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Hispanic and Latino Americans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hispanic and Latino Americans (Spanish: Estadounidenses latinoamericanos) are Americans of Spanish or Latin American ancestry.[3][5][6][7] More broadly, these demographics include all Americans who identify as Hispanic or Latino regardless of ancestry.[8][9][10][11][12] As of 2019, the Census Bureau estimated that there were almost 60.5 million Hispanics and Latinos living in the United States (18.5% of the overall population).[13]

"Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States of America. People who identify as Latino may be of any race.[14][15][16][17] As one of the only two specifically designated categories of ethnicity in the United States (the other being "Not Latino"), Latinos form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Latino Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Salvadoran, Dominican, Guatemalan or Colombian origin. The predominant origin of regional Latino populations varies widely in different locations across the country.[15][18][19][20][21]

In 2012, Latino/Hispanic Americans were the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans.[22] Latinos of Indigenous descent and Native Americans are the oldest ethnic groups to inhabit much of what is today the United States.[23][24][25][26] Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida. Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona and Texas, all of which were part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain based in Mexico City. Later, this vast territory became part of Mexico after its independence from Spain in 1821 and until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Latino immigrants to the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American countries.[27]


Byzantine-Latino Quarter, Los Angeles, California.  48.5% of the inhabitants of Los Angeles are of Latino origin.
Byzantine-Latino Quarter, Los Angeles, California. 48.5% of the inhabitants of Los Angeles are of Latino origin.

The terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity. The US Census Bureau defines being Latino as being a member of an ethnicity, rather than being a member of a particular race and thus, people who are members of this group may be members of any race.[15][28][29] In a 2015 national survey of self-identified Latinos, 56% said that being Latino is part of both their racial and ethnic background, while smaller numbers considered it part of their ethnic background only (19%) or racial background only (11%).[28] Latinos may be of any linguistic background; in a 2015 survey, 71% of American Latinos agreed that it "is not necessary for a person to speak Spanish to be considered Hispanic/Latino."[30] Latino people may share some commonalities in their language, culture, history and heritage. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin.[31][32] In the United States, many Latinos are of both Iberian (primarily Spanish) and Amerindian ancestry (Mestizo). Others may have European (including Jewish), Middle Eastern, or Asian ancestry as well as of Amerindian ancestry. Many Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of sub-Saharan African descent as well.[31][33]

The difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some.[34] The US Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, term Hispanic or Spanish American was primarily used to describe the Hispanos of New Mexico within the American Southwest. The 1970 United States Census controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico.[35][36] This definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U.S. Census Bureau and OMB, as the two agencies use both terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably. The Pew Research Center believes the term "Hispanic" is strictly limited to Puerto Rico and all countries where Spanish is the official language only and includes Spain whereas "Latino" includes all countries in Latin America (i.e. Brazil) regardless of the official language, but does not include Spain.[37]

Latino is a condensed form of the term "latinoamericano", the Spanish word for Latin American, or someone who comes from Latin America. The term Latino has developed a number of definitions. This definition, as "male Latin-American inhabitant of the United States",[38] is the oldest and the original definition used in the United States, first used in 1946.[38] Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American is also a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America.[39][40][41][42][43][44]

Storefronts at Lexington Avenue and 116th Street at East Harlem, Manhattan, also known as Spanish Harlem or "El Barrio"
Storefronts at Lexington Avenue and 116th Street at East Harlem, Manhattan, also known as Spanish Harlem or "El Barrio"
The Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Little Spain, important nucleus for many decades of the Spanish community in New York[45]
The Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Little Spain, important nucleus for many decades of the Spanish community in New York[45]

Preference of use between the terms among Hispanics and Latinos in the United States often depends on where users of the respective terms reside. Those in the Eastern United States tend to prefer the term Hispanic, whereas those in the West tend to prefer Latino.[14]

The US ethnic designation Latino is abstracted from the longer form latinoamericano.[46] The element latino- is actually an indeclinable, compositional form in -o (i.e. an elemento compositivo) that is employed to coin compounded formations (similar as franco- in francocanadiense 'French-Canadian′, or ibero- in iberorrománico,[47] etc.).

The term Latinx (and similar neologism Xicanx) gained currency among some in the 2010s.[48][49] The adoption of the X would be "[r]eflecting new consciousness inspired by more recent work by LGBTQI and feminist movements, some Spanish-speaking activists are increasingly using a yet more inclusive "x" to replace the "a" and "o," in a complete break with the gender binary".[50] Among the advocates of the term LatinX, one of most frequently cited complaints of gender bias in the Spanish language is that a group of mixed or unknown gender would be referred to as Latinos, whereas Latinas refers to a group of women only (but this is changed immediately to Latinos, if even a single man joins this female group).[51] A 2020 Pew Research Center survey found that about 3% of Latinos use the term (mostly women), and only around 23% have even heard of the term. Of those, 65% said it should not be used to describe their ethnic group.[52]

Some have pointed out that the term “Latino” refers to a pan-ethnic identity, one that spans a range of races, national origins, and linguistic backgrounds. ”Terms like Hispanic and Latino do not fully capture how we see ourselves,” says Geraldo Cadava, an associate professor of history and Latina and Latino studies at Northwestern University.[53]

According to 2017 American Community Survey data, a small minority of immigrants from Brazil (2%), Portugal (2%) and the Philippines (1%) self-identify as Hispanic.[12]


16th and 17th centuries

San Miguel Chapel, built in 1610 in Santa Fe, is the oldest church structure in the United States.
San Miguel Chapel, built in 1610 in Santa Fe, is the oldest church structure in the United States.
Castillo de San Marcos in Saint Augustine, Florida. Built in 1672 by the Spanish, it is the oldest masonry fort in the United States.
Castillo de San Marcos in Saint Augustine, Florida. Built in 1672 by the Spanish, it is the oldest masonry fort in the United States.

Spanish explorers were pioneers in the territory of the present-day United States. The first confirmed European landing in the continental United States was by Juan Ponce de León, who landed in 1513 at a lush shore he christened La Florida. In the next three decades, the Spanish became the first Europeans to reach the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon and the Great Plains. Spanish ships sailed along the East Coast, penetrating to present-day Bangor, Maine, and up the Pacific Coast as far as Oregon. From 1528 to 1536, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and three fellows (including an African named Estevanico), from a Spanish expedition that foundered, journeyed from Florida to the Gulf of California. In 1540, Hernando de Soto undertook an extensive exploration of the present United States. That same year Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led 2,000 Spaniards and Mexican Indians across today's Arizona–Mexico border and traveled as far as central Kansas, close to the exact geographic center of what is now the continental United States. Other Spanish explorers of the US territory include, among others: Alonso Alvarez de Pineda, Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, Pánfilo de Narváez, Sebastián Vizcaíno, Gaspar de Portolà, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Tristán de Luna y Arellano and Juan de Oñate, and non-Spanish explorers working for the Spanish Crown, such as Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. In 1565, the Spanish created the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, at St. Augustine, Florida. Spanish missionaries and colonists founded settlements in Santa Fe, New Mexico, El Paso, San Antonio, Tucson, Albuquerque, San Diego, Los Angeles and San Francisco, to name a few. [54]

Dolores Huerta in 2009. Huerta has received numerous awards for her community service and advocacy for workers', and women's rights. She was the first Latina inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame, in 1993.[55][56]
Dolores Huerta in 2009. Huerta has received numerous awards for her community service and advocacy for workers', and women's rights. She was the first Latina inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame, in 1993.[55][56]

18th and 19th centuries

As late as 1783, at the end of the American Revolutionary War (a conflict in which Spain aided and fought alongside the rebels), Spain held claim to roughly half the territory of today's continental United States. From 1819 to 1848, the United States (through treaties, purchase, diplomacy, and the Mexican–American War) increased its area by roughly a third at Spanish and Mexican expense, acquiring its three currently most populous states—California, Texas and Florida.[citation needed]. Many Latino natives lived in the areas that the United States acquired, and a new wave of Mexican, Central American, Caribbean, and South American immigrants had moved to the United States for new opportunities. This was the beginning of a demographic that would rise dramatically over the years.[57]

20th and 21st centuries

During the 20th and 21st centuries, Latino immigration to the United States increased markedly following changes to the immigration law in 1965.[58] During the World Wars, Latino Americans and immigrants had helped stabilize the American economy from falling due to the industrial boom in the Midwest in states such as Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. While a percentage of Americans had fled their jobs for the war, Latinos had taken their jobs in the Industrial world. This can explain why there is such a high concentration of Latino Americans in Metro Areas such as the Chicago-Elgin-Naperville, Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, and Cleveland-Elyria areas.[57]

Latino contributions in the historical past and present of the United States are addressed in more detail below (See Notables and their contributions). To recognize the current and historic contributions of Latino Americans, on September 17, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated a week in mid-September as National Hispanic Heritage Week, with Congress's authorization. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan extended the observance to a month, designated National Hispanic Heritage Month.[59][60] Latino Americans became the largest minority group in 2004.[61]


Proportion of Americans who are Hispanic or Latino in each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census
Proportion of Americans who are Hispanic or Latino in each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census

As of 2017, Latinos accounted for 18% of the US population, or almost 59 million people.[62] The Latino growth rate over the April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007, period was 28.7%—about four times the rate of the nation's total population growth (at 7.2%).[63] The growth rate from July 1, 2005, to July 1, 2006, alone was 3.4%[64]—about three and a half times the rate of the nation's total population growth (at 1.0%).[63] Based on the 2010 census, Latinos are now the largest minority group in 191 out of 366 metropolitan areas in the United States.[65] The projected Latino population of the United States for July 1, 2050 is 132.8 million people, or 30.2% of the nation's total projected population on that date.[66]

Geographic distribution

The percentage of Hispanic or Latino residents by county
The percentage of Hispanic or Latino residents by county

US Metropolitan Statistical Areas with over 1 million Latinos (2014)[67]

Rank Metropolitan area Latino
Percent Latino
1 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA 5,979,000 45.1%
2 New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA 4,780,000 23.9%
3 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL 2,554,000 43.3%
4 Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX 2,335,000 36.4%
5 Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA 2,197,000 49.4%
6 Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI 2,070,000 21.8%
7 Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX 1,943,000 28.4%
8 Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ 1,347,000 30.1%
9 San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 1,259,000 55.7%
10 San Diego-Carlsbad, CA 1,084,000 33.3%
11 San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA 1,008,000 21.9%

States and territories with the highest proportion of Latinos (2010)[68]

Rank State/territory Latino population Percent Latino
1 Puerto Rico 3,688,455 98%
2 New Mexico 953,403 46%
3 California 14,013,719 37%
4 Texas 9,460,921 37%
5 Arizona 1,895,149 29%
6 Nevada 716,501 26%
7 Colorado 1,269,520 22%
8 Florida 4,223,806 22%
9 New Jersey 1,555,144 17%
10 New York 3,416,922 17%
11 Illinois 2,027,578 15%

Of the nation's total Latino population, 49% (21.5 million) live in California or Texas.[69]

Over half of the Latino population is concentrated in the Southwest region, mostly composed of Mexican Americans. California and Texas have some of the largest populations of Mexicans and Central American Latinos in the United States. The Northeast region is dominated by Dominican Americans and Puerto Ricans, having the highest concentrations of both in the country. In the Mid Atlantic region, centered on the DC Metro Area, Salvadoran Americans are the largest of Latino groups. Florida is dominated by Cuban Americans and Puerto Ricans. In both the Great Lakes States and the South Atlantic States, Mexicans and Puerto Ricans dominate. Mexicans dominate in the rest of the country, including the Western United States, South Central United States and Great Plains states.

National origin

Intermediate level international-style Latin dancing at the 2006 MIT ballroom dance competition.  A judge stands in the foreground.
Intermediate level international-style Latin dancing at the 2006 MIT ballroom dance competition. A judge stands in the foreground.
Population by national origin (2018)
(self-identified ethnicity, not by birthplace)[70]
Population %
Mexican 36,986,661 61.9
Puerto Rican 5,791,453 9.6
Cuban 2,363,532 3.9
Salvadoran 2,306,774 3.8
Dominican 2,082,857 3.4
Colombian 2,023,341 3.3
Guatemalan 1,524,743 2.0
Honduran 963,930 1.6
Ecuadorian 717,995 1.2
Peruvian 684,345 1.1
Venezuelan 484,445 0.8
Nicaraguan 434,000 0.7
Argentine 286,346 0.4
Panamanian 206,219 0.3
Chilean 172,062 0.2
Costa Rican 154,784 0.2
Bolivian 116,646 0.1
Uruguayan 60,013 0.1
Paraguayan 25,022 0.0
All other 1,428,770 2.4
Total 59,763,631 100.0

As of 2018, approximately 62% of the nation's Latino population were of Mexican origin (see table). Another 9.6% were of Puerto Rican origin, with about 3.9% each of Cuban and Salvadoran and 3.4% Dominican origins. The remainder were of other Central American or of South American origin, or of origin directly from Spain. Two thirds of all Hispanic and Latino Americans were born in the United States.[71]

There are few immigrants directly from Spain, since Spaniards have historically emigrated to Latin America rather than to English-speaking countries. Because of this, most Latinos who identify themselves as Spaniard or Spanish also identify with Latin American national origin. In the 2017 Census estimate approximately 1.3 million Americans reported some form of "Spanish" as their ancestry, whether directly from Spain or not.[62]

In northern New Mexico and southern Colorado, there is a large portion of Latinos who trace their ancestry to Spanish settlers of the late 16th century through the 17th century. People from this background often self-identify as "Hispanos", "Spanish" or "Hispanic". Many of these settlers also intermarried with local Amerindians, creating a Mestizo population.[72] Likewise, southern Louisiana is home to communities of people of Canary Islands descent, known as Isleños, in addition to other people of Spanish ancestry. Chicanos, Californios, Nuevomexicanos and Tejanos are Americans of Spanish and/or Mexican descent. Chicanos live in the Southwest, Nuevomexicanos in New Mexico and Tejanos in Texas. Nuevomexicanos and Tejanos are distinct cultures with their own cuisines, dialects and musical traditions. The term "Chicano" became popular amongst Mexican Americans in the 1960s during the Chicano nationalism and Chicano Movement, and is today seen as an ethnic and cultural identity by some. Political activist César Chávez and novelist José Antonio Villarreal are famous Chicanos.

Nuyoricans are Americans of Puerto Rican descent from the New York City area. There are close to two million Nuyoricans in the United States. Famous Nuyoricans include Congresswomen Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, US Supreme Court Judge Sonia Sotomayor and singer Jennifer Lopez.


Eva Longoria's mtDNA belongs to the Haplogroup A2, possibly making her a direct descendant of a Maya woman from the current territory of Mexico.
Eva Longoria's mtDNA belongs to the Haplogroup A2, possibly making her a direct descendant of a Maya woman from the current territory of Mexico.

Latinos come from multi-racial and multi-ethnic countries with diversity of origins; therefore, a Latino can be from any race or mix of it. The often most common ancestries are: Indigenous from the Americas (Native-Americans),[citation needed] African, and European. Therefore, most Latinos have mixed ancestry of different combinations and ratios,[73] although non-mixed Latinos of each race also exist in varied amounts on each country.

Actress Alexis Bledel is a white Latina of Argentine origin and Scottish, German and Scandinavian heritage. Bledel grew up in a Spanish-speaking household and did not learn English until she began school.[74][75]
Actress Alexis Bledel is a white Latina of Argentine origin and Scottish, German and Scandinavian heritage. Bledel grew up in a Spanish-speaking household and did not learn English until she began school.[74][75]

Latino origin is independent of race and is termed "ethnicity" by the United States Census Bureau. Depending on the regions within Latin America, a significant proportion of Latinos have high to moderate levels of colonial-era Sub-Saharan African input through the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. But also as a result from Europeans of Mixed race by way of the North African Moorish Muslim occupation of Iberia intermixing their genes into the population.[citation needed] Similarly to Spaniards, Portuguese, English, German and many other European nations over the centuries, many Latin Americans also possess colonial era New Christian Sephardic Jewish ancestry.[76] To a lesser extent other Latin Americans possess at least partial ancestry of more recent post-colonial ancestry from Ashkenazi Jews, Levantine Arabs (Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian), as well as Chinese and Japanese among others.[citation needed] Thus, as a whole, Latin Americans are a multiracial population, with degrees of admixture levels that vary from person to person, from varying global genetic sources.

On the 2020 United States census, 20.3% of Hispanics or Latinos identified selected "white" as their race. The largest numbers of those who consider themselves White Hispanic and Latino Americans come from within the Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Salvadorans, Spanish and Argentines communities.[77][78][79]

Over 42% of Latino Americans identify as "some other race".[80] These "some other race" Latinos are usually assumed to be Mestizos or Mulattos.[81] A significant percentage of the Latino population self-identifies as Mestizo, particularly the Mexican and Central American community.[citation needed] Mestizo is not a racial category in the U.S. Census, but signifies someone who is conscious of their Native American and European ancestry. Of all Americans who checked the box "Some Other Race", 97 percent were Hispanic.[82]

Almost one-third of the multi-race respondents were Latinos.[81] Most of the multi-racial population in the Mexican, Salvadoran, and Guatemalan communities are of mixed European and Native American ancestry (Mestizo), while most of the multiracial population in the Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Cuban communities are of mixed European, African, and Native American ancestry (Mulatto/Tri-racial).

The largest numbers of black Latinos are from the Spanish Caribbean islands, including the Cuban, Dominican, Panamanian and Puerto Rican communities.

The few hundred thousand Asian Latinos are of various backgrounds, among which include Filipino Mestizos with Spanish background, Asians of Latin American background (examples including Chinese Cubans and Japanese Peruvians) and those of recent mixed Asian and Hispanic background. Note that Filipinos are generally not counted as Hispanic, despite the fact that the Spanish colonized the Philippines and many Filipinos have Spanish names.

Latinos are often racially of Native American ancestry[citation needed]. For example, of Latinos deriving from northern Mexico, consider themselves white or acknowledge Native American ancestry with some European mixtures, while of those deriving from southern Mexican ancestry, the majority are Native American or of Native American and European Ancestry. In Guatemala, Mayans are majority, while in El Salvador, people of Native American descent are the majority. In the Dominican Republic, the population are largely made up of people with inter-mixed ancestries, in which there are even levels of European ancestry, with smaller numbers of whites and blacks as well.

In Puerto Rico, people with multi-racial ancestry are the majority. There are also populations of predominantly of African descent as well as populations of American Indian descent as well as those with intermixed ancestries. Cubans are mostly of white Latin American ancestry, however there are also populations of blacks and multi-racials as well.[84][85][86] The race and culture of each Hispanic/Latino country and their United States diaspora differs by history and geography.

Persons of Mexican heritage represent the bulk of the US Latino population. Most Mexican Americans already with a multi-generational presence in the USA predating the 1970s are of predominantly European origin, while most recent Mexican Americans that have migrated or descend from migrants to the United States post-1980s are of predominantly Native American descent with varying levels of European admixture.

Official sources report that the racial makeup of Latino subgroups from the countries Brazil,[87] Uruguay,[87] Cuba[87] and Chile,[87] have the highest proportion, for their respective countries, of Latinos in the US self-identifying as white – though in raw numbers the highest number of white Latinos in the United States are Mexican Americans. As a result of their racial diversity, Latinos form an ethnicity sharing a language (Spanish and Portuguese) and cultural heritage, rather than a race. The phenomenon of biracial people who are predominantly of European descent identifying as white is not limited to Latinos or Spanish speakers but is also common among English speakers as well: researchers found that most white Americans with less than 28 percent African-American ancestry say they are white; above that threshold, people tended to describe themselves as African-American.[88]

Racial Demographics of Hispanic Americans (Total Numbers) Between 1990 and 2020[89][4][90][c]
Race/Ethnic Group 1990 2000 2010 2020
Total Population 22,354,059 35,305,818 50,477,594 62,080,044
White 11,557,774 16,907,852 26,735,713 12,579,626
Black 769,767 710,353 1,243,471 1,163,862
American Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut 165,461 407,073 685,150 1,475,436
Asian and Pacific Islander 305,303 165,155 267,565 335,278
Some other race 9,555,754 14,891,303 18,503,103 26,225,882
Two or more races 2,224,082 3,042,592 20,299,960


As of 2014, one third, or 17.9 million, of the Latino population was younger than 18 and a quarter, 14.6 million, were Millennials. This makes them more than half of the Latino population within the United States.[91]


Latino K–12 education

Lauro Cavazos, US Secretary of Education from August 1988 to December 1990
Lauro Cavazos, US Secretary of Education from August 1988 to December 1990
Westlake Theatre building, side wall mural of Jaime Escalante and Edward James Olmos
Westlake Theatre building, side wall mural of Jaime Escalante and Edward James Olmos

With the increasing Latino population in the United States, Latinos have had a considerable impact on the K–12 system. In 2011–12, Latinos comprised 24% of all enrollments in the United States, including 52% and 51% of enrollment in California and Texas, respectively.[92] Further research shows the Latino population will continue to grow in the United States, implicating that more Latinos will populate U.S schools.

The state of Latino education shows some promise. First, Latino students attending pre-K or kindergarten were more likely to attend full-day programs.[92] Second, Latinos in elementary education were the second largest group represented in gifted and talented programs.[92] Third, Latinos' average NAEP math and reading scores have consistently increased over the last 10 years.[92] Finally, Latinos were more likely than other groups, including whites, to go to college.[92]

However, their academic achievement in early childhood, elementary, and secondary education lag behind other groups.[92] For instance, their average math and reading NAEP scores were lower than every other group, except African Americans, and have the highest dropout rate of any group, 13% despite decreasing from 24%.[92]

To explain these disparities, some scholars have suggested there is a Latino "Education Crisis" due to failed school and social policies.[93] To this end, scholars have further offered several potential reasons including language barriers, poverty, and immigrant/nativity status resulting in Latinos not performing well academically.[94][95]

English language learners

Spanish speakers in the United States by counties in 2000
Spanish speakers in the United States by counties in 2000

Currently, Latino students make up 80% of English language learners in the United States.[96] In 2008–2009, 5.3 million students were classified as English Language Learners (ELLs) in pre-K to 12th grade.[97] This is a result of many students entering the education system at different ages, although the majority of ELLs are not foreign born.[97] In order to provide English instruction for Latino students there have been a multitude of English Language programs. However, the great majority of these programs are English Immersion, which arguably undermines the students' culture and knowledge of their primary language.[95] As such, there continues to be great debate within schools as to which program can address these language disparities.

Immigration status

Undocumented immigrants have not always had access to compulsory education in the United States. However, since the landmark Supreme Court case Plyler v. Doe in 1982, immigrants have received access to K-12 education. This significantly impacted all immigrant groups, including Latinos. However, their academic achievement is dependent upon several factors including, but not limited to time of arrival and schooling in country of origin.[98] Moreover, Latinos' immigration/nativity status plays a major role regarding their academic achievement. For instance, first- and second- generation Latinos outperform their later generational counterparts.[99] Additionally, their aspirations appear to decrease as well.[100] This has major implications on their postsecondary futures.

Latino higher education

In 2007, University of Texas at El Paso was ranked the number one graduate engineering school for Latinos.[101]
In 2007, University of Texas at El Paso was ranked the number one graduate engineering school for Latinos.[101]

Those with a bachelor's degree or higher ranges from 50% of Venezuelans compared to 18% for Ecuadorians 25 years and older. Amongst the largest Latino groups, those with a bachelor's or higher was 25% for Cuban Americans, 16% of Puerto Ricans, 15% of Dominicans, and 11% for Mexican Americans. Over 21% of all second-generation Dominican Americans have college degrees, slightly below the national average (28%) but significantly higher than U.S.-born Mexican Americans (13%) and U.S.-born Puerto Rican Americans (12%).[102]

Latinos make up the second or third largest ethnic group in Ivy League universities, considered to be the most prestigious in the United States. Latino enrollment at Ivy League universities has gradually increased over the years. Today, Latinos make up between 8% of students at Yale University to 15% at Columbia University.[103] For example, 18% of students in the Harvard University Class of 2018 are Latino.[104]

Latinos have significant enrollment in many other top universities such as University of Texas at El Paso (70% of students), Florida International University (63%), University of Miami (27%), and MIT, UCLA and UC-Berkeley at 15% each. At Stanford University, Latinos are the third largest ethnic group behind non-Latino whites and Asians, at 18% of the student population.[105]

Latino university enrollments

While Latinos study in colleges and universities throughout the country, some choose to attend federally-designated Hispanic-serving institutions, institutions that are accredited, degree-granting, public or private nonprofit institutions of higher education with 25 percent or more total undergraduate Latino full-time equivalent (FTE) student enrollment. There are over 270 institutions of higher education that have been designated as an HSI.[107]

Universities with the largest Latino undergraduate enrollment (2013)[108]
Rank University Latino enrollment % of student body
1 Florida International University 24,105 67%
2 University of Texas at El Paso 15,459 81%
3 University of Texas Pan American 15,009 91%
4 University of Texas at San Antonio 11,932 47%
5 California State University at Northridge 11,774 38%
6 California State University at Fullerton 11,472 36%
7 Arizona State University 11,465 19%
8 California State University at Long Beach 10,836 35%
9 California State University at Los Angeles 10,392 58%
10 University of Central Florida 10,255 20%
Universities with the largest Latino graduate enrollment (2013)
Rank University Latino enrollment % of student body
1 Nova Southeastern University 4,281 20%
2 Florida International University 3,612 42%
3 University of Southern California 2,358 11%
4 University of Texas Pan American 2,120 78%
5 University of Texas at El Paso 2,083 59%
6 CUNY Graduate Center 1,656 30%
7 University of New Mexico 1,608 26%
8 University of Texas at San Antonio 1,561 35%
9 University of Florida 1,483 9%
10 Arizona State University 1,400 10%
Latino student enrollment in university and college systems (2012–2013)
Rank University system Latino enrollment % of student body
1 California Community College System[109] 642,045 41%
2 California State University[110] 149,137 33%
3 Florida College System[111] 118,821 26%
4 University of Texas System[112] 84,086 39%
5 State University System of Florida[113] 79,931 24%
6 City University of New York[114] 77,341 30%
7 State University of New York[115] 43,514 9%
8 University of California 42,604 18%
9 Texas A&M University System[116][117] 27,165 25%
10 Nevada System of Higher Education[118] 21,467 21%
- Ivy League[103] 11,562 10%



Flyers at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport wearing face masks on March 6, 2020 as the COVID-19 coronavirus spreads throughout the United States. Disproportionate numbers of cases have been observed among black and Latino populations.[119][120][121]
Flyers at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport wearing face masks on March 6, 2020 as the COVID-19 coronavirus spreads throughout the United States. Disproportionate numbers of cases have been observed among black and Latino populations.[119][120][121]

As of 2016, life expectancy for Latino Americans is 81.8 years, which is higher than the life expectancy for non-Latino whites (78.6 years).[122] Research on the "Latino paradox"—the well-established apparent mortality advantage of Latino Americans compared to non-Latino whites, despite the latter's more advantaged socioeconomic status—has been principally explained by "(1) health-related migration to and from the US; and (2) social and cultural protection mechanisms, such as maintenance of healthy lifestyles and behaviors adopted in the countries of origin, and availability of extensive social networks in the US."[123] The "salmon bias" hypothesis, which suggests that the Latino health advantage is attributable to higher rates of return migration among less-healthy migrants, has received some support in the scholarly literature.[124] A 2019 study, examining the comparatively better health of foreign-born American Latinos, challenged the hypothesis that a stronger orientation toward the family (familism) contributed to this advantage.[125] Some scholars have suggested that the Latino mortality advantage is likely to disappear due to the higher rates of obesity and diabetes among Latinos relative to non-Latino whites, although lower rates of smoking (and thus smoking-attributable mortality) among Latinos may counteract this to some extent.[123]


As of 2017, about 19% of Latino Americans lack health insurance coverage, which is the highest of all ethnic groups except for American Indians and Alaska Natives.[126] In terms of extending health coverage, Latinos benefited the most among U.S. ethnic groups from the Affordable Care Act (ACA); among non-elderly Latinos, the uninsured rate declined from 26.7% in 2013 to 14.2% in 2017.[126] Among the population of non-elderly uninsured Latino population in 2017, about 53% were non-citizens, about 39% were U.S.-born citizens, and about 9% were naturalized citizens.[126] (The ACA does not help undocumented immigrants or legal immigrants with less than five years' residence in the United States gain coverage).[126]

According to a 2013 study, Mexican women who have the highest uninsured rate (54.6%) as compared to other immigrants (26.2%), blacks (22.5%) and non-Latino white (13.9%).[127] According to the study, Mexican women are the largest female immigrant group in the United States and are also the most at risk for developing preventable health conditions.[128] Multiple factors such as limited access to health care, legal status and income increase the risk of developing preventable health conditions because many undocumented immigrants postpone routine visits to the doctor until they become seriously ill.

Mental health

Family separation

Ana Navarro a political strategist and commentator immigrated as a result of the Sandinista revolution.
Ana Navarro a political strategist and commentator immigrated as a result of the Sandinista revolution.
Rally to end family separation in Cleveland, Ohio
Rally to end family separation in Cleveland, Ohio

Some families who are in the process of illegally crossing borders can suffer being caught and separated by border patrol agents. Migrants are also in danger of separation if they do not bring sufficient resources such as water for all members to continue crossing. Once illegal migrants have arrived to the new country, they may fear workplace raids where illegal immigrants are detained and deported.

Family separation puts U.S born children, undocumented children and their illegal immigrant parents at risk for depression and family maladaptive syndrome. The effects are often long-term and the impact extends to the community level. Children may experience emotional traumas and long-term changes in behaviors. Additionally, when parents are forcefully removed, children often develop feelings of abandonment and they might blame themselves for what has happened to their family. Some children that are victims to illegal border crossings that result in family separation believe in the possibility of never seeing their parents again. These effects can cause negative parent-child attachment. Reunification may be difficult because of immigration laws and re-entry restrictions which further affect the mental health of children and parents.[129]

Parents who leave their home country also experience negative mental health experiences. According to a study published in 2013, 46% of Mexican migrant men who participated in the study reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms.[130] In recent years, the length of stay for migrants has increased, from 3 years to nearly a decade.[130] Migrants who were separated from their families, either married or single, experienced greater depression than married men accompanied by their spouses.[130] Furthermore, the study also revealed that men who are separated from their families are more prone to harsher living conditions such as overcrowded housing and are under a greater deal of pressure to send remittance to support their families. These conditions put additional stress on the migrants and often worsen their depression. Families who migrated together experience better living conditions, receive emotional encouragement and motivation from each other, and share a sense of solidarity. They are also more likely to successfully navigate the employment and health care systems in the new country, and are not pressured to send remittances back home.


Protesters hold various signs and banners at a Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) rally in San Francisco.
Protesters hold various signs and banners at a Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) rally in San Francisco.

It is reported that 31% of Latinos have reported personal experiences with discrimination whilst 82% of Latinos believe that discrimination plays a crucial role in whether or not they will find success while they are living in the United States.[131] The current legislation on immigration policies also plays a crucial role in creating a hostile and discriminatory environment for immigrants. In order to measure the discrimination which immigrants are being subjected to, researchers must take into account the immigrants' perception that they are being targeted for discrimination and they must also be aware that instances of discrimination can also vary based on: personal experiences, social attitudes and ethnic group barriers. The immigrant experience is associated with lower self-esteem, internalized symptoms and behavioral problems amongst Mexican youth. It is also known that more time which is spent living in the United States is associated with increased feelings of distress, depression and anxiety.[131] Like many other Latin American groups that migrate to the United States, these groups are often stigmatized. An example of this stigmatization occurred after 9/11, when people who were considered threats to national security were frequently described with terms like migrant and the "Latino Other" along with other terms like refugee and asylum seeker.[132]


The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 significantly changed how the United States dealt with immigration. Under this new law, immigrants who overstayed their visas or were found to be in the United States illegally were subject to be detained and/or deported without legal representation. Immigrants who broke these laws may not be allowed back into the country. Similarly, this law made it more difficult for other immigrants who want to enter the U.S or gain legal status. These laws also expanded the types of offenses that can be considered worthy of deportation for documented immigrants.[133] Policies enacted by future presidents further limit the number of immigrants entering the country and their expedited removal.

Many illegal immigrant families cannot enjoy doing everyday activities without exercising caution because they fear encountering immigration officers which limits their involvement in community events. Undocumented families also do not trust government institutions and services. Because of their fear of encountering immigration officers, illegal immigrants often feel ostracized and isolated which can lead to the development of mental health issues such as depression and anxiety.[133] The harmful effects of being ostracized from the rest of society are not limited to just that of undocumented immigrants but it affects the entire family even if some of the members are of legal status. Children often reported having been victims of bullying in school by classmates because their parents are undocumented.[134] This can cause them to feel isolated and develop a sense of inferiority which can negatively impact their academic performance.


Brazilian-American Luciana Borio infectious disease physician and medical/public health administrator. On November 9, 2020, U.S. president-elect Joe Biden named Borio to be one of the 13 members of his COVID-19 Advisory Board.
Brazilian-American Luciana Borio infectious disease physician and medical/public health administrator. On November 9, 2020, U.S. president-elect Joe Biden named Borio to be one of the 13 members of his COVID-19 Advisory Board.

Despite the struggles Latino families encounter, they have found ways to keep motivated. Many immigrants use religion as a source of motivation. Mexican immigrants believed that the difficulties they face are a part of God's bigger plan and believe their life will get better in the end. They kept their faith strong and pray every day, hoping that God will keep their families safe.[135] Immigrants participate in church services and bond with other immigrants that share the same experiences.[133] Undocumented Latinos also find support from friends, family and the community that serve as coping mechanisms. Some Latinos state that their children are the reason they have the strength to keep on going. They want their children to have a future and give them things they aren't able to have themselves.[135] The community is able to provide certain resources that immigrant families need such as tutoring for their children, financial assistance and counseling services.[133] Some identified that maintaining a positive mental attitude helped them cope with the stresses they experience. Many immigrants refuse to live their life in constant fear which leads to depression in order to enjoy life in the United States.[135] Since many immigrants have unstable sources of income, many plan ahead in order to prevent future financial stress. They put money aside and find ways to save money instead of spend it such as learning to fix appliances themselves.[135]


Many Latino families migrate to find better economic opportunities in order to send remittances back home. Being undocumented limits the possibilities of jobs that immigrants undertake and many struggle to find a stable job. Many Latinos report that companies turned them down because they do not have a Social Security number. If they are able to obtain a job, immigrants risk losing it if their employer finds out they are unable to provide proof of residency or citizenship. Many look towards agencies that do not ask for identification, but those jobs are often unreliable. In order to prevent themselves from being detained and deported, many have to work under exploitation. In a study, a participant reported "If someone knows that you don't have the papers. . .that person is a danger. Many people will con them. . . if they know you don't have the papers, with everything they say 'hey I'm going to call immigration on you.'".[135] These conditions lower the income that Latino families bring to their household and some find living each day very difficult. When an undocumented parent is deported or detained, income will be lowered significantly if the other parent also supports the family financially. The parent who is left has to look after the family and might find working difficult to manage along with other responsibilities. Even if families aren't separated, Latinos are constantly living in fear that they will lose their economic footing.

Living in poverty has been linked to depression, low self-esteem, loneliness, crime activities and frequent drug use among youth.[133] Families with low incomes are unable to afford adequate housing and some of them are evicted. The environment in which the children of undocumented immigrants grow up in is often composed of poor air quality, noise, and toxins which prevent healthy development.[133] Furthermore, these neighborhoods are prone to violence and gang activities, forcing the families to live in constant fear which can contribute to the development of PTSD, aggression and depression.

Economic outlook

Median U.S. household income by Nationality (2015)
Ethnicity Income
Argentinian $60,640
Spanish $60,000
Venezuelan $56,800
Peruvian $56,000
Colombian $54,500
Ecuadorian $51,000
Nicaraguan $51,000
Salvadoran $47,600
Cubans $44,400
Mexican $44,200
Puerto Rican $40,500
Guatemalan $40,200
Dominican $36,800
Hondurans $36,800

Median income

In 2017, the US Census reported the median household incomes of Latino Americans to be $50,486. This is the third consecutive annual increase in median household income for Latino-origin households.[89]


Beginning of Calle Ocho (eighth Street) in Little Havana of Miami, Florida, United States.
Beginning of Calle Ocho (eighth Street) in Little Havana of Miami, Florida, United States.

According to the US Census, the poverty rate Latinos was 18.3 percent in 2017, down from 19.4 percent in 2016. Latinos accounted for 10.8 million individuals in poverty.[89] In comparison, the average poverty rates in 2017 for non-Latino white Americans was 8.7 percent with 17 million individuals in poverty, Asian Americans was 10.0 percent with 2 million individuals in poverty, and African Americans was 21.2 percent with 9 million individuals in poverty.[89]

Among the largest Latino groups during 2015 was: Honduran Americans & Dominican Americans (27%), Guatemalan Americans (26%), Puerto Ricans (24%), Mexican Americans (23%), Salvadoran Americans (20%), Cuban Americans and Venezuelan Americans (17%), Ecuadorian Americans (15%), Nicaraguan Americans (14%), Colombian Americans (13%), Argentinian Americans (11%) and Peruvian Americans (10%).[137]

Poverty affects many underrepresented students as racial/ethnic minorities tend to stay isolated within pockets of low-income communities. This results in several inequalities, such as "school offerings, teacher quality, curriculum, counseling and all manner of things that both keep students engaged in school and prepare them to graduate".[138] In the case of Latinos, the poverty rate for Latino children in 2004 was 28.6 percent.[96] Moreover, with this lack of resources, schools reproduce these inequalities for generations to come. In order to assuage poverty, many Latino families can turn to social and community services as resources.

Cultural matters

The geographic, political, social, economic and racial diversity of Latino Americans makes all Latinos very different depending on their family heritage and/or national origin. Many times, there are many cultural similarities between Latinos from neighboring countries than from more distant countries, ie Spanish Caribbean, Southern Cone, Central America etc. Yet several features tend to unite Latinos from these diverse backgrounds.



As one of the most important uniting factors of Latino Americans, Spanish is an important part of Latin American culture. Teaching Spanish to children is often one of the most valued skills taught amongst Latino families. Spanish is not only closely tied with the person's family, heritage, and overall culture, but valued for increased opportunities in business and one's future professional career. A 2013 Pew Research survey showed that 95% of Latinos adults said "it's important that future generations of Hispanics speak Spanish".[139][140] Given the United States' proximity to other Spanish-speaking countries, Spanish is being passed on to future American generations. Amongst second-generation Latinos, 80% speak fluent Spanish, and amongst third-generation Latinos, 40% speak fluent Spanish.[141] Spanish is also the most popular language taught in the United States.[142][143]

Latinos have revived the Spanish language in the United States. First brought to North America by the Spanish during the Spanish colonial period in the 16th century, Spanish was the first European language spoken in the Americas. Spanish is the oldest European language in the United States, spoken uninterruptedly for four and a half centuries, since the founding of Saint Augustine, Florida in 1565.[144][145][146][147] Today, 90% of all Hispanics and Latinos speak English, and at least 78% speak fluent Spanish.[148] Additionally, 2.8 million non-Latino Americans also speak Spanish at home for a total of 41.1 million.[90]

With 40% of Latino Americans being immigrants,[149] and with many of the 60% who are US-born being the children or grandchildren of immigrants, bilingualism is the norm in the community at large. At home, at least 69% of all Latinos over the age of five are bilingual in English and Spanish, whereas up to 22% are monolingual English-speakers, and 9% are monolingual Spanish speakers. Another 0.4% speak a language other than English and Spanish at home.[148]

American Spanish dialects

Spanish speakers
in the United States
Year Number of
Percent of
1980 11.0 million 5%
1990 17.3 million 7%
2000 28.1 million 10%
2010 37.0 million 13%
2012 38.3 million 13%
2020* 40.0 million 14%
*-Projected; sources:[139][150][151][152]

The Spanish dialects spoken in the United States differ depending on the country of origin of the person or the person's family heritage. However, generally, Spanish spoken in the Southwest is Mexican Spanish (or Chicano Spanish). An old, colonial variety of Spanish is spoken by descendants of the early Spanish colonists in New Mexico and Colorado, which is New Mexican Spanish. One of the major distinctions of New Mexican Spanish is its heavy use of colonial vocabulary and verb tenses that make New Mexican Spanish uniquely American amongst Spanish dialects. The Spanish spoken in the East Coast is Caribbean Spanish and is heavily influenced by the Spanish of Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Canarian Spanish is the historic Spanish dialect spoken by the descendants of the earliest Spanish colonists beginning in the 18th century in Louisiana. Spanish spoken elsewhere throughout the country varies, although is generally Mexican Spanish.[90][153]

Heritage Spanish speakers tend to speak Spanish with near-native level phonology, but a more limited command of morphosyntax.[154] Latinos who speak Spanish as a second language often speak with English accents.

Spanglish and English dialects

Latinos have influenced the way Americans speak with the introduction of many Spanish words into the English language. Amongst younger generations of Latinos, Spanglish, or a mix of Spanish and English, may be a common way of speaking. Although they are fluent in both languages, speakers will switch between Spanish and English throughout the conversation. Spanglish is particularly common in Latino-majority cities and communities such as Miami, Hialeah, San Antonio, Los Angeles and New York City.[155]

Latinos have also influenced the way English is spoken in the United States. In Miami, for example, the Miami dialect has evolved as the most common form of English spoken and heard in Miami today. This is a native dialect of English, and was developed amongst second and third generations of Cuban Americans in Miami. Today, it is commonly heard everywhere throughout the city. Gloria Estefan and Enrique Iglesias are examples of people who speak with the Miami dialect. Another major English dialect, is spoken by Chicanos and Tejanos in the Southwestern United States, called Chicano English. George Lopez and Selena are examples of speakers of Chicano English.[156] An English dialect spoken by Puerto Ricans and other Latino groups is called New York Latino English.


A Pew Center study in 2019, found that the majority of Latino Americans are Christians (72%),[157] Among American Latinos, as of 2018–19, 47% are Catholic, 24% are Protestant, 1% are Mormon, fewer than 1% are Orthodox Christian, 3% are members of non-Christian faiths, and 23% are unaffiliated.[157] The proportion of Latinos who are Catholic has dropped from 2009 (when it was 57%), while the proportion of unaffiliated Latinos has increased since 2009 (when it was 15%).[157] Among Latino Protestant community, most are evangelical, but some belong to mainline denominations.[158] Compared to Catholic, unaffiliated, and mainline Protestant Latinos; Evangelical Protestant Latinos are substantially more likely to attend services weekly, pray daily, and adhere to biblical liberalism.[158] As of 2014, about 67% of Latino Protestants and about 52% of Latino Catholics were renewalist, meaning that they described themselves as Pentecostal or charismatic Christians (in the Catholic tradition, called Catholic Charismatic Renewal).[159]

Catholic affiliation is much higher among first-generation than it is among second- or third-generation Latino immigrants, who exhibit a fairly high rate of conversion to Protestantism or to the unaffiliated camp.[160] According to Andrew Greeley, as many as 600,000 American Latinos leave Catholicism for Protestant churches every year, and this figure is much higher in Texas and Florida.[161] Latino Catholics are developing youth and social programs to retain members.[162]

Latinos make up a substantial proportion (almost 40%) of the Catholics in the United States,[163] although the number of American Latino priests is low relative to Latino membership in the church.[164] In 2019, José Horacio Gómez, Archbishop of Los Angeles and a naturalized American citizen born in Mexico, was elected as president of the US Conference of Catholic Bishops.[163]


Univision is the country's largest Spanish language network, followed by Telemundo
Univision is the country's largest Spanish language network, followed by Telemundo
Telemundo is the country's second largest Spanish language network, behind Univisión
Telemundo is the country's second largest Spanish language network, behind Univisión

The United States is home to thousands of Spanish-language media outlets, which range in size from giant commercial and some non-commercial broadcasting networks and major magazines with circulations numbering in the millions, to low-power AM radio stations with listeners numbering in the hundreds. There are hundreds of Internet media outlets targeting US Latino consumers. Some of the outlets are online versions of their printed counterparts and some online exclusively.

Increased use of Spanish-language media leads to increased levels of group consciousness, according to survey data. The differences in attitudes are due to the diverging goals of Spanish-language and English-language media. The effect of using Spanish-language media serves to promote a sense of group consciousness among Latinos by reinforcing roots in Latin America and the commonalities among Latinos of varying national origin.[165][166]

The first Latino-American owned major film studio in the United States is based in Atlanta, Georgia. In 2017, Ozzie and Will Areu purchased Tyler Perry's former studio to establish Areu Bros. Studios.[167][168]


Spanish language radio is the largest non-English broadcasting media.[169] While other foreign language broadcasting declined steadily, Spanish broadcasting grew steadily from the 1920s to the 1970s. The 1930s were boom years.[170] The early success depended on the concentrated geographical audience in Texas and the Southwest.[171] American stations were close to Mexico which enabled a steady circular flow of entertainers, executives and technicians, and stimulated the creative initiatives of Latino radio executives, brokers, and advertisers. Ownership was increasingly concentrated in the 1960s and 1970s. The industry sponsored the now-defunct trade publication Sponsor from the late 1940s to 1968.[172] Spanish-language radio has influenced American and Latino discourse on key current affairs issues such as citizenship and immigration.[173]


Notable Latino-oriented media outlets include:

Maria Cardona hosts the talk show ¡MARIA! on El Rey Network.
Maria Cardona hosts the talk show ¡MARIA! on El Rey Network.
  • CNN en Español, a Spanish-language news network based in Atlanta, Georgia;
  • ESPN Deportes and Fox Deportes, two Spanish-language sports television networks.
  • Telemundo, the second-largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally;
    • TeleXitos an American Spanish language digital multicast television network owned by NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises.
    • Universo, a cable network that produces content for U.S.-born Latino audiences;
  • Univisión, the largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally. It is the country's fourth-largest network overall;[174]
    • UniMás, an American Spanish language free-to-air television network owned by Univision Communications.
    • Fusion TV, an English television channel targeting Latino audiences with news and satire programming;
    • Galavisión, a Spanish-language television channel targeting Latino audiences with general entertainment programming;
  • Estrella TV, an American Spanish-language broadcast television network owned by the Estrella Media.
  • V-me, a Spanish-language television network;
    • Primo TV, an English-language cable channel aimed at Latino youth.;
  • Azteca América, a Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally;
  • Fuse, a former music channel that merged with the Latino-oriented NuvoTV in 2015.
    • FM, a music-centric channel that replaced NuvoTV following the latter's merger with Fuse in 2015.
  • 3ABN Latino, a Spanish-language Christian television network based in West Frankfort, Illinois;
  • TBN Enlace USA, a Spanish-language Christian television network based in Tustin, California;


Sports and music

Because of different cultures throughout Latin America, there are various music forms throughout Latin American countries, with different sounds and origins. Many Latinos prefer musical genres from their home countries than music from the United States. Mostly, the recent arrivals listened to Spanish music, while Latinos who been in the United States for generations tend to listen more to English music. Reggaeton and Hip hop music are genres that are most popular to Latino youth in the United States.

Soccer is a common sport for Latinos from outside of the Caribbean region, particularly immigrants. Baseball is a common among Caribbean Latinos. Other popular sports include Boxing, American Football, and Basketball.


Mexican food has become part of the mainstream American market, just as Italian food did so decades before.
Mexican food has become part of the mainstream American market, just as Italian food did so decades before.

Latino food, particularly Mexican food, has influenced American cuisine and eating habits. Mexican cuisine has become so mainstream in American culture that many no longer see it as an ethnic food. Across the United States, tortillas and salsa are arguably becoming as common as hamburger buns and ketchup. Tortilla chips have surpassed potato chips in annual sales, and plantain chips popular in Caribbean cuisines have continued to increase sales.[175] Tropical fruit, such as mango, guava and passion fruit (maracuyá), have become more popular and are now common flavors in desserts, candies and food dishes in the United States.[citation needed]

Due to the large Mexican-American population in the Southwestern United States, and its proximity to Mexico, Mexican food there is believed to be some of the best in the United States. Cubans brought Cuban cuisine to Miami and today, cortaditos, pastelitos de guayaba and empanadas are common mid-day snacks in the city. Cuban culture has changed Miami's coffee drinking habits, and today a café con leche or a cortadito is commonly had at one of the city's numerous coffee shops.[176] The Cuban sandwich, developed in Miami, is now a staple and icon of the city's cuisine and culture.[177]

Familial situations

Family life and values

Mexican American girls at a Quinceañera celebration in Santa Fe, New Mexico
Mexican American girls at a Quinceañera celebration in Santa Fe, New Mexico

Latino culture places a strong value on family, and is commonly taught to Latino children as one of the most important values in life. Statistically, Latino families tend to have larger and closer knit families than the American average. Latino families tend to prefer to live near other family members. This may mean that three or sometimes four generations may be living in the same household or near each other, although four generations is uncommon in the United States. The role of grandparents is believed to be very important in the upbringing of children.[178]

Latinos tend to be very group-oriented, and an emphasis is placed on the well-being of the family above the individual. The extended family plays an important part of many Latino families, and frequent social, family gatherings are common. Traditional rites of passages, particularly Roman Catholic sacraments: such as baptisms, birthdays, First Holy Communions, quinceañeras/Baile de debutante (for Brazilians), Confirmations, graduations and weddings are all popular moments of family gatherings and celebrations in Latino families.[179][180]

Education is another important priority for Latino families. Education is seen as the key towards continued upward mobility in the United States among Latino families. A 2010 study by the Associated Press showed that Latinos place a higher emphasis on education than the average American. Latinos expect their children to graduate university.[181][182]

Latin American youth today stay at home with their parents longer than before. This is due to more years spent studying and the difficulty of finding a paid job that meets their aspirations.[183]


Mariah Carey's father was of African-American and Afro-Venezuelan descent, while her mother is of Irish descent.
Mariah Carey's father was of African-American and Afro-Venezuelan descent, while her mother is of Irish descent.

Latino Americans, like immigrant groups before them, are out-marrying at high rates. Out-marriages comprised 17.4% of all existing Latino marriages in 2008.[184] The rate was higher for newlyweds (which excludes immigrants who are already married): Among all newlyweds in 2010, 25.7% of all Latinos married a non-Latino (this compares to out-marriage rates of 9.4% of whites, 17.1% of blacks, and 27.7% of Asians). The rate was larger for native-born Latinos, with 36.2% of native-born Latinos (both men and women) out-marrying compared to 14.2% of foreign-born Latinos.[185] The difference is attributed to recent immigrants tending to marry within their immediate immigrant community due to commonality of language, proximity, familial connections, and familiarity.[184]

In 2008, 81% of Latinos who married out married non-Latino whites, 9% married non-Latino blacks, 5% non-Latino Asians, and the remainder married non-Latino, multi-racial partners.[184]

Rosa Salazar is of Peruvian and French descent.[186]

Of approximately 275,500 new interracial or interethnic marriages in 2010, 43.3% were white-Latino (compared to white-Asian at 14.4%, white-black at 11.9%, and other combinations at 30.4%; "other combinations" consists of pairings between different minority groups, multi-racial people, and American Indians).[185] Unlike those for marriage to blacks and Asians, intermarriage rates of Latinos to whites do not vary by gender. The combined median earnings of white/Latino couples are lower than those of white/white couples but higher than those of Latino/Latino couples. 23% of Latino men who married white women have a college degree compared to only 10% of Latino men who married a Latina woman. 33% of Latina women who married a white husband are college-educated compared to 13% of Latina women who married a Latino man.[185]

Attitudes among non-Latinos toward intermarriage with Latinos are mostly favorable, with 81% of whites, 76% of Asians and 73% of blacks "being fine" with a member of their family marrying a Latino and an additional 13% of whites, 19% of Asians and 16% of blacks "being bothered but accepting of the marriage". Only 2% of whites, 4% of Asians, and 5% of blacks would not accept a marriage of their family member to a Latino.[184]

Latino attitudes toward intermarriage with non-Latinos are likewise favorable, with 81% "being fine" with marriages to whites and 73% "being fine" with marriages to blacks. A further 13% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a white and 22% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a black. Only 5% of Latinos objected outright marriage of a family member to a non-Latino black and 2% to a non-Latino white.[184]

Unlike intermarriage with other racial groups, intermarriage with non-Latino blacks varies by nationality of origin. Puerto Ricans have by far the highest rates of intermarriage with blacks, of all major Latino national groups, who also has the highest overall intermarriage rate among Latinos.[181][187][188][189][190][191][192][193][194][195] Cubans have the highest rate of intermarriage with non-Latino whites, of all major Latino national groups, and are the most assimilated into white American culture.[196][197] Mexican Americans, who are the majority of the US Latino population, are most likely to intermarry with whites and Asians when marrying out.[citation needed] However, similar to non-Latino blacks and whites, there are many Latinos who choose to stick to other Latinos when it comes to marriage and family creation, this sentiment is especially true among the majority of Dominicans, as well as some Mexicans, Colombians, and Latinos from various Central American countries.[citation needed]

Cultural adjustment

As Latin American migrants become the norm in the United States, the effects of this migration on the identity of these migrants and their kin becomes most evident in the younger generations. Crossing the borders changes the identities of both the youth and their families. Often "one must pay special attention to the role expressive culture plays as both entertainment and as a site in which identity is played out, empowered, and reformed" because it is "sometimes in opposition to dominant norms and practices and sometimes in conjunction with them."[198] The exchange of their culture of origin with American culture creates a dichotomy within the values that the youth find important, therefore changing what it means to be Latino in the global sphere.


Camila Cabello was born in Cuba. She moved between Havana and Mexico City before locating to Miami at age 5.
Camila Cabello was born in Cuba. She moved between Havana and Mexico City before locating to Miami at age 5.

Along with feeling that they are neither from the country of their ethnic background nor the United States, a new identity within the United States is formed called latinidad. This is especially seen in cosmopolitan social settings like New York City, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Underway is "the intermeshing of different Latino subpopulations has laid the foundations for the emergence and ongoing evolution of a strong sense of latinidad" which establishes a "sense of cultural affinity and identity deeply rooted in what many Latinos perceive to be a shared historical, spiritual, aesthetic and linguistic heritage, and a growing sense of cultural affinity and solidarity in the social context of the United States."[198] This unites Latinos as one, creating cultural kin with other Latino ethnicities.

Gender roles

Genesis Rodriguez actress and model. Her father, José Luis Rodríguez, actor and singer is known by the nickname "El Puma".
Genesis Rodriguez actress and model. Her father, José Luis Rodríguez, actor and singer is known by the nickname "El Puma".

Migration to the United States can change identity for Latino youth in various way, including how they carry their gendered identities. In traditional Latino households, women and young girls are homebodies or muchachas de la casa ("girls of the house"), showing that they abide "by the cultural norms ... [of] respectability, chastity, and family honor [as] valued by the [Latino] community".[199] However, when Latina women come to the United States, they tend to adapt to the perceived social norms of this new country, and their social location changes as they become more independent and able to live without the financial support of their families or partners. The unassimilated community views these adapting women as being de la calle ("of [or from] the street"), transgressive and sexually promiscuous. Some Latino families in the United States "deal with young women's failure to adhere to these culturally prescribed norms of proper gendered behavior in a variety of ways, including sending them to live in ... [the sending country] with family members, regardless of whether or not ... [the young women] are sexually active".[200]

Along with the increase in independence amongst these young women, there is a diminution in the power of vergüenza ("shame") in many of the relations between the two sexes. To have vergüenza is to assert male dominance in all spheres, especially in a man's relationship with his female partner; the concept is enforced through shaming males into comporting themselves with a macho (literally, "male" or "masculine") archetype in order to establish respect, dominance, and manliness in their social ambits. Although many Latina women in the homeland as well as older Latina women in the United States reinforce this dynamic by not wanting a man who is a sinvergüenza ("shameless one"), some Latino youth accept the label of sinvergüenza and now wear it proudly. Feeling caught between two distinct societies causes youth to "meditate between the two cultures and [instills] ambivalence toward feeling a lack of vergüenza",[201] resulting in a group of youth who celebrate being sinvergüenza while still acknowledging the concept of vergüenza within a part of their increasingly composite culture.


Natalie Morales interviewing Jill Biden at the White House in 2016.
Natalie Morales interviewing Jill Biden at the White House in 2016.

With the Catholic Church remaining a large influence on the Latino culture, the subject of promiscuity and sexuality is often considered taboo. It is taught in many Latino cultures that best way to remain pure of sin and not become pregnant is to remain celibate and heterosexual. All are to be straight and women are to be virgins. A woman must carry herself like Mary in order to receive respect and keep the family's honor.[citation needed]

Relations towards other minority groups

Sunny Hostin American lawyer, columnist, journalist, and television host. Hostin was born to a Puerto Rican mother, and an African-American, her maternal grandfather was of Sephardic Jewish descent
Sunny Hostin American lawyer, columnist, journalist, and television host. Hostin was born to a Puerto Rican mother, and an African-American, her maternal grandfather was of Sephardic Jewish descent

As a result of the rapid growth of the Latino population, there has been some tension with other minority populations,[202] especially the African-American population, as Latinos have increasingly moved into once exclusively black areas.[203][204][205][206][207][208][209][210][211][212][213] There has also been increasing cooperation between minority groups to work together to attain political influence.[214][215][216][217][218]

  • A 2007 UCLA study reported that 51% of blacks felt that Latinos were taking jobs and political power from them and 44% of Latinos said they feared African-Americans, identifying them (African-Americans) with high crime rates. That said, large majorities of Latinos credited American blacks and the civil rights movement with making life easier for them in the United States.[219][220]
  • A Pew Research Center poll from 2006 showed that blacks overwhelmingly felt that Latin American immigrants were hard working (78%) and had strong family values (81%); 34% believed that immigrants took jobs from Americans, 22% of blacks believed that they had directly lost a job to an immigrant, and 34% of blacks wanted immigration to be curtailed. The report also surveyed three cities: Chicago (with its well-established Latino community); Washington, D.C. (with a less-established but quickly growing Latino community); and Raleigh-Durham (with a very new but rapidly growing Latino community). The results showed that a significant proportion of blacks in those cities wanted immigration to be curtailed: Chicago (46%), Raleigh-Durham (57%), and Washington, DC (48%).[221]
  • Per a 2008 University of California, Berkeley Law School research brief, a recurring theme to black/Latino tensions is the growth in "contingent, flexible, or contractor labor," which is increasingly replacing long term steady employment for jobs on the lower-rung of the pay scale (which had been disproportionately filled by blacks). The transition to this employment arrangement corresponds directly with the growth in the Latino immigrant population. The perception is that this new labor arrangement has driven down wages, removed benefits, and rendered temporary, jobs that once were stable (but also benefiting consumers who receive lower-cost services) while passing the costs of labor (healthcare and indirectly education) onto the community at large.[222]
  • A 2008 Gallup poll indicated that 60% of Latinos and 67% of blacks believe that good relations exist between US blacks and Latinos[223] while only 29% of blacks, 36% of Latinos and 43% of whites, say black–Latino relations are bad.[223]
  • In 2009, in Los Angeles County, Latinos committed 30% of the hate crimes against black victims and blacks committed 70% of the hate crimes against Latinos.[224]


Current Hispanics and Latinos in United States government
Name Political party State First elected Ancestry
Supreme Court
Sonia Sotomayor N/A 2009[a] Puerto Rican
State Governors
Chris Sununu Republican New Hampshire 2016 Salvadoran, Cuban
Michelle Lujan Grisham Democrat New Mexico 2018 Hispanos of New Mexico
US Senate
Bob Menéndez Democrat New Jersey 2006 Cuban
Marco Rubio Republican Florida 2010 Cuban
Ted Cruz Republican Texas 2012 Cuban
Catherine Cortez Masto Democrat Nevada 2016 Mexican
Ben Ray Luján Democrat New Mexico 2020 Hispanos of New Mexico
Alex Padilla Democrat California 2021[b] Mexican
US House of Representatives
José E. Serrano Democrat New York 1990 Puerto Rican
Lucille Roybal-Allard Democrat California 1992 Mexican
Nydia Velázquez Democrat New York 1992 Puerto Rican
Grace Napolitano Democrat California 1998 Mexican
Mario Díaz-Balart Republican Florida 2002 Cuban
Raúl Grijalva Democrat Arizona 2002 Mexican
Linda Sánchez Democrat California 2002 Mexican
Henry Roberto Cuellar Democrat Texas 2004 Mexican
Albio Sires Democrat New Jersey 2006 Cuban
John Garamendi Democrat California 2009 Spanish
Bill Flores Republican Texas 2010 Mexican
Jaime Herrera Republican Washington 2010 Mexican
Tony Cárdenas Democrat California 2012 Mexican
Joaquin Castro Democrat Texas 2012 Mexican
Raúl Ruiz Democrat California 2012 Mexican
Juan Vargas Democrat California 2012 Mexican
Filemon Vela Jr. Democrat Texas 2012 Mexican
Pete Aguilar Democrat California 2014 Mexican
Ruben Gallego Democrat Arizona 2014 Colombian
Alex Mooney Republican West Virginia 2014 Cuban
Norma Torres Democrat California 2014 Guatemalan
Nanette Barragán Democrat California 2016 Mexican
Salud Carbajal Democrat California 2016 Mexican
Lou Correa Democrat California 2016 Mexican
Adriano Espaillat Democrat New York 2016 Dominican
Vicente González Democrat Texas 2016 Mexican
Brian Mast Republican Florida 2016 Mexican
Darren Soto Democrat Florida 2016 Puerto Rican
Jimmy Gomez Democrat California 2017 Mexican
Antonio Delgado Democrat New York 2018 Puerto Rican
Veronica Escobar Democrat Texas 2018 Mexican
Chuy García Democrat Illinois 2018 Mexican
Sylvia Garcia Democrat Texas 2018 Mexican
Anthony Gonzalez Republican Ohio 2018 Cuban
Mike Levin Democrat California 2018 Mexican
Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez Democrat New York 2018 Puerto Rican
Mike Garcia Republican California 2020 Mexican
Carlos A. Giménez Republican Florida 2020 Cuban
Tony Gonzales Republican Texas 2020 Mexican
Teresa Leger Democrat New Mexico 2020 Mexican
Nicole Malliotakis Republican New York 2020 Cuban
Maria Elvira Salazar Republican Florida 2020 Cuban
Ritchie Torres Democrat New York 2020 Puerto Rican
Congressional Hispanic Conference members met with Attorney General Al Gonzales
Congressional Hispanic Conference members met with Attorney General Al Gonzales

Political affiliations

Delegate Joseph Marion Hernández of the Florida Territory, elected in 1822, the first Hispanic or Latino American to serve in the United States Congress in any capacity
Delegate Joseph Marion Hernández of the Florida Territory, elected in 1822, the first Hispanic or Latino American to serve in the United States Congress in any capacity

Latinos differ on their political views depending on their location and background. The majority (57%)[225] either identify as or support the Democrats, and 23% identify as Republicans.[225] This 34-point gap as of December 2007 was an increase from the gap of 21 points 16 months earlier.

Cuban Americans, Colombian Americans, Chilean Americans, and Venezuelan Americans tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans. Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominican Americans tend to favor progressive political ideologies and support the Democrats. However, because the latter groups are far more numerous—as, again, Mexican Americans alone are 64% of Latinos—the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position with the ethnic group overall.

Some political organizations associated with Latino Americans are League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), the United Farm Workers, the Cuban American National Foundation and the National Institute for Latino Policy.

Political impact

The United States has a population of over 60 million of Latino Americans, of whom 27 million are citizens eligible to vote (13% of total eligible voters); therefore, Latinos have a very important effect on presidential elections since the vote difference between two main parties is usually around 4%.[226][227][228][229]

Elections of 1996-2006

U.S. President George W. Bush announces Alberto Gonzales nomination as the Attorney General
U.S. President George W. Bush announces Alberto Gonzales nomination as the Attorney General
Barbara Vucanovich the first Latina elected to the United States House of Representatives, in which she served representing Nevada
Barbara Vucanovich the first Latina elected to the United States House of Representatives, in which she served representing Nevada

In the 1996 presidential election, 72% of Latinos backed President Bill Clinton. In 2000, the Democratic total fell to 62%, and went down again in 2004, with Democrat John Kerry winning Latinos 58–40 against Bush.[230] Latinos in the West, especially in California, were much stronger for the Democratic Party than in Texas and Florida. California Latinos voted 63–32 for Kerry in 2004, and both Arizona and New Mexico Latinos by a smaller 56–43 margin. Texas Latinos were split nearly evenly, favoring Kerry 50–49 over their favorite son candidate and Florida Latinos (who are mostly Cuban American) backed Bush, by a 54–45 margin.

In the 2006 midterm election, however, due to the unpopularity of the Iraq War, the heated debate concerning illegal Latin American immigration and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Latinos went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years. Exit polls showed the group voting for Democrats by a lopsided 69–30 margin, with Florida Latinos for the first time split evenly.

The runoff election in Texas' 23rd congressional district was seen as a bellwether of Latino politics. Democrat Ciro Rodriguez's unexpected (and unexpectedly decisive) defeat of Republican incumbent Henry Bonilla was seen as proof of a leftward lurch among Latino voters; majority-Latino counties overwhelmingly backed Rodriguez and majority European-American counties overwhelmingly backed Bonilla.

Elections 2008-2012

Ileana Ros-Lehtinen became the first Cuban American Latina in congress and first Latina chair of the Congressional Hispanic Conference.
Ileana Ros-Lehtinen became the first Cuban American Latina in congress and first Latina chair of the Congressional Hispanic Conference.

In the 2008 Presidential election's Democratic primary, Latinos participated in larger numbers than before, with Hillary Clinton receiving most of the group's support.[231] Pundits discussed whether Latinos would not vote for Barack Obama because he was African-American.[232] Latinos voted 2 to 1 for Mrs. Clinton, even among the younger demographic. In other groups, younger voters went overwhelmingly for Obama.[233] Among Latinos, 28% said race was involved in their decision, as opposed to 13% for (non-Latino) whites.[233] Obama defeated Clinton.

Susana Martinez, first elected Latina Governor in the United States
Susana Martinez, first elected Latina Governor in the United States

In the matchup between Obama and Republican candidate John McCain, Latinos supported Obama with 59% to McCain's 29% in the June 30 Gallup tracking poll.[234] This was higher than expected, since McCain had been a leader of the comprehensive immigration reform effort (John McCain was born in Panama to parents who were serving in the US Navy, but raised in the United States).[235] However, McCain had retreated from reform during the Republican primary, damaging his standing among Latinos.[236] Obama took advantage of the situation by running ads in Spanish highlighting McCain's reversal.[237]

In the general election, 67% of Latinos voted for Obama.[238][239] with a relatively strong turnout in states such as Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada and Virginia, helping Obama carry those formerly Republican states. Obama won 70% of non-Cuban Latinos and 35% of the traditionally Republican Cuban Americans who have a strong presence in Florida. The relative growth of non-Cuban vs Cuban Latinos also contributed to his carrying Florida's Latinos with 57% of the vote.[238][240]

While employment and the economy were top concerns for Latinos, almost 90% of Latino voters rated immigration as "somewhat important" or "very important" in a poll taken after the election.[241] Republican opposition to the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 had damaged the party's appeal to Latinos, especially in swing states such as Florida, Nevada and New Mexico.[241] In a Gallup poll of Latino voters taken in the final days of June 2008, only 18% of participants identified as Republicans.[234]

Latinos voted even more heavily for Democrats in the 2012 election with the Democratic incumbent Barack Obama receiving 71% and the Republican challenger Mitt Romney receiving about 27% of the vote.[242][243] Some Latino leaders were offended by remarks Romney made during a fundraiser, when he suggested that cultural differences[244] and "the hand of providence"[245][246] help explain why Israelis are more economically successful than Palestinians, and why similar economic disparities exist between other neighbors, such as the United States and Mexico, or Chile and Ecuador.[247] A senior aide to Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas called the remarks racist,[246][248] as did American political scientist Angelo Falcón, president of the National Institute of Latino Policy.[249] Mitt Romney father was born to American parents in a Mormon colony in Chihuahua, Mexico.

Elections 2014–present

Debbie Mucarsel-Powell, first South American immigrant member of Congress, elected in 2018
Debbie Mucarsel-Powell, first South American immigrant member of Congress, elected in 2018
U.S. Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (NY), also known as AOC, representing parts of The Bronx and Queens, became at age 29, the youngest woman ever to be elected to Congress in November 2018.
U.S. Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (NY), also known as AOC, representing parts of The Bronx and Queens, became at age 29, the youngest woman ever to be elected to Congress in November 2018.

"More convincing data" from the 2016 United States presidential election[250] from the polling firm Latino Decisions indicates that Clinton received a higher share of the Latino vote, and Trump a lower share, than the Edison exit polls showed. Using wider, more geographically and linguistically representative sampling, Latino Decisions concluded that Clinton won 79% of Latino voters (also an improvement over Obama's share in 2008 and 2012), while Trump won only 18% (lower than previous Republicans such as Romney and McCain).[251] Additionally, the 2016 Cooperative Congressional Election Study found that Clinton's share of the Latino vote was one percentage point higher than Obama's in 2012, while Trump's was seven percentage points lower than Romney's.[252]

On June 26, 2018, Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, a millennial, won the Democratic primary in New York's 14th congressional district covering parts of The Bronx and Queens in New York City, defeating the incumbent, Democratic Caucus Chair Joe Crowley, in what has been described as the biggest upset victory in the 2018 midterm election season and at the age of 29 years, became the youngest woman ever elected to Congress.[253][254] She is a member of the Democratic Socialists of America and has been endorsed by various politically progressive organizations and individuals.[255] According to a Pew Research Center report, the 2020 election will be the first one when Latinos are the largest racial or ethnic minority group in the electorate. A record 32 million Latinos were projected to be eligible to vote in the presidential election, many of them first-time voters. On September 15, 2020, President Donald J. Trump announces his intent to nominate and appoint Eduardo Verastegui, to be a member of the President's Advisory Commission on Hispanic Prosperity if re-elected after days of the Democratic convention.[256]

Latino communities across the United States were long held as a single voting bloc, but economic, geographic and cultural differences show stark divides in how Latino Americans have cast their ballots in 2020. Latinos helped deliver Florida to Donald Trump in part because of Cuban Americans and Venezuelan American (along with smaller populations such as Nicaraguan Americans and Chilean Americans); President Trump's reelection campaign ran pushing a strong anti-socialism message as a strategy in Florida, to their success. However the perceived anti-immigrant rhetoric resonated with Arizona and the COVID-19 pandemic (Arizona being one of the states hardest hit by the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States). The takeaway may be this may be the last election cycle that the "Latino vote" as a whole is more talked about instead of particular communities within it, such as Cubans, Puerto Ricans, Mexican Americans and so on. In Texas like in Arizona the Latino community mainly being Mexican American; one in three Texan voters is now Latino. Biden did win the Latino vote in those states. But in Texas, 41 percent to 47 percent of Latino voters backed Trump in several heavily Latino border counties in the Rio Grande Valley region, a Democratic stronghold. In Florida, Trump won 45 percent of the Latino vote, an 11-point improvement from his 2016 performance reported NBC News.[257] Recognizing Latinos as a population that can not only make a differences in swing states like Arizona and Texas or Florida, but also really across the country, even in places like Wisconsin, Michigan and Pennsylvania, the number of Latino eligible voters may be the reason for the thin margins. In 1984, 37 percent of Latinos voted for Ronald Reagan and 40 percent voted for George W. Bush in 2004.

Year Candidate of
the plurality
% of
1980 Jimmy Carter Democratic 56% Lost
1984 Walter Mondale Democratic 61% Lost
1988 Michael Dukakis Democratic 69% Lost
1992 Bill Clinton Democratic 61% Won
1996 Bill Clinton Democratic 72% Won
2000 Al Gore Democratic 62% Lost
2004 John Kerry Democratic 58% Lost
2008 Barack Obama Democratic 67% Won
2012 Barack Obama Democratic 71% Won
2016 Hillary Clinton Democratic 65% Lost
2020 Joe Biden Democratic 63% Won
Maria Salazar, a journalist, broadcast television anchor and Republican House Member from Florida. She is of Cuban heritage.
Maria Salazar, a journalist, broadcast television anchor and Republican House Member from Florida. She is of Cuban heritage.

In Florida, even though Trump won Florida and gained Latino voters, Biden kept 53% of the Latino vote and Trump 45%. According to NBC News exit polls, 55% of Cuban Americans, 30% of Puerto Ricans and 48% of other Latinos voted for Trump.[258]

Julie Chavez Rodriguez the granddaughter of American labor leader, Cesar Chavez and American labor activist Helen Fabela Chávez became the director of the White House Office of Intergovernmental Affairs in 2021.
Julie Chavez Rodriguez the granddaughter of American labor leader, Cesar Chavez and American labor activist Helen Fabela Chávez became the director of the White House Office of Intergovernmental Affairs in 2021.

Subsections of Latino voters have a range of historical influences vying to affect their votes. Cuban American voters, mostly concentrated in south Florida, tend to vote Republican in part because of their anathema for socialism, the party of Fidel Castro's government that many of their families fled. Mexican Americans, however, have no such historical relationship with either party. Puerto Rican voters who have left the island might be influenced by influenced the territory's move towards statehood, as a referendum for Trump's relief effort after Hurricane Maria, or regarding how it is taxed.[259]

Nationwide, Latinos cast 16.6 million votes in 2020, an increase of 30.9% over the 2016 presidential election.[260]

Notable contributions

Latino Americans have made distinguished contributions to the United States in all major fields, such as politics, the military, music, film, literature, sports, business and finance, and science.[261]

Arts and entertainment

In 1995, the American Latino Media Arts Award, or ALMA Award was created. It is a distinction given to Latino performers (actors, film and television directors and musicians) by the National Council of La Raza. The number of Latin nominees at the Grammy Awards lag behind. Talking to PEOPLE ahead of music's biggest night in 2021, Grammy nominees J Balvin and Ricky Martin reflected on what it is mean to continue to represent Latinos at awards shows like the Grammys. Martin, who served as a pioneer for the "Latin crossover" in the '90s told "When you get nominated, it's the industry telling you, 'Hey Rick, you did a good job this year, congratulations.' Yes, I need that," the 49-year-old says. "When you walk into the studio, you say, 'This got a Grammy potential.' You hear the songs that do and the ones that don't. It's inevitable." Like Selena Gomez tapping into her roots, the influence Latinos and reggaetón are having on the mainstream is undeniable.[262]


Desi Arnaz actor, musician, bandleader, comedian and film and television producer and generally credited as the innovators of the syndicated rerun
Desi Arnaz actor, musician, bandleader, comedian and film and television producer and generally credited as the innovators of the syndicated rerun

There are many Latino American musicians that have achieved international fame, such as Christopher Rios better known by his stage name Big Pun, Jennifer Lopez, Joan Baez, Selena Gomez, Demi Lovato, Fergie, Pitbull, Victoria Justice, Linda Ronstadt, Zack de la Rocha, Gloria Estefan, Celia Cruz, Tito Puente, Kat DeLuna, Selena, Ricky Martin, Marc Anthony, Carlos Santana, Christina Aguilera, Bruno Mars, Mariah Carey, Jerry García, Dave Navarro, Santaye, Elvis Crespo, Romeo Santos, Tom Araya, Becky G, Juan Luis Guerra, Cardi B, Giselle Bellas, Bad Bunny, all of the members of all-female band Go Betty Go, Camila Cabello, and two members of girl group Fifth Harmony: Lauren Jauregui and Ally Brooke.

Jennifer Lopez, a Nuyorican often described as a triple threat entertainer, has extensive discographies performed in both English and Spanish.
Jennifer Lopez, a Nuyorican often described as a triple threat entertainer, has extensive discographies performed in both English and Spanish.

Latin American music imported from Cuba (chachachá, mambo, and rhumba) and Mexico (ranchera and mariachi) had brief periods of popularity during the 1950s. Examples of artists include Celia Cruz, who was a Cuban-American singer and the most popular Latin artist of the 20th century, gaining twenty-three gold albums during her career. Bill Clinton awarded her the National Medal of Arts in 1994.

Among the Latino American musicians who were pioneers in the early stages of rock and roll were Ritchie Valens, who scored several hits, most notably "La Bamba" and Herman Santiago, who wrote the lyrics to the iconic rock and roll song "Why Do Fools Fall in Love". Songs that became popular in the United States and are heard during the holiday/Christmas season include "¿Dónde Está Santa Claus?", a novelty Christmas song with 12-year-old Augie Ríos which was a hit record in 1959 and featured the Mark Jeffrey Orchestra; and "Feliz Navidad" by José Feliciano. Miguel del Aguila wrote 116 works and has three Latin Grammy nominations.

In 1986, Billboard magazine introduced the Hot Latin Songs chart which ranks the best-performing songs on Spanish-language radio stations in the United States. Seven years later, Billboard initiated the Top Latin Albums which ranks top-selling Latin albums in the United States.[263] Similarly, the Recording Industry Association of America incorporated "Los Premios de Oro y Platino" (The Gold and Platinum Awards) to certify Latin recordings which contains at least 50% of its content recorded in Spanish.[264]

In 1989, Univision established the Lo Nuestro Awards which became the first award ceremony to recognize the most talented performers of Spanish-language music and was considered to be the "Hispanic Grammys".[265][266] In 2000, the Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences (LARAS) established the Latin Grammy Awards to recognize musicians who perform in Spanish and Portuguese.[267] Unlike The Recording Academy, LARAS extends its membership internationally to Hispanophone and Lusophone communities worldwide beyond the Americas, particularly the Iberian Peninsula.[268] Becky G won favorite female Latin artist, a brand new category at the AMAs in 2020.[269] For the 63rd Annual Grammy Awards, the academy announced several changes for different categories and rules: the category Latin Pop Album has been renamed Best Latin Pop or Urban Album, while Latin Rock, Urban or Alternative Album has been renamed Best Latin Rock or Alternative Album.

Film, radio, television, and theatre

Two-time Academy Award winner Anthony Quinn, who was born in Chihuahua, Mexico
Chita Rivera, the first Latina woman and first Latino American awarded the Kennedy Center Honors and Presidential Medal of Freedom
Antonio Banderas, a Spanish actor who has starred in many films
Sofía Vergara, a Colombian-American actress and model, on the red carpet at the 77th Golden Globe Awards in 2020

American cinema has often reflected and propagated negative stereotypes towards foreign nationals and ethnic minorities.[270] For example, Latin Americans are largely depicted as sexualized figures such as the Latino macho or the Latina vixen, gang members, (illegal) immigrants, or entertainers.[271] However representation in Hollywood has enhanced in latter times of which it gained noticeable momentum in the 1990s and does not emphasize oppression, exploitation, or resistance as central themes. According to Ramírez Berg, third wave films "do not accentuate Chicano oppression or resistance; ethnicity in these films exists as one fact of several that shape characters' lives and stamps their personalities".[272] Filmmakers like Edward James Olmos and Robert Rodriguez were able to represent the Latino American experience like none had on screen before, and actors like Hilary Swank, Michael Peña, Jordana Brewster, Ana de Armas, Jessica Alba, Natalie Martinez and Jenna Ortega have become successful. In the last decade, minority filmmakers like Chris Weitz, Alfonso Gomez-Rejon and Patricia Riggen have been given applier narratives. Portrayal in films of them include La Bamba (1987), Selena (1997), The Mask of Zorro (1998), Goal II: Living the Dream (2007), The 33 (2015), Ferdinand (2017), Dora and the Lost City of Gold (2019), and Josefina López's Real Women Have Curves, originally a play which premiered in 1990 and was later released as a film in 2002.[272]

Hispanics and Latinos have also contributed some prominent actors and others to the film industry. Of Puerto Rican origin: José Ferrer (the first Latino actor to win an acting Academy Award for his role in Cyrano de Bergerac), Auliʻi Cravalho, Rita Moreno, Chita Rivera, Raul Julia, Rosie Perez, Rosario Dawson, Esai Morales, Aubrey Plaza, Jennifer Lopez, Joaquin Phoenix and Benicio del Toro. Of Mexican origin: Emile Kuri (the first Latino to win an Academy Award – for Best Production Design – in 1949), Ramon Novarro, Dolores del Río, Lupe Vélez, Anthony Quinn, Ricardo Montalbán, Katy Jurado, Adrian Grenier, Jay Hernandez, Salma Hayek, Danny Trejo, Jessica Alba, Tessa Thompson, and Kate del Castillo. Of Cuban origin: Cesar Romero, Mel Ferrer, Andy García, Cameron Diaz, María Conchita Alonso, William Levy, and Eva Mendes. Of Dominican origin: Maria Montez and Zoe Saldana. Of Brazilian origin: Carmen Miranda, Sonia Braga, Rodrigo Santoro, Camila Mendes, Camilla Belle and Jordana Brewster. Of Spanish origin: Rita Hayworth, Martin Sheen, Paz Vega and Antonio Banderas. Other outstanding figures are: Anita Page (of Salvadoran origin), Fernando Lamas, Carlos Thompson, Alejandro Rey and Linda Cristal (of Argentine origin), Raquel Welch (of Bolivian origin), John Leguizamo (of Colombian origin), Oscar Isaac (of Guatemalan origin), and Pedro Pascal (of Chilean origin).

In stand-up comedy, Cristela Alonzo, Anjelah Johnson, Paul Rodríguez, Greg Giraldo, Cheech Marin, George Lopez, Freddie Prinze, Jade Esteban Estrada, Carlos Mencia, John Mendoza, Gabriel Iglesias and others are prominent.

Some of the Hispanic or Latino actors who achieved notable success in U.S. television include Desi Arnaz, Lynda Carter, Jimmy Smits, Charo, Jencarlos Canela, Christian Serratos, Carlos Pena Jr., Eva Longoria, Sofía Vergara, Ricardo Antonio Chavira, Jacob Vargas, Benjamin Bratt, Ricardo Montalbán, Hector Elizondo, Mario Lopez, America Ferrera, Karla Souza, Diego Boneta, Erik Estrada, Cote de Pablo, Freddie Prinze, Lauren Vélez, Isabella Gomez, Justina Machado, Tony Plana Stacey Dash, and Charlie Sheen. Kenny Ortega is an Emmy Award-winning producer, director and choreographer who has choreographed many major television events such as Super Bowl XXX, the 72nd Academy Awards and Michael Jackson's memorial service.

Latinos are underrepresented in U.S. television, radio, and film. This is combatted by organizations such as the Hispanic Organization of Latin Actors (HOLA), founded in 1975; and National Hispanic Media Coalition (NHMC), founded in 1986.[273] Together with numerous Latino civil rights organizations, the NHMC led a "brownout" of the national television networks in 1999, after discovering that there were no Latinos on any of their new prime time series that year.[274] This resulted in the signing of historic diversity agreements with ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC that have since increased the hiring of Hispanic and Latino talent and other staff in all of the networks.

Latino Public Broadcasting (LPB) funds programs of educational and cultural significance to Latino Americans. These programs are distributed to various public television stations throughout the United States.

The 72nd Primetime Emmy Awards was criticized by Latinos; there were no major nominations for Latin performers, despite the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences publicizing their improved diversity in 2020. While there was a record number of black nominees, there was only one individual Latin nomination. Hispanic and Latino representation groups said the greater diversity referred only to more African American nominees.[275][276] When the Los Angeles Times reported the criticism using the term "black", it was itself criticized for erasing Afro-Latinos, a discussion that then prompted more investigation into this under-represented minority ethnic group in Hollywood.[277] John Leguizamo boycotted the Emmys because of its lack of Latin nominees.[278]


In the world of fashion, notable Hispanic and Latino designers include Oscar de la Renta, Carolina Herrera, Narciso Rodriguez, Manuel Cuevas, among others. Christy Turlington, Lais Ribeiro, Adriana Lima, Gisele Bündchen and Lea T achieved international fame as models.


Notable Hispanic and Latino artists include Jean-Michel Basquiat, Carmen Herrera, Gronk, Luis Jiménez, Félix González-Torres, Ana Mendieta, Joe Shannon, Richard Serra, Abelardo Morell, Bill Melendez, María Magdalena Campos Pons, Sandra Ramos, Myrna Báez and Soraida Martinez.

Business and finance

Real estate developer Jorge M. Pérez
Real estate developer Jorge M. Pérez

The total number of Latino-owned businesses in 2002 was 1.6 million, having grown at triple the national rate for the preceding five years.[59]

Latino business leaders include Cuban immigrant Roberto Goizueta, who rose to head of The Coca-Cola Company.[279] Advertising Mexican-American magnate Arte Moreno became the first Latino to own a major league team in the United States when he purchased the Los Angeles Angels baseball club.[280] Also a major sports team owner is Mexican-American Linda G. Alvarado, president and CEO of Alvarado Construction, Inc. and co-owner of the Colorado Rockies baseball team.

There are several Latinos on the Forbes 400 list of richest Americans. Alejandro Santo Domingo and his brother Andres Santo Domingo inherited their fathers stake in SABMiller, now merged with Anheuser-Busch InBev. The brothers are ranked No. 132 and are each worth $4.8bn.[281] Jorge Perez founded and runs The Related Group. He built his career developing and operating low-income multifamily apartments across Miami.[282][283] He is ranked No. 264 and is worth $3bn.[281]

The largest Hispanic-owned food company in the United States is Goya Foods, because of World War II hero Joseph A. Unanue, the son of the company's founders.[284] Angel Ramos was the founder of Telemundo, Puerto Rico's first television station[285] and now the second largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with an average viewership over one million in primetime. Samuel A. Ramirez Sr. made Wall Street history by becoming the first Latino to launch a successful investment banking firm, Ramirez & Co.[286][287] Nina Tassler is president of CBS Entertainment since September 2004. She is the highest-profile Latina in network television and one of the few executives who has the power to approve the airing or renewal of series.

Government and politics

As of 2007, there were more than five thousand elected officeholders in the United States who were of Latino origin.[288]

In the House of Representatives, Hispanic and Latino representatives have included Ladislas Lazaro, Antonio M. Fernández, Henry B. Gonzalez, Kika de la Garza, Herman Badillo, Romualdo Pacheco and Manuel Lujan Jr., out of almost two dozen former representatives. Current representatives include Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Jose E. Serrano, Luis Gutiérrez, Nydia Velázquez, Xavier Becerra, Lucille Roybal-Allard, Loretta Sanchez, Rubén Hinojosa, Mario Díaz-Balart, Raul Grijalva, Ben R. Lujan, Jaime Herrera Beutler, Raul Labrador and Alex Mooney—in all, they number thirty. Former senators are Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, Mel Martinez, Dennis Chavez, Joseph Montoya and Ken Salazar. As of January 2011, the U.S. Senate includes Latino members Bob Menendez, a Democrat and Republicans Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio, all Cuban Americans.[289]

Numerous Latinos hold elective and appointed office in state and local government throughout the United States.[290] Current Latino Governors include Republican Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval and Republican New Mexico Governor Susana Martinez; upon taking office in 2011, Martinez became the first Latina governor in the history of the United States.[291] Former Latino governors include Democrats Jerry Apodaca, Raul Hector Castro, and Bill Richardson, as well as Republicans Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, Romualdo Pacheco and Bob Martinez.

Catherine Cortez Masto, first Latina U.S. Senator
Catherine Cortez Masto, first Latina U.S. Senator
Secretary Julian Castro candidate for US President and his twin brother Representative Joaquin Castro
Secretary Julian Castro candidate for US President and his twin brother Representative Joaquin Castro

Since 1988,[292] when Ronald Reagan appointed Lauro Cavazos the Secretary of Education, the first Latino United States Cabinet member, Latino Americans have had an increasing presence in presidential administrations. Latinos serving in subsequent cabinets include Ken Salazar, current Secretary of the Interior; Hilda Solis, current United States Secretary of Labor; Alberto Gonzales, former United States Attorney General; Carlos Gutierrez, Secretary of Commerce; Federico Peña, former Secretary of Energy; Henry Cisneros, former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; Manuel Lujan Jr., former Secretary of the Interior; and Bill Richardson, former Secretary of Energy and Ambassador to the United Nations. Rosa Rios is the current US Treasurer, including the latest three, were Latina women.

In 2009, Sonia Sotomayor became the first Supreme Court Associate Justice of Hispanic or Latino origin.

The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC), founded in December 1976, and the Congressional Hispanic Conference (CHC), founded on March 19, 2003, are two organizations that promote policy of importance to Americans of Latino descent. They are divided into the two major American political parties: The Congressional Hispanic Caucus is composed entirely of Democratic representatives, whereas the Congressional Hispanic Conference is composed entirely of Republican representatives.

Groups like the United States Hispanic Leadership Institute (USHLI) work to achieve the promises and principles of the United States by "promoting education, research, and leadership development, and empowering Latinos and similarly disenfranchised groups by maximizing their civic awareness, engagement, and participation".[293]

Literature and journalism

George Santayana was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.
George Santayana was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.
Jorge Majfud is a professor, essayist, and novelist
Jorge Majfud is a professor, essayist, and novelist

Writers and their works


Political strategists


Major General Luis R. Esteves, the first Latino to graduate from the United States Military Academy ("West Point")
Major General Luis R. Esteves, the first Latino to graduate from the United States Military Academy ("West Point")

Hispanics and Latinos have participated in the military of the United States and in every major military conflict from the American Revolution onward.[296][297][298] 11% to 13% military personnel now are Latinos and they have been deployed in the Iraq War, the Afghanistan War, and U.S. military missions and bases elsewhere.[299] Hispanics and Latinos have not only distinguished themselves in the battlefields but also reached the high echelons of the military, serving their country in sensitive leadership positions on domestic and foreign posts. Up to now, 43 Hispanics and Latinos have been awarded the nation's highest military distinction, the Medal of Honor (also known as the Congressional Medal of Honor). The following is a list of some notable Latinos in the military:

American Revolution

American Civil War

David Farragut, first full admiral in the US Navy
David Farragut, first full admiral in the US Navy
Diego Archuleta, first Latino to reach the military rank of Brigadier General
Diego Archuleta, first Latino to reach the military rank of Brigadier General
  • Admiral David Farragut – promoted to vice admiral on December 21, 1864, and to full admiral on July 25, 1866, after the war, thereby becoming the first person to be named full admiral in the Navy's history.[300][301]
  • Rear Admiral Cipriano Andrade – Mexican Navy rear admiral who fought for the Union. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
  • Colonel Ambrosio José Gonzales – Cuban officer active during the bombardment of Fort Sumter; because of his actions, was appointed Colonel of artillery and assigned to duty as Chief of Artillery in the department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
  • Brigadier General Diego Archuleta (1814–1884) – member of the Mexican Army who fought against the United States in the Mexican–American War. During the American Civil War, he joined the Union Army (US Army) and became the first Latino to reach the military rank of brigadier general. He commanded The First New Mexico Volunteer Infantry in the Battle of Valverde. He was later appointed an Indian (Native Americans) Agent by Abraham Lincoln.[302]
  • Colonel Carlos de la Mesa – grandfather of Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen Sr. commanding general of the First Infantry Division in North Africa and Sicily, and later the commander of the 104th Infantry Division during World War II. Colonel Carlos de la Mesa was a Spanish national who fought at Gettysburg for the Union Army in the Spanish Company of the "Garibaldi Guard" of the 39th New York State Volunteers.[303]
  • Colonel Federico Fernández Cavada – commanded the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteer infantry regiment when it took the field in the Peach Orchard at Gettysburg[304]
  • Colonel Miguel E. Pino – commanded the 2nd Regiment of New Mexico Volunteers, which fought at the Battle of Valverde in February and the Battle of Glorieta Pass and helped defeat the attempted invasion of New Mexico by the Confederate Army[305]
  • Colonel Santos Benavides – commanded his own regiment, the "Benavides Regiment"; highest ranking Mexican-American in the Confederate Army[304]
  • Major Salvador Vallejo – officer in one of the California units that served with the Union Army in the West[305]
  • Captain Adolfo Fernández Cavada – served in the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteers at Gettysburg with his brother, Colonel Federico Fernandez Cavada; served with distinction in the Army of the Potomac from Fredericksburg to Gettysburg; "special aide-de-camp" to General Andrew A. Humphreys[304][306]
  • Captain Rafael Chacón – Mexican American leader of the Union New Mexico Volunteers.[307]
  • Captain Roman Anthony Baca – member of the Union forces in the New Mexico Volunteers; spy for the Union Army in Texas[305]
  • Lieutenant Augusto RodriguezPuerto Rican native; officer in the 15th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry, of the Union Army; served in the defenses of Washington, D.C., and led his men in the Battles of Fredericksburg and Wyse Fork[308]
  • Lola Sánchez – Cuban born woman who became a Confederate spy; helped the Confederates obtain a victory against the Union Forces in the "Battle of Horse Landing"
  • Loreta Janeta Velázquez, also known as "Lieutenant Harry Buford" – Cuban woman who donned Confederate garb and served as a Confederate officer and spy during the American Civil War

World War I

World War II

Pedro del Valle – first Latino to reach the rank of lieutenant general
Pedro del Valle – first Latino to reach the rank of lieutenant general

Korean War

Modesto Cartagena, most decorated Puerto Rican soldier in history
Modesto Cartagena, most decorated Puerto Rican soldier in history

Cuban Missile Crisis

Vietnam War

After Vietnam

Antonia Novello, first woman and first Latino to serve as Surgeon General
Antonia Novello, first woman and first Latino to serve as Surgeon General

Medal of Honor

The following 43 Latinos were awarded the Medal of Honor: Philip Bazaar, Joseph H. De Castro, John Ortega, France Silva, David B. Barkley, Lucian Adams, Rudolph B. Davila, Marcario Garcia, Harold Gonsalves, David M. Gonzales, Silvestre S. Herrera, Jose M. Lopez, Joe P. Martinez, Manuel Perez Jr., Cleto L. Rodriguez, Alejandro R. Ruiz, Jose F. Valdez, Ysmael R. Villegas, Fernando Luis García, Edward Gomez, Ambrosio Guillen, Rodolfo P. Hernandez, Baldomero Lopez, Benito Martinez, Eugene Arnold Obregon, Joseph C. Rodriguez, John P. Baca, Roy P. Benavidez, Emilio A. De La Garza, Ralph E. Dias, Daniel Fernandez, Alfredo Cantu "Freddy" Gonzalez, Jose Francisco Jimenez, Miguel Keith, Carlos James Lozada, Alfred V. Rascon, Louis R. Rocco, Euripides Rubio, Hector Santiago-Colon, Elmelindo Rodrigues Smith, Jay R. Vargas, Humbert Roque Versace and Maximo Yabes.

National intelligence

Science and technology

Laser physicist and author Francisco Javier Duarte
Laser physicist and author Francisco Javier Duarte
Ellen Ochoa, first Latina woman to go into space
Ellen Ochoa, first Latina woman to go into space

Among Latino Americans who have excelled in science are Luis Walter Álvarez, Nobel Prize–winning physicist of Spanish descent, and his son Walter Alvarez, a geologist. They first proposed that an asteroid impact on the Yucatán Peninsula caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. Mario J. Molina won the Nobel Prize in chemistry and currently works in the chemistry department at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Victor Manuel Blanco is an astronomer who in 1959 discovered "Blanco 1", a galactic cluster.[322] F. J. Duarte is a laser physicist and author; he received the Engineering Excellence Award from the prestigious Optical Society of America for the invention of the N-slit laser interferometer.[323] Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa is the director of the Pituitary Surgery Program at Johns Hopkins Hospital and the director of the Brain Tumor Stem Cell Laboratory at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Physicist Albert Baez made important contributions to the early development of X-ray microscopes and later X-ray telescopes. His nephew John Carlos Baez is also a noted mathematical physicist. Francisco J. Ayala is a biologist and philosopher, former president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and has been awarded the National Medal of Science and the Templeton Prize. Peruvian-American biophysicist Carlos Bustamante has been named a Searle Scholar and Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow. Luis von Ahn is one of the pioneers of crowdsourcing and the founder of the companies reCAPTCHA and Duolingo. Colombian-American Ana Maria Rey received a MacArthur Fellowship for her work in atomic physics in 2013.

Dr. Fernando E. Rodríguez Vargas discovered the bacteria that cause dental cavity. Dr. Gualberto Ruaño is a biotechnology pioneer in the field of personalized medicine and the inventor of molecular diagnostic systems, Coupled Amplification and Sequencing (CAS) System, used worldwide for the management of viral diseases.[324] Fermín Tangüis was an agriculturist and scientist who developed the Tangüis Cotton in Peru and saved that nation's cotton industry.[325] Severo Ochoa, born in Spain, was a co-winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Dr. Sarah Stewart, a Mexican-American Microbiologist, is credited with the discovery of the Polyomavirus and successfully demonstrating that cancer causing viruses could be transmitted from animal to animal. Mexican-American psychiatrist Dr. Nora Volkow, whose brain imaging studies helped characterize the mechanisms of drug addiction, is the current director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Dr. Helen Rodríguez Trías, an early advocate for women's reproductive rights, helped drive and draft U.S. federal sterilization guidelines in 1979. She was awarded the Presidential Citizens Medal by President Bill Clinton, and was the first Latina president of the American Public Health Association.

Some Latinos have made their names in astronautics, including several NASA astronauts:[326] Franklin Chang-Diaz, the first Latin American NASA astronaut, is co-recordholder for the most flights in outer space, and is the leading researcher on the plasma engine for rockets; France A. Córdova, former NASA chief scientist; Juan R. Cruz, NASA aerospace engineer; Lieutenant Carlos I. Noriega, NASA mission specialist and computer scientist; Dr. Orlando Figueroa, mechanical engineer and director of Mars exploration in NASA; Amri Hernández-Pellerano, engineer who designs, builds and tests the electronics that will regulate the solar array power in order to charge the spacecraft battery and distribute power to the different loads or users inside various spacecraft at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

Olga D. González-Sanabria won an R&D 100 Award for her role in the development of the "Long Cycle-Life Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries" which help enable the International Space Station power system. Mercedes Reaves, research engineer and scientist who is responsible for the design of a viable full-scale solar sail and the development and testing of a scale model solar sail at NASA Langley Research Center. Dr. Pedro Rodríguez, inventor and mechanical engineer who is the director of a test laboratory at NASA and of a portable, battery-operated lift seat for people suffering from knee arthritis. Dr. Felix Soto Toro, electrical engineer and astronaut applicant who developed the Advanced Payload Transfer Measurement System (ASPTMS) (Electronic 3D measuring system); Ellen Ochoa, a pioneer of spacecraft technology and astronaut; Joseph Acaba, Fernando Caldeiro, Sidney Gutierrez, José M. Hernández, Michael López-Alegría, John Olivas and George Zamka, who are current or former astronauts.



Tony Romo, Mexican American quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys
Tony Romo, Mexican American quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys

There have been far fewer football and basketball players, let alone star players, but Tom Flores was the first Latino head coach and the first Latino quarterback in American professional football, and won Super Bowls as a player, as assistant coach and as head coach for the Oakland Raiders. Anthony Múñoz is enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, ranked No. 17 on Sporting News's 1999 list of the 100 greatest football players, and was the highest-ranked offensive lineman. Jim Plunkett won the Heisman Trophy and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, and Joe Kapp is inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame and College Football Hall of Fame. Steve Van Buren, Martin Gramatica, Victor Cruz, Tony Gonzalez, Ted Hendricks, Marc Bulger, Tony Romo and Mark Sanchez can also be cited among successful Latinos in the National Football League (NFL).


Latinos have played in the Major Leagues since the very beginning of organized baseball, with Cuban player Esteban Bellán being the first (1873).[327][328] The large number of Latino American stars in Major League Baseball (MLB) includes players like Ted Williams (considered by many to be the greatest hitter of all time), Sammy Sosa, Alex Rodriguez, Alex Rios, Miguel Cabrera, Lefty Gómez, Adolfo Luque, Iván Rodríguez, Carlos González, Roberto Clemente, Adrián González, Jose Fernandez, David Ortiz, Juan Marichal, Fernando Valenzuela, Nomar Garciaparra, Albert Pujols, Omar Vizquel, managers Miguel Angel Gonzalez (the first Latino Major League manager),[329][330] Al López, Ozzie Guillén and Felipe Alou, and General Manager Omar Minaya. Latinos in the MLB Hall of Fame include Roberto Alomar, Luis Aparicio, Rod Carew, Orlando Cepeda, Juan Marichal, Pedro Martínez, Tony Pérez, Iván Rodríguez, Ted Williams, Reggie Jackson, Mariano Rivera, Edgar Martinez and Roberto Clemente. Afro-Latino players Martin Dihigo, Jose Mendez and Cristóbal Torriente are Latino Hall of Famers who played in the Negro leagues.[331]


Puerto Rican NBA All-star Carmelo Anthony
Puerto Rican NBA All-star Carmelo Anthony

Trevor Ariza, Mark Aguirre, Carmelo Anthony, Manu Ginóbili, Carlos Arroyo, Gilbert Arenas, Rolando Blackman, Pau Gasol, Jose Calderon, José Juan Barea and Charlie Villanueva can be cited in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Dick Versace made history when he became the first person of Latino heritage to coach an NBA team. Rebecca Lobo was a major star and champion of collegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)) and Olympic basketball and played professionally in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). Diana Taurasi became just the seventh player ever to win an NCAA title, a WNBA title and as well an Olympic gold medal. Orlando Antigua became in 1995 the first Latino and the first non-black in 52 years to play for the Harlem Globetrotters.


Tennis players includes legend Pancho Gonzales and Olympic tennis champions and professional players Mary Joe Fernández and Gigi Fernández and 2016 Puerto Rican Gold Medalist Monica Puig.[332]


Bocanegra with the United States national soccer team in 2010

Latinos are present in all major American sports and leagues, but have particularly influenced the growth in popularity of soccer in the United States. Soccer is the most popular sport across Latin America, Spain and Portugal, and Latinos brought the heritage of soccer playing to the United States. Major League Soccer teams such as Chivas USA, LA Galaxy and the Houston Dynamo, for example, have a fanbase composed primarily of Mexican Americans.[333][334][335] Association football players in the Major League Soccer (MLS) includes several like Tab Ramos, Claudio Reyna, Omar Gonzalez, Marcelo Balboa and Carlos Bocanegra.


Swimmers Ryan Lochte (the second-most decorated swimmer in Olympic history measured by total number of medals)[336] and Dara Torres (one of three women with the most Olympic women's swimming medals), both of Cuban ancestry,[337] have won multiple medals at various Olympic Games over the years. Torres is also the first American swimmer to appear in five Olympic Games.[338] Maya DiRado, of Argentine ancestry, won four medals at the 2016 games, including two gold medals.[332]

Other sports

Boxing's first Latino American world champion was Solly Smith. Some other champions include Oscar De La Hoya, Miguel Cotto, Bobby Chacon, Brandon Ríos, Michael Carbajal, John Ruiz, Andy Ruiz Jr. and Mikey Garcia.

Ricco Rodriguez, Tito Ortiz, Diego Sanchez, Nick Diaz, Nate Diaz, Dominick Cruz, Frank Shamrock, Gilbert Melendez, Roger Huerta, Carlos Condit, Tony Ferguson, Jorge Masvidal, Kelvin Gastelum, Henry Cejudo and UFC Heavy Weight Champion Cain Velasquez have been competitors in the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) of mixed martial arts.

In 1991, Bill Guerin whose mother is Nicaraguan became the first Latino player in the National Hockey League (NHL). He was also selected to four NHL All-Star Games. In 1999, Scott Gomez won the NHL Rookie of the Year Award.[339]

Figure skater Rudy Galindo; golfers Chi Chi Rodríguez, Nancy López and Lee Trevino; softball player Lisa Fernández; and Paul Rodríguez Jr., X Games professional skateboarder, are all Latino Americans who have distinguished themselves in their sports.

In gymnastics, Laurie Hernandez, who is of Puerto Rican ancestry, was a gold medalist at the 2016 Games.[332]

In sports entertainment we find the professional wrestlers Hulk Hogan, Alberto Del Rio, Rey Mysterio, Eddie Guerrero, Tyler Black and Melina Pérez and executive Vickie Guerrero.


President Trump and Senator John Cornyn while they are visiting survivors of the 2019 El Paso shooting in El Paso, Texas, which was a latinophobic terrorist attack
President Trump and Senator John Cornyn while they are visiting survivors of the 2019 El Paso shooting in El Paso, Texas, which was a latinophobic terrorist attack

In countries where the majority of the population is descended from immigrants, such as the United States, opposition to immigration sometimes takes the form of nativism and racism.[340] Throughout U.S. history, Latinophobia has existed to varying degrees, and it was largely based on ethnicity, race (see Racism in the United States), culture, Anti-Catholicism (see Anti-Catholicism in the United States), economic and social conditions in Latin America, and opposition to the use of the Spanish language.[341][342][343][344] In 2006, Time Magazine reported that the number of hate groups in the United States increased by 33 percent since 2000, primarily due to anti-illegal immigrant and anti-Mexican sentiment.[345] According to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) statistics, the number of anti-Latino hate crimes increased by 35 percent since 2003 (albeit from a low level). In California, the state with the largest Latino population, the number of hate crimes which were committed against Latinos almost doubled.[346]

In 2009, the FBI reported that 4,622 of the 6,604 hate crimes which were recorded in the United States were anti-Latino, comprising 70.3% of all recorded hate crimes, the highest percentage of all of the hate crimes which were recorded in 2009. This percentage is contrasted by the fact that 34.6% of all of the hate crimes which were recorded in 2009 were anti-black, 17.9% of them were anti-homosexual, 14.1% of them were anti-Jewish, and 8.3% of them were anti-white.[347]

See also

Places of settlement in United States:



Other Hispanic and Latino Americans topics:



  1. ^ As a U.S. Supreme Court Justice, Sotomayor was nominated by Barack Obama and confirmed by the U.S. Senate, not elected.
  2. ^ After the election of California senator Kamala Harris as vice president, Padilla was appointed senator by California Governor Gavin Newsom to fill the seat vacancy.


  1. ^ a b "Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census". U.S. Census Bureau. August 12, 2021. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Religious composition of Latinos - Religion in America: U.S. Religious Data, Demographics and Statistics". Religious Landscape Study. Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center. 2021. Archived from the original on September 8, 2021. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Krogstad, Jens M.; Passel, Jeffrey S.; Lopez, Mark H. (September 23, 2021). "Who is Hispanic?". Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on September 29, 2021. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
  4. ^ a b "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). The U.S.A. Census Bureau. March 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 29, 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  5. ^ Luis Fraga; John A. Garcia (2010). Latino Lives in America: Making It Home. Temple University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-4399-0050-5.
  6. ^ Nancy L. Fisher (1996). Cultural and Ethnic Diversity: A Guide for Genetics Professionals. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8018-5346-3.
  7. ^ Robert H. Holden; Rina Villars (2012). Contemporary Latin America: 1970 to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-118-27487-3.
  8. ^ "49 CFR Part 26". Retrieved October 22, 2012. 'Hispanic Americans,' which includes Spanish, other European or Middle Eastern-descended persons of Mexican-, Puerto Rican-, Jamaican-, Cuban, Dominican-, Central or South American
  9. ^ "US Small Business Administration 8(a) Program Standard Operating Procedure" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 25, 2006. Retrieved October 22, 2012. SBA has defined 'Hispanic American' as an individual whose ancestry and culture are rooted in South America, Central America, Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic and Mexico
  10. ^ Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 29, 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2011. "Hispanic or Latino" refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race.
  11. ^ "American FactFinder Help: Hispanic or Latino origin". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved October 5, 2008.
  12. ^ a b Mark Hugo Lopez, Jens Manuel Krogstad and Jeffrey S. Passel, Who Is Hispanic?, Pew Research Center (November 11, 2019).
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Further reading

Surveys and historiography

  • Bean, Frank D., and Marta Tienda. The Hispanic Population of the United States (1987), statistical analysis of demography and social structure
  • Miguel A. De La Torre. Encyclopedia on Hispanic American Religious Culture (2 vol. ABC-CLIO Publishers, 2009).
  • De Leon, Arnoldo, and Richard Griswold Del Castillo. North to Aztlan: A History of Mexican Americans in the United States (2006)
  • Garcia, Maria Cristina. "Hispanics in the United States." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, edited by Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer, (2nd ed., vol. 3, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008), pp. 696–728. online
  • Garcia, Richard A. "Changing Chicano Historiography," Reviews in American History 34.4 (2006) 521-528 online
  • Gomez-Quiñones, Juan. Mexican American Labor, 1790–1990. (1994).
  • Gutiérrez, David G. ed. The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States Since 1960 (2004) 512pp excerpt and text search
  • Gutiérrez, David G. "Migration, Emergent Ethnicity, and the 'Third Space'": The Shifting Politics of Nationalism in Greater Mexico" Journal of American History 1999 86(2): 481–517. in JSTOR covers 1800 to the 1980s
  • Leonard, David J. Latino History and Culture: An Encyclopedia (Sharpe Reference 2009)
  • Oboler, Suzanne, and Deena J. González, eds. The Oxford Encyclopedia Of Latinos & Latinas In The United States (4 vol. 2006) excerpt and text search
  • Rochín, Refugio I., and Denis N. Valdés, eds. Voices of a New Chicana/o History. (2000). 307 pp.
  • Ruiz, Vicki L. "Nuestra América: Latino History as United States History," Journal of American History, 93 (2006), 655–72. in JSTOR
  • Ruiz, Vicki L. From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America (1998)

Pre 1965

  • Bogardus, Emory S. The Mexican in the United States (1934), sociological
  • Gamio, Manuel. The Life Story of the Mexican Immigrant (1931)
  • Gamio, Manuel. Mexican Immigration to the United States (1939)
  • García, Mario T. Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology and Identity, 1930–1960 (1989)
  • García, Mario T. Desert Immigrants. The Mexicans of El Paso, 1880–1920 (1982) 348 pp; excerpt and text search
  • Gomez-Quinones, Juan. Roots of Chicano Politics, 1600–1940 (1994)
  • Grebler, Leo, Joan Moore, and Ralph Guzmán. The Mexican American People: The Nation's Second Largest Minority (1970), emphasis on census data and statistics
  • Rivas-Rodríguez, Maggie ed. Mexican Americans and World War II (2005)
  • Sanchez, George J. Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900–1945 (1995) excerpt and text search

Culture and politics, post 1965

  • Abrajano, Marisa A., and R. Michael Alvarez, eds. New Faces, New Voices: The Hispanic Electorate in America (Princeton University Press; 2010) 219 pages. Documents the generational and other diversity of the Hispanic electorate and challenges myths about voter behavior.
  • Aranda, José, Jr. When We Arrive: A New Literary History of Mexican America. U. of Arizona Press, 2003. 256 pp.
  • Arreola, Daniel D., ed. Hispanic Spaces, Latino Places: Community and Cultural Diversity in Contemporary America. 2004. 334 pp.
  • Badillo, David A. Latinos and the New Immigrant Church. 2006. 275 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Berg, Charles Ramírez. Latino Images in Film: Stereotypes, Subversion, and Resistance. 2002. 314 pp.
  • Branton, Regina. "Latino Attitudes toward Various Areas of Public Policy: The Importance of Acculturation," Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 2, 293–303 (2007) Abstract
  • Cepeda, Raquel. Bird of Paradise: How I Became Latina Atria Books. 2013. ISBN 978-1-4516-3586-7. A personal exploration of Dominican American identity via family interviews, travel and genetic genealogy. Synopsis and Excerpt
  • DeGenova, Nicholas and Ramos-Zayas, Ana Y. Latino Crossings: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and the Politics of Race and Citizenship. 2003. 257 pp.
  • Dolan, Jay P. and Gilberto M. Hinojosa; Mexican Americans and the Catholic Church, 1900–1965 (1994)
  • Fregoso, Rosa Linda. The Bronze Screen: Chicana and Chicano Film Culture. (1993) excerpt and text search
  • García, Mario T. Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology and Identity, 1930–1960 (1989)
  • García, María Cristina. Seeking Refuge: Central American Migration to Mexico, The United States, and Canada. (2006) 290pp
  • Gomez-Quinones, Juan. Chicano Politics: Reality and Promise, 1940–1990 (1990)
  • Gutiérrez, David G. Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the Politics of Ethnicity in the Southwest, 1910–1986 1995. excerpt and text search
  • Hammerback, John C., Richard J. Jensen, and Jose Angel Gutierrez. A War of Words: Chicano Protest in the 1960s and 1970s 1985.
  • Herrera-Sobek, Maria. Celebrating Latino Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Cultural Traditions (3 vol., 2012) excerpt and text search
  • Kanellos, Nicolás, ed. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Latino Literature (3 vol. 2008) excerpt and text search
  • Kenski, Kate and Tisinger, Russell. "Hispanic Voters in the 2000 and 2004 Presidential General Elections." Presidential Studies Quarterly 2006 36(2): 189–202. ISSN 0360-4918
  • López-Calvo, Ignacio. Latino Los Angeles in Film and Fiction: The Cultural Production of Social Anxiety. University of Arizona Press, 2011. ISBN 0-8165-2926-4
  • Martinez, Juan Francisco. Sea La Luz: The Making of Mexican Protestantism in the American Southwest, 1829–1900 (2006)
  • Matovina, Timothy. Guadalupe and Her Faithful: Latino Catholics in San Antonio, from Colonial Origins to the Present. 2005. 232 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Meier, Matt S., and Margo Gutierrez, ed. Encyclopedia of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement (2000) excerpt and text search
  • Nuno, S. A. "Latino Mobilization and Vote Choice in the 2000 Presidential Election" American Politics Research, (2007); 35(2): 273–293. Abstract
  • Saldívar-Hull, Sonia. Feminism on the Border: Chicana Gender Politics and Literature 2000. excerpt and text search
  • Wegner, Kyle David, "Children of Aztlán: Mexican American Popular Culture and the Post-Chicano Aesthetic" (PhD dissertation State University of New York, Buffalo, 2006). Order No. DA3213898.


  • Martinez, Elizabeth. 500 Years of Chicana Women's History/500 anos de la mujer Chicana, Rutgers University Press (Bilingual Edition) 2008.

Regional and local


  • Hubert Howe Bancroft. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft,
  • Bedolla, Lisa García. Fluid Borders: Latino Power, Identity, and Politics in Los Angeles. 2005. 279 pp.
  • Burt, Kenneth C. The Search for a Civic Voice: California Latino Politics (2007) excerpt and text search
  • Camarillo, Albert. Chicanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern California, 1848–1930 (1979)
  • Camarillo, Albert M., "Cities of Color: The New Racial Frontier in California's Minority-Majority Cities," Pacific Historical Review, 76 (Feb. 2007), 1–28; looks at cities of Compton, East Palo Alto, and Seaside
  • Daniel, Cletus E. Bitter Harvest: A History of California Farmworkers, 1870–1941 1981.
  • García, Matt. A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900–1970 (2001),
  • Hayes-Bautista, David E. La Nueva California: Latinos in the Golden State. U. of California Press, 2004. 263 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Hughes, Charles. "The Decline of the Californios: The Case of San Diego, 1846–1856" The Journal of San Diego History Summer 1975, Volume 21, Number 3 online at [1]
  • McWilliams, Carey. North from Mexico. (1949), farm workers in California
  • Pitt, Leonard. The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish speaking Californians, 1846–1890 (ISBN 0-520-01637-8)
  • Sánchez; George J. Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900–1945 (1993) excerpt and text search
  • Valle, Victor M. and Torres, Rodolfo D. Latino Metropolis. 2000. 249 pp. on Los Angeles

Texas and Southwest

  • Alonzo, Armando C. Tejano Legacy: Rancheros and Settlers in South Texas, 1734–1900 (1998)
  • Hubert Howe Bancroft. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft,
  • Blackwelder, Julia Kirk. Women of the Depression: Caste and Culture in San Antonio 1984. excerpt and text search
  • Buitron Jr., Richard A. The Quest for Tejano Identity in San Antonio, Texas, 1913–2000 (2004) excerpt and text search
  • Chávez, John R. The Lost Land: The Chicano Image of the Southwest (Albuquerque, 1984)
  • Chávez-García, Miroslava. Negotiating Conquest: Gender and Power in California, 1770s to 1880s (2004).
  • De León, Arnoldo. They Called Them Greasers: Anglo Attitudes toward Mexicans in Texas, 1821–1900 (Austin, 1983)
  • De León, Arnoldo. Mexican Americans in Texas: A Brief History, 2nd ed. (1999)
  • Deutsch, Sarah No Separate Refuge: Culture, Class, and Gender on the Anglo-Hispanic Frontier in the American Southwest, 1880–1940 1987
  • Dysart, Jane. "Mexican Women in San Antonio, 1830–1860: The Assimilation Process" Western Historical Quarterly 7 (October 1976): 365–375. in JSTOR
  • Echeverría, Darius V., "Aztlán Arizona: Abuses, Awareness, Animosity, and Activism amid Mexican-Americans, 1968–1978" PhD dissertation (Temple University, 2006). Order No. DA3211867.
  • Fregoso; Rosa Linda. Mexicana Encounters: The Making of Social Identities on the Borderlands (2003)
  • Garcia, Ignacio M. Viva Kennedy: Mexican Americans in Search of Camelot, Texas A&M University Press, 2000. 227pp and online search from
  • García, Richard A. Rise of the Mexican American Middle Class: San Antonio, 1929–1941 1991
  • Getz; Lynne Marie. Schools of Their Own: The Education of Hispanos in New Mexico, 1850–1940 (1997)
  • Gómez-Quiñones, Juan. Roots of Chicano Politics, 1600–1940 (1994)
  • Gonzales-Berry, Erlinda, David R. Maciel, editors, The Contested Homeland: A Chicano History of New Mexico, 314 pages (2000), ISBN 0-8263-2199-2
  • González; Nancie L. The Spanish-Americans of New Mexico: A Heritage of Pride (1969)
  • Guglielmo, Thomas A. "Fighting for Caucasian Rights: Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and the Transnational Struggle for Civil Rights in World War II Texas," Journal of American History, 92 (March 2006) in History Cooperative
  • Gutiérrez; Ramón A. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846 (1991)
  • Márquez, Benjamin. LULAC: The Evolution of a Mexican American Political Organization (1993)
  • Matovina, Timothy M. Tejano Religion and Ethnicity, San Antonio, 1821–1860 (1995)
  • Montejano, David. Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836–1986 (1987)
  • Muñoz, Laura K., "Desert Dreams: Mexican American Education in Arizona, 1870–1930" (PhD dissertation Arizona State University, 2006). Order No. DA3210182.
  • Quintanilla, Linda J., "Chicana Activists of Austin and Houston, Texas: A Historical Analysis" (University of Houston, 2005). Order No. DA3195964.
  • Sánchez; George I. Forgotten People: A Study of New Mexicans (1940; reprint 1996) on New Mexico
  • Taylor, Paul S. Mexican Labor in the United States. 2 vols. 1930–1932, on Texas
  • Stewart, Kenneth L., and Arnoldo De León. Not Room Enough: Mexicans, Anglos, and Socioeconomic Change in Texas, 1850–1900 (1993)
  • de la Teja, Jesús F. San Antonio de Béxar: A Community on New Spain's Northern Frontier (1995).
  • Tijerina, Andrés. Tejanos and Texas under the Mexican Flag, 1821–1836 (1994),
  • Tijerina, Andrés. Tejano Empire: Life on the South Texas Ranchos (1998).
  • Timmons, W. H. El Paso: A Borderlands History (1990).
  • Trevino, Roberto R. The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston. (2006). 308pp.
  • Weber, David J. The Mexican Frontier, 1821–1846: The American Southwest under Mexico (1982)
    • Garcia, Richard A. "Changing Chicano Historiography," Reviews in American History 34.4 (2006) 521–528 in Project Muse

Other regions

  • Bullock, Charles S., and M. V. Hood, "A Mile‐Wide Gap: The Evolution of Hispanic Political Emergence in the Deep South." Social Science Quarterly 87.5 (2006): 1117–1135. Online
  • García, María Cristina. Havana, USA: Cuban Exiles and Cuban Americans in South Florida, 1959–1994 (1996); excerpt and text search
  • Korrol, Virginia Sánchez. From Colonia to Community: The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City, 1917–1948 (1994)
  • Fernandez, Lilia. Brown in the Windy City: Mexicans and Puerto Ricans in Postwar Chicago (University of Chicago Press, 2012)
  • Millard, Ann V. and Chapa, Jorge. Apple Pie and Enchiladas: Latino Newcomers in the Rural Midwest. 2004. 276 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Murphy, Arthur D., Colleen Blanchard, and Jennifer A. Hill, eds. Latino Workers in the Contemporary South. 2001. 224 pp.
  • Padilla, Felix M. Puerto Rican Chicago. (1987). 277 pp.
  • Sãnchez Korrol, Virginia E. From Colonia to Community: The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City. (1994) complete text online free in California; excerpt and text search
  • Vargas, Zaragosa. Proletarians of the North: A History of Mexican Industrial Workers in Detroit and the Midwest, 1917–1933 (1993) complete text online free in California; excerpt and text search
  • Whalen, Carmen Teresa, and Victor Vásquez-Hernández, eds. The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives (2005),

Primary sources

  • Richard Ellis, ed. New Mexico Past and Present: A Historical Reader. 1971.
  • David J. Weber; Foreigners in Their Native Land: Historical Roots of the Mexican Americans (1973), primary sources to 1912

External links

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