins d'orient - L'âge des croisades 3/12

Transcription

Rome fell in the year 476. The microphone wasn't invented until the 1870's. That's quite a gap. And yet we still know how the old Romans pronounced their Latin. Prove it? Okay! Catholic school. Literature class. My teacher is Father, uh... let's call him Father F. A fellow language-head himself, Father F has a much fuller experience bar than me. Respect. It's first thing in the morning, and that schoolroom sunlight is barely starting to flip the activation switches in my brain. Languagey words drift in from across the class. "Consonants", "Italian", "pronunciation"... up goes my sensor. One kid's over there talking with the father. Best I can recall, it went like this. "So, uhm, how do we know what Latin sounded like? I always thought Caesar's quote was vennee veedee veechee, but some Latin student told me v's were w's and c's were k's." "Hah, no. Cmon, can you imagine any good Italian saying wennee, weedee, weekee?" I'm sitting there, sure this is wrong somehow. See, my first linguistic obsession was reading up on how Latin became the Romance languages. So why was I suddenly speechlessly tongue-tied? Well, young self, it took years, but I'm back to help. We think we know what Caesar's Latin sounded like, and that wasn't it. We know because, well, sometimes they told us. Quintilian was a smart guy from Roman Spain who moved to Rome, managed to survive the off-the-wall Year of the Four Emperors and then founded a school of rhetoric. Also, he hated the letter k. "So k, I think shouldn't be used at all... the letter c keeps its strength before all the vowels." If he's saying c always made a k sound, that means it didn't have that second soft pronunciation it does in English or Italian. But that's one grammarian's say-so. Things could look different when all the evidence comes in. Which is exactly what one Czech linguist claims about the letter "r". Your Latin textbook says it's a trill. She argues it's a tap ("eddeh", "re"). We're just going to have to piece the evidence together ourselves, starting with ancient authors writing in "good" Latin. The first clue they give us is the alphabet, which was meant to fit Latin sounds. You hear that, English?!? So when they wrote words differently, like ÁNVS, ANVS and ANNVS, it's a face-value hint that they they said them differently. Meaning that long "aah", which sometimes has this little "apex", doesn't sound the same as short "ah". And double consonants don't sound like single consonants. In the hands of Virgil the epic poet, that see-'n-say alphabet is jammed into a precise structure: poetic meter. From that meter we can figure out which syllables are long and which are short, which helps confirm which vowels are long and which ones are short. So some i's, sorry, "ee"'s, are longer than other "ee"'s. But go look for short "ee" on inscriptions and you'll find something interesting. Or won't find. Because right where it's supposed to be, there could be an "É" instead. Why? Well, it makes sense IF short "ee" wasn't only shorter than long "eeee" but it also had a different sound, a sound closer to "é", kind of "ihh". Romans left even more clues when they marched right into foreign language territory and got raided by Germanic tribes. Linguistic raids. "We're all taking words, guys! What do you want?" "Oy! Bring me back some wine!" "I want a wall!" Yep, those are Latin words. And bad accents. And they make it look like v's were w's at the time, something we'd already be suspicious of from poetry and word pairs. So yes, good Latin was spreading, but back home the Roman rabble was busy turning it bad! Good Latin writers noticed though, and even included characters speaking the bad Latin, the sermo vulgaris, especially for a good laugh. But bad Latin can still be good evidence. Down in Pompeii, before the tragedy, a random guy comes along and graffitis the place to make sure we'd forever know that he stopped here with his brother. He does something vulgar though. He drops the h in the word "here". Ah, just a little mistake, right? Later you find a very dusty, very old book full of cranky corrections, telling you that the word for old is "vetulus" not "veclus", to say "hostiae" not "ostiae", and "hermeneumata" not "erminomata". Come on, people! Get it together! Looks like the Pompeii bros weren't the only ones dropping their aitches. These mistakes are an interesting kind of proof. I mean you probably wouldn't beg me to stop dropping my h's unless people were indeed dropping their h's. But what was once linguistic heresy eventually turned into Romance... languages. These all have something to teach us about Latin. Wait, how can new languages be evidence for a dead one? Take Spanish or Italian e. It comes from Latin "e", but it also comes from short "i" and not long "i". Kind of like those inscriptions! It's even more evidence for short "ih" versus long "eeee". Also, sí. Not... no, the LETTER c. The Romance languages still love it, but before e's and i's it makes a soft sound. Except in Sardinian. So while good Italians say vincere, in Sardinian, conquering is vìnchere. Now Romance palatalization is another story, but historical linguistics says these languages are whispering at us, "Latin c always sounded like k, but most of us changed." They're thumbs-upping Quintilian. See, younger self, all of this is why when Romans talked about conquering, they said ['wɪnkærɛ], and why Caesar's phrase was /we:ni:/, /wi:di:/, /wi:ki:/. Now before you go around enforcing reconstructed pronunciation on us, getting the pope to speak like a real Caesar, think about Latin's living history. This was but one part of the story. A pretty amazing one though. Stick around and subscribe for language.

Contents

Antiquity

Italy in 400 BC
Italy in 400 BC

The Latins were an ancient Italic people of the Latium region in central Italy (Latium Vetus, "Old Latium"), in the 1st millennium BC. Although they lived in independent city-states, they spoke a common language (Latin), held common religious beliefs, and shared a sense of kinship, expressed in the myth that all Latins descend from Latinus. Latinus was worshiped on Mons Albanus (Monte Albano) during an annual festival attended by all Latins, including those from Rome, one of the Latin states. The Latin cities extended common rights of residence and trade to one another.

Rome's territorial ambitions united the rest of the Latins against it in 341 BC, but in the end Rome won in 338 BC. Consequently, some of the Latin states were incorporated within the Roman state, and their inhabitants were given full Roman citizenship. Others became Roman allies and enjoyed certain privileges.

Middle Ages

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, many Europeans held on to the "Latin" identity, more specifically, in the sense of the Romans, as members of the Empire.

In the Eastern Roman Empire, and the broader Greek-Orthodox world, Latins was a synonym for all people who followed Roman Catholic Christianity.[2] It was generally a negative characterization, especially after the 1054 schism.[2] Latins is still used by the Orthodox church communities, but only in a theological context.

The Holy Roman Empire was founded centuries after the fall of Rome but brandished the name of the Roman people and honoured the king with the title "King of the Romans". Despite this, the Holy Roman Empire was largely a Germanic affair with German kings, although its territory was considerably greater than present-day Germany.

Modern uses

Latin Europe

The term "Latin" is used in reference to European people whose cultures are particularly Roman-derived, generally including the use of Romance languages and the traditional predominance of Roman Catholicism.[3] Strong Roman legal and cultural traditions characterize these nations. Latin Europe is a major subdivision of Europe, along with Germanic Europe and Slavic Europe.

Latin America

Of all world regions, the Americas have been most significantly influenced by Romance-speaking European countries in regards to culture, language, religion, and genetic contribution to the population. The Latin European-influenced region of the Americas came to be called Latin America in the 19th century. The French Emperor Napoleon III is often credited with this naming.[4] The term is usually used to refer to Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries, namely Hispanic America and Brazil. The majority of Latin Americans have Latin European ancestry, notably Italian, Spanish, French, Portuguese and Romanian.

Lazio

The Central Italian region, the birthplace of Latin Civilization, still preserves its Latin identity in the modern name Lazio (Ancient Latium).

Latin Valley

A region in Lazio corresponding to the eastern area of ancient Roman Latium (Southern Province of Rome and Province of Frosinone).

See also

References

  1. ^ MacKendrick, P. L (1952). "Roman Colonization". Phoenix. 6 (4): 139. doi:10.2307/1086829. JSTOR 1086829.
  2. ^ a b George Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State
  3. ^ Pérez-Perdomo, E.L.M.F.R. (2003-09-09). Legal Culture in the Age of Globalization: Latin America and Latin Europe. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804766951. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
  4. ^ Chasteen, John Charles (2001). Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America. W. W. Norton. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-393-97613-7.

External links

This page was last edited on 6 January 2020, at 03:36
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