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Latin conjugation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Conjugation has two meanings.[1] One meaning is the creation of derived forms of a verb from basic forms, or principal parts. It may be affected by person, number, gender, tense, mood, aspect, voice, or other language-specific factors.

The second meaning of the word conjugation is a group of verbs which all have the same pattern of inflections. Thus all those Latin verbs which have 1st singular , 2nd singular -ās, and infinitive -āre are said to belong to the 1st conjugation, those with 1st singular -eō, 2nd singular -ēs and infinitive -ēre belong to the 2nd conjugation, and so on. The number of conjugations of regular verbs is usually said to be four.

The word "conjugation" comes from the Latin coniugātiō, a calque of the Greek συζυγία suzugía, literally "yoking together (horses into a team)".

For simple verb paradigms, see the appendix pages for first conjugation, second conjugation, third conjugation, and fourth conjugation.

Number of conjugations

The ancient Romans themselves, beginning with Varro (1st century BC), originally divided their verbs into three conjugations (coniugationes verbis accidunt tres: prima, secunda, tertia "there are three different conjugations for verbs: the first, second, and third" (Donatus), 4th century A.D.), according to whether the ending of the 2nd person singular had an a, an e or an i in it.[2] However, others, such as Sacerdos (3rd century AD), Dositheus (4th century A.D.) and Priscian[3] (c. 500 A.D.), recognised four different groups.[4]

Modern grammarians[5] generally recognise four conjugations, according to whether their active present infinitive has the ending -āre, -ēre, -ere, or -īre (or the passive equivalent of these), for example: (1) amō, amāre "to love", (2) videō, vidēre "to see", (3) regō, regere "to rule" and (4) audiō, audīre "to hear". There are also some verbs of mixed conjugation, having some endings like the 3rd and others like the 4th conjugation, for example, capiō, capere "to capture" and orior, orīrī "to arise".

In addition to regular verbs, which belong to one or other of the four conjugations, there are also a few irregular verbs, which have a different pattern of endings. The most important of these is the verb sum, esse "to be". There also exist deponent and semi-deponent Latin verbs (verbs with a passive form but active meaning), as well as defective verbs (verbs in which some of the tenses are missing).

Principal parts

The grouping in conjugations is based on the behaviour of the verb in the present system; the stems for other tenses cannot be inferred from the present stem, so several forms of the verb are necessary to be able to produce the full range of forms for any particular verb.

In a dictionary, Latin verbs are therefore listed with four "principal parts" (or fewer for deponent and defective verbs) which allow the reader to deduce the other conjugated forms of the verbs. These are:

  1. the first person singular of the present indicative active
  2. the present infinitive active
  3. the first person singular of the perfect indicative active
  4. the supine or, in some grammars, the perfect passive participle, which uses the same stem. (Texts that list the perfect passive participle use the future active participle for intransitive verbs.) Some verbs lack this principal part altogether.

First conjugation

The first conjugation is characterized by the vowel ā and can be recognized by the -āre ending of the present active infinitive form. The principal parts usually adhere to one of the following patterns:

  • perfect has the suffix –āvī. The majority of first-conjugation verbs adhere to this pattern, which is considered to be "regular", for example:
    • portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum, "to carry, to bring";
    • amō, amāre, amāvī, amātum, "to love, to be fond of";
  • perfect has the suffix –uī, for example:
    • secō, secāre, secuī, sectum, "to cut, to divide";
    • fricō, fricāre, fricuī, frictum, "to rub";
    • vetō, vetāre, vetuī, vetitum, "to forbid, to prohibit";
  • perfect has the suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem, for example:
    • lavō, lavāre, lāvī, lautum, "to wash, to bathe";
    • iuvō, iuvāre, iūvī, iūtum, "to help, to assist";
  • perfect is reduplicated, for example:
    • stō, stāre, stetī, statum, "to stand";
    • , dare, dedī, datum, "to give"; this verb is irregular, since except in the 2nd singular (, dās) the a is short (dăre, dătum, dăbō etc.)

Deponent verbs in this conjugation all follow the pattern below, which is the passive of the first type above:[6]

  • arbitror, arbitrārī, arbitrātus sum (to think)
  • cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum (to try)
  • cūnctor, cūnctāri, cūnctātus sum (to hesitate)

Second conjugation

The second conjugation is characterized by the vowel ē, and can be recognized by the -eō ending of the first person present indicative and the -ēre ending of the present active infinitive form. The principal parts usually adhere to one of the following patterns:

  • perfect has the suffix –uī. Verbs which adhere to this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples:
    • terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum (to frighten, to deter)
    • doceō, docēre, docuī, doctum (to teach, to instruct)
    • teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentum (to hold, to keep)
  • perfect has the suffix –ēvī. Examples:
    • dēleō, dēlēre, dēlēvī, dēlētum (to destroy, to efface)
    • cieō, ciēre, cīvī, citum (to arouse, to stir)
  • perfect has the suffix –sī (which combines with a preceding c or g to –xī). Examples:
    • augeō, augēre, auxī, auctum (to increase, to enlarge)
    • iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussum (to order, to bid)
  • perfect is reduplicated with –ī. Examples:
    • mordeō, mordēre, momordī, morsum (to bite, to nip)
    • spondeō, spondēre, spopondī, spōnsum (to vow, to promise)
  • perfect has suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
    • videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum (to see, to notice)
    • foveō, fovēre, fōvī, fōtum (to caress, to cherish)
  • perfect has suffix –ī and no perfect passive participle. Examples:
    • strīdeō, strīdēre, strīdī (to hiss, to creak)
    • ferveō, fervēre, fervī (sometimes fervuī or ferbuī) (to boil, to seethe)

Deponent verbs in this conjugation are few. They mostly go like the passive of terreō, but fateor and confiteor have a perfect participle with ss:[7]

  • mereor, merērī, meritus sum (to deserve)
  • polliceor, pollicērī, pollicitus sum (to promise)
  • fateor, fatērī, fassus sum (to confess)

Third conjugation

The third conjugation is characterized by a short thematic vowel, which alternates between e, i, and u in different environments. Verbs of this conjugation end in –ere in the present active infinitive. There is no regular rule for constructing the perfect stem of third-conjugation verbs, but the following patterns are used:

  • perfect has suffix –sī (–xī when c or h comes at the end of the root). Examples:
    • carpō, carpere, carpsī, carptum (to pluck, to select)
    • trahō, trahere, trāxī, trāctum (to drag, to draw)
    • gerō, gerere, gessī, gestum (to wear, to bear)
    • flectō, flectere, flexī, flexum (to bend, to twist)
  • perfect is reduplicated with suffix –ī. Examples:
    • currō, currere, cucurrī, cursum (to run, to race)
    • caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesum (to kill, to slay)
    • tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctum (to touch, to hit)
    • pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsum (to beat, to drive away)
  • perfect has suffix -vī. Examples:
    • petō, petere, petīvī, petītum (to seek, to attack)
    • linō, linere, līvī, lītum (to smear, to befoul)
    • serō, serere, sēvī, satum (to sow, to plant)
    • terō, terere, trīvī, trītum (to rub, to wear out)
    • sternō, sternere, strāvī, strātus (to spread, to stretch out)
  • perfect has suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
    • agō, agere, ēgī, āctum (to do, to drive)
    • legō, legere, lēgī, lēctum (to collect, to read)
    • emō, emere, ēmī, ēmptum (to buy, to purchase)
    • vincō, vincere, vīcī, victum (to conquer, to master)
    • fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsum (to pour, to utter)
  • perfect has suffix –ī only. Examples:
    • īcō, īcere, īcī, īctum (to strike, to smite)
    • vertō, vertere, vertī, versum (to turn, to alter)
    • vīsō, vīsere, vīsī, vīsum (to visit)
  • perfect has suffix –uī. Examples:
    • metō, metere, messuī, messum (to reap, to harvest)
    • vomō, vomere, vomuī, vomitum (to vomit)
    • colō, colere, coluī, cultum (to cultivate, to till)
    • texō, texere, texuī, textum (to weave, to plait)
    • gignō, gignere, genuī, genitum (to beget, to cause)
  • Present tense indicative first person singular form has suffix with –scō. Examples:
    • nōscō, nōscere, nōvī, nōtum (to get to know, to learn)
    • adolēscō, adolēscere, adolēvī (to grow up, to mature)
    • flōrēscō, flōrēscere, flōruī (to begin to flourish, to blossom)
    • haerēscō, haerēscere, haesī, haesum (to adhere, to stick)
    • pāscō, pāscere, pāvī, pāstum (to feed upon, to feed (an animal))

Deponent verbs in the 3rd conjugation include the following:

  • lābor, lābī, lāpsus sum (to glide)
  • loquor, loquī, locūtus sum (to speak)
  • oblīvīscor, oblīvīscī, oblītus sum (to forget)
  • sequor, sequī, secūtus sum (to follow)
  • ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum (to use)

Third conjugation –iō verbs

Intermediate between the third and fourth conjugation are the third-conjugation verbs with suffix –iō. These resemble the fourth conjugation in some forms. Some examples are:

  • capiō, capere, cēpī, captum (to take, capture)
  • faciō, facere, fēcī, factum (to do, to make)
  • rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptum (to plunder, seize)
  • cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītum (to desire, long for)

Deponent verbs in this group include:

  • morior, morī, mortuus sum (to die)
  • patior, patī, passus sum (to suffer, to allow)
  • aggredior, aggredī, aggressus sum (to attack)

They resemble the fourth conjugation in the following parts of the verb:

Present indicative (first person singular, third person plural): capiō, capiunt.
Indicative imperfect: capiēbam, capiēbāmus.
Indicative future: capiam, capiēmus.
Subjunctive present: capiam, capiāmus
Imperative future (third person plural): capiuntō
Present Active Participle: capiēns, -entis
Gerund: capiendī, capiendum (also capiundī)
Gerundive: capiendus, –a, –um (also capiundus)

Fourth conjugation

The fourth conjugation is characterized by the vowel ī and can be recognized by the –īre ending of the present active infinitive. Principal parts of verbs in the fourth conjugation generally adhere to the following patterns:

  • perfect has suffix –vī. Verbs which adhere to this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples:
    • audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum (to hear, listen (to))
    • mūniō, mūnīre, mūnīvī, mūnītum (to fortify, to build)
  • perfect has suffix –uī. Examples:
    • aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertum (to open, to uncover)
  • perfect has suffix –sī (-xī when c comes at the end of the root). Examples:
    • saepiō, saepīre, saepsī, saeptum (to surround, to enclose)
    • sanciō, sancīre, sānxī, sānctum (to confirm, to ratify)
    • sentiō, sentīre, sēnsī, sēnsum (to feel, to perceive)
  • perfect has suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
    • veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventum (to come, to arrive)

Deponent verbs in the 4th conjugation include the following:[8]

  • assentior, assentīrī, assēnsus sum (to assent)
  • largior, largīrī, largītus sum (to bestow)
  • mentior, mentīrī, mentītus sum (to tell a lie)
  • mētior, mētīrī, mēnsus sum (to measure)
  • sortior, sortīrī, sortītus sum (to cast lots)

The verb orior, orīrī, ortus sum (to arise) is also regarded as 4th conjugation, although some parts, such as the 3rd singular present tense oritur and imperfect subjunctive orerer, have a short vowel like the 3rd conjugation. But its compound adorior (to rise up, attack) is entirely 4th conjugation.

Personal endings

Personal endings are used in all tenses. The present, imperfect, future, pluperfect and future perfect use the same personal endings in the active voice. The perfect has its own endings. In the perfect, future perfect, and pluperfect passive, the tenses are formed from a perfect participle and the appropriate part of sum, e.g. portātus sum 'I was carried'.

The third person plural alternative ending -ēre is common in poetry, but not often used in prose.

The 2nd person singular passive alternative ending -re can be used in the future and imperfect, but not usually in the present, where there might be confusion with the infinitive (portāre). In early Latin -re was the most usual form.[9]

Active voice Passive voice
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Present tense, etc. First person –ō, –m –mus –or, –r –mur
Second person –s –tis –ris/-re –minī
Third person –t –nt –tur –ntur
Perfect First person –ī –imus
Second person –istī –istis
Third person –it –ērunt / -ēre

Present-tense system

The tenses of the present-tense system are the present, imperfect, and future tenses. As examples, the following verbs will be used here:

  • the first conjugation verb portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum (to carry, to bring)
  • the second conjugation verb terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum (to frighten, to deter)
  • the third conjugation verb petō, petere, petīvī, petītum (to seek, to attack)
  • the fourth conjugation verb audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum (to hear, to listen (to))

In all the conjugations except for the third conjugation, the –re is removed from the second principal part (for example, portāre without the suffix –re becomes portā–) to form the present stem, which is used for all of the tenses in the imperfective aspect. In the third conjugation, the –ō ending of the present indicative is dropped in order to form the present stem (for example, the present indicative form of petere is petō, and without the it is the present stem, pet–).[10] Occasionally, the terminating vowel of the stem is lengthened and/or shortened, and sometimes completely changed. This is often true both in the third conjugation and in the subjunctive mood of all conjugations.

Present tense

The present tense (Latin tempus praesēns) is used to show an uncompleted action that happens in the current time. The present tense does not have a tense sign. Instead, the personal endings are added to the bare present stem. However, in this tense the thematic vowel, most notably the ě in the third conjugation, changes the most frequently.

Present indicative

A present tense like portō can be translated as "I carry," "I do carry," or "I am carrying". In all but the third conjugation, the thematic vowel of the stem is used. In the third conjugation, the linking vowel varies between e, i and u. The first person singular of the indicative active present is the first principal part of the verb.

Present active indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portō portāmus terreō terrēmus petō petimus audiō audīmus
Second person portās portātis terrēs terrētis petis petitis audīs audītis
Third person portat portant terret terrent petit petunt audit audiunt

The passive voice portor can be translated as "I am carried," or "I am being carried".

Present passive indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portor portāmur terreor terrēmur petor petimur audior audīmur
Second person portāris portāminī terrēris terrēminī peteris petiminī audīris audīminī
Third person portātur portantur terrētur terrentur petitur petuntur audītur audiuntur

Present subjunctive

The present subjunctive portem can be translated as "I may carry", "I would carry", "I should carry", "May I carry", "Let me carry", or in subordinate clauses simply as "I carry". Portēmus can be "Let us carry".

The vowels of the verb endings in the present subjunctive differ from the indicative:

  • The first conjugation uses e or ē instead of ā.
  • The second conjugation uses ea and .
  • The third conjugation uses a or ā.
  • The fourth conjugation uses ia or .
Present active subjunctive
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portem portēmus terream terreāmus petam petāmus audiam audiāmus
Second person portēs portētis terreās terreātis petās petātis audiās audiātis
Third person portet portent terreat terreant petat petant audiat audiant

The passive subjunctive porter can be translated as "I may be carried", "I would be carried", "I should be carried", "Let me be carried", "May I be carried" or in subordinate clauses simply as "I am carried". Portēmur can be "Let us be carried".

Present passive subjunctive
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person porter portēmur terrear terreāmur petar petāmur audiar audiāmur
Second person portēris portēminī terreāris terreāminī petāris petāminī audiāris audiāminī
Third person portētur portentur terreātur terreantur petātur petantur audiātur audiantur

Present imperative

The present imperative conveys commands, pleas and recommendations. Portā can be translated as "(You) Carry" or simply, "Carry". The imperative present occurs only in the second person.

  • The second person singular in the active voice uses only the bare stem, and does not add an imperative ending.
Present active imperative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Second person portā portāte terrē terrēte pete petite audī audīte

The imperative present of the passive voice is rarely used, except in the case of deponent verbs, whose passive forms carry active meaning. Portāminī can be translated as "(You) Be carried". The deponent sequiminī, on the other hand, means "(You) Follow!".

  • The singular uses the alternate form of the present passive indicative (which looks like the present active infinitive) and the plural uses the present passive indicative form of the second person plural.
Present passive imperative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Second person portāre portāminī terrēre terrēminī petere petiminī audīre audīminī

Imperfect

The imperfect (Latin tempus praeteritum imperfectum) indicates a perpetual, but incomplete action in the past. It is recognized by the tense signs and in the indicative, and re and in the subjunctive.

Imperfect indicative

The imperfect indicative simply expresses an action in the past that was not completed. Portābam can be translated to mean, "I was carrying," "I carried," or "I used to carry".

  • In the indicative, the imperfect employs its tense signs ba and before personal endings are added.
Imperfect active indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portābam portābāmus terrēbam terrēbāmus petēbam petēbāmus audiēbam audiēbāmus
Second person portābās portābātis terrēbās terrēbātis petēbās petēbātis audiēbās audiēbātis
Third person portābat portābant terrēbat terrēbant petēbat petēbant audiēbat audiēbant

As with the present tense, active personal endings are taken off, and passive personal endings are put in their place. Portābar can be translated as "I was being carried," "I kept being carried," or "I used to be carried".

Imperfect passive indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portābar portābāmur terrēbar terrēbāmur petēbar petēbāmur audiēbar audiēbāmur
Second person portābāris portābāminī terrēbāris terrēbāminī petēbāris petēbāminī audiēbāris audiēbāminī
Third person portābātur portābantur terrēbātur terrēbantur petēbātur petēbantur audiēbātur audiēbantur

Imperfect subjunctive

In the subjunctive, the imperfect is quite important, especially in subordinate clauses. Independently, it is largely translated conditionally. Portārem can mean, "I should carry," or "I would carry".

  • Unlike the indicative, the subjunctive does not modify the thematic vowel. The third conjugation's thematical remains short as an e, and the fourth conjugation does not use an before the imperfect signs. It keeps its ī.
  • In the subjunctive, the imperfect employs its tense signs re and before personal endings.
  • The verb esse (to be) has two imperfect subjunctives: one using the present infinitive (essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent) and one using the future infinitive (forem, fores, foret, foremus, foretis, forent).
Imperfect active subjunctive
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portārem portārēmus terrērem terrērēmus peterem peterēmus audīrem audīrēmus
Second person portārēs portārētis terrērēs terrērētis peterēs peterētis audīrēs audīrētis
Third person portāret portārent terrēret terrērent peteret peterent audīret audīrent

As with the indicative subjunctive, active endings are removed, and passive endings are added. Portārer may be translated as "I should be carried," or "I would be carried."

Imperfect passive subjunctive
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portārer portārēmur terrērer terrērēmur peterer peterēmur audīrer audīrēmur
Second person portārēris portārēminī terrērēris terrērēminī peterēris peterēminī audīrēris audīrēminī
Third person portārētur portārentur terrērētur terrērentur peterētur peterentur audīrētur audīrentur

Future tense

The future tense (Latin tempus futūrum simplex) expresses an uncompleted action in the future. It is recognized by its tense signs , bi, bu, a and ē in the indicative and the vowel ō in the imperative mood.

Future indicative

The future tense always refers to an incomplete action. In addition, the future tense is stricter in usage temporally in Latin than it is in English. Standing alone, portābō can mean, "I shall carry," or "I will carry."

  • The first and second conjugations append -b- and then add third conjugation present endings.
  • The third and fourth conjugations replace their thematic vowels with a, ě and ē. The fourth conjugation inserts an ǐ before the a, e and ē.
Future active indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portābō portābimus terrēbō terrēbimus petam petēmus audiam audiēmus
Second person portābis portābitis terrēbis terrēbitis petēs petētis audiēs audiētis
Third person portābit portābunt terrēbit terrēbunt petet petent audiet audient

As with all imperfective system tenses, active personal endings are removed, and passive personal endings are put on. Portābor translates as, "I shall be carried."

Future passive indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portābor portābimur terrēbor terrēbimur petar petēmur audiar audiēmur
Second person portāberis portābiminī terrēberis terrēbiminī petēris petēminī audiēris audiēminī
Third person portābitur portābuntur terrēbitur terrēbuntur petētur petentur audiētur audientur

Future imperative

The future imperative is used to instruct someone to do something at a later time, or if something else happens first (e.g. "write (scrībitō) to me if anything happens"). It can also be used in recipes. The 3rd person is mainly used in laws (e.g. "censors shall hold (habentō) office for five years").[11] A few verbs, such as mementō "remember" and scītō "know", use this form as their only imperative.

Portātō can be translated as "carry" or "you should carry".

Future active imperative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Second person portātō portātōte terrētō terrētōte petitō petitōte audītō audītōte
Third person portantō terrentō petuntō audiuntō

The ending -or marks the passive voice in the future imperative. Portātor translates as "You shall be carried." The second person plural is exceptionally rare and only occurs in Plautus with select deponent verbs: arbitrāminō, opperīminō, and not attested with any second conjugation verbs at all.

Future passive imperative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Second person portātor portāminō terrētor —— petitor petiminō audītor audīminō
Third person portantor terrentor petuntor audiuntor

Perfect-tense system

The tenses of the perfect system, which are the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect tenses, are used to express actions that have been, had been, or will have been completed. The verbs used for explanation are:

1st conjugation: portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum – to carry, bring
2nd conjugation: terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum – to frighten, deter
3rd conjugation: petō, petere, petīvī, petītum – to seek, attack
4th conjugation: audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum – to hear, listen (to)

To find the stem for the three perfect tenses active in all of the conjugations, the –ī is removed from the 3rd principal part. For example, from portāvī, portāv- is formed.

Deponent and passive verbs, however, use the perfect passive participle together with part of the verb esse "to be" to make the perfect tenses. The participle is formed by taking the 4th principal part and changing the ending to the appropriate gender and number, e.g. audītus est "he was heard", audītī sunt "they were heard".

Unlike the present-system tenses, inflection is the same in every conjugation.

Perfect

The perfect (Latin tempus praeteritum perfectum) refers to an action completed in the past. Tense signs are only used in this tense with the indicative. The tense signs of the subjunctive are eri and erī.

Perfect indicative

The indicative perfect expresses a finished action in the past. Portāvī is translated as "I carried," "I did carry," or "I have carried."

  • The perfect indicative perfect in the active voice has its special personal endings which are not used with any other tense.
Perfect active indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portāvī portāvimus terruī terruimus petīvī petīvimus audīvī audīvimus
Second person portāvistī portāvistis terruistī terruistis petīvistī petīvistis audīvistī audīvistis
Third person portāvit portāvērunt terruit terruērunt petīvit petīvērunt audīvit audīvērunt

In the passive voice, the perfect passive participle is used with the auxiliary verb esse. It uses the present indicative form of esse. Portātus sum translates as "I was carried," or "I have been carried."

Perfect passive indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portātus sum portātī sumus territus sum territī sumus petītus sum petītī sumus audītus sum audītī sumus
Second person portātus es portātī estis territus es territī estis petītus es petītī estis audītus es audītī estis
Third person portātus est portātī sunt territus est territī sunt petītus est petītī sunt audītus est audītī sunt

Note the participle changes from singular to plural when the subject changes respectively. The participle must also be declined for gender in the same way as an adjective.

Perfect subjunctive

Like the imperfect subjunctive, the perfect subjunctive is largely used in subordinate clauses. Independently, it is usually translated as the potential subjunctive (quis crediderit? 'who would have believed it?/who would believe it?') With it makes a negative command: nē timuerītis "do not fear". In subordinate clauses such as indirect questions, portāverim usually means "I carried" or "I have carried". [12]

Perfect active subjunctive
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portāverim portāverīmus terruerim terruerīmus petīverim petīverīmus audīverim audīverīmus
Second person portāveris portāverītis terrueris terruerītis petīveris petīverītis audīverīs audīverītis
Third person portāverit portāverint terruerit terruerint petīverit petīverint audīverit audīverint

The passive voice uses the perfect passive participle with the subjunctive present forms of esse. Portātus sim means, "I may have been carried."

Perfect passive subjunctive
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portātus sim portātī sīmus territus sim territī sīmus petītus sim petītī sīmus audītus sim audītī sīmus
Second person portātus sīs portātī sītis territus sīs territī sītis petītus sīs petītī sītis audītus sīs audītī sītis
Third person portātus sit portātī sint territus sit territī sint petītus sit petītī sint audītus sit audītī sint

Pluperfect

The pluperfect (Latin tempus praeteritum plūsquamperfectum) expresses an action which was completed before another completed action. It is recognized by the tense signs era and erā in the indicative and isse and issē in the subjunctive.

Pluperfect indicative

As with English, in Latin, the pluperfect indicative is used to assert an action that was completed before another (perfect). Portāveram translates as "I had carried."

  • The tense sign erā is employed before adding the personal endings, with the long ā following the usual rules for shortening before final -m, -t, and -nt.
Pluperfect active indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portāveram portāverāmus terrueram terruerāmus petīveram petīverāmus audīveram audīverāmus
Second person portāverās portāverātis terruerās terruerātis petīverās petīverātis audīverās audīverātis
Third person portāverat portāverant terruerat terruerant petīverat petīverant audīverat audīverant

In the passive voice, the perfect passive participle is used with esse in the imperfect indicative. Portātus eram is translated as "I had been carried."

Pluperfect passive indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portātus eram portātī erāmus territus eram territī erāmus petītus eram petītī erāmus audītus eram audītī erāmus
Second person portātus erās portātī erātis territus erās territī erātis petītus erās petītī erātis audītus erās audītī erātis
Third person portātus erat portātī erant territus erat territī erant petītus erat petītī erant audītus erat audītī erant

Pluperfect subjunctive

The pluperfect subjunctive is to the perfect subjunctive as the imperfect subjunctive is to the present subjunctive. Simply put, it is used with the perfect subjunctive in subordinate clauses. Like the imperfect subjunctive, it is translated conditionally independently. Portāvissem is translated as "I should have carried," or "I would have carried."

  • The tense signs isse and issē are used before the personal endings.
Pluperfect active subjunctive
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portāvissem portāvissēmus terruissem terruissēmus petīvissem petīvissēmus audīvissem audīvissēmus
Second person portāvissēs portāvissētis terruissēs terruissētis petīvissēs petīvissētis audīvissēs audīvissētis
Third person portāvisset portāvissent terruisset terruissent petīvisset petīvissent audīvisset audīvissent

As always, the passive voice uses the perfect passive participle. The imperfect subjunctive of esse is used here. Portātus essem may mean "I should have been carried," or "I could have been carried," in the conditional sense.

Pluperfect passive subjunctive
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portātus essem portātī essēmus territus essem territī essēmus petītus essem petītī essēmus audītus essem audītī essēmus
Second person portātus essēs portātī essētis territus essēs territī essētis petītus essēs petītī essētis audītus essēs audītī essētis
Third person portātus esset portātī essent territus esset territī essent petītus esset petītī essent audītus esset audītī essent

Future perfect

Probably the least used of all the tenses, the future perfect (Latin tempus futūrum exāctum) conveys an action that will have been completed before another action. It is signified by the tense signs erō and eri. The future perfect is the only tense that occurs in a single mood.

Future perfect indicative

As said, the future perfect is used to mention an action that will have been completed in futurity before another action. It is often used with the future tense. In simple translation, portāverō means, "I will have carried," or "I shall have carried."

  • The tense signs erō and eri or erī are used before the personal endings.
Future perfect active indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portāverō portāverīmus terruerō terruerīmus petīverō petīverīmus audīverō audīverīmus
Second person portāverīs portāverītis terruerīs terruerītis petīverīs petīverītis audīverīs audīverītis
Third person portāverit portāverint terruerit terruerint petīverit petīverint audīverit audīverint

Endings with short -i- (e.g. portāveris, portāverimus, portāveritis) are found in the 2nd singular and 1st and 2nd person plural in some authors, e.g. Terence, Eunuchus 592, but Cicero and Catullus preferred the form with long -i-, e.g. Catullus 5.10 (with Fordyce's note).

As with all perfective aspect tenses, the perfect passive participle is used in the passive voice. However, the future perfect uses the future indicative of esse as the auxiliary verb. Portātus erō is "I will have been carried," or "I shall have been carried."

Future perfect passive indicative
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
First person portātus erō portātī erimus territus erō territī erimus petītus erō petītī erimus audītus erō audītī erimus
Second person portātus eris portātī eritis territus eris territī eritis petītus eris petītī eritis audītus eris audītī eritis
Third person portātus erit portātī erunt territus erit territī erunt petītus erit petītī erunt audītus erit audītī erunt

Non-finite forms

The non-finite forms of verbs are participles, infinitives, supines, gerunds and gerundives. The verbs used are:

1st conjugation: portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum – to carry, bring
2nd conjugation: terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum – to frighten, deter
3rd conjugation: petō, petere, petīvī, petītum – to seek, attack
4th conjugation: audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum – to hear, listen (to)

Participles

There are four participles: present active, perfect passive, future passive, and future active.

  • The present active participle is declined like a third declension adjective with one ending.
    • In the first and second conjugations, the present active is formed by taking the present stem and adding an –ns. The genitive singular form adds an –ntis, and the thematicals ā and ē are shortened.
    • In the third conjugation, the e of the present stem is lengthened. In the genitive, the ē is short again.
    • In the fourth conjugation, the ī is shortened, and an ē is placed. Of course, this ē is short in the genitive.
    • Puer portāns translates into "carrying boy."
  • The perfect passive participle is declined like a first and second declension adjective.
    • In all conjugations, the perfect participle is formed by removing the –um from the supine, and adding a –us (masculine nominative singular).
    • Puer portātus translates into "carried boy."
  • The future active participle is declined like a first and second declension adjective.
    • In all conjugations the –um is removed from the supine, and an –ūrus (masculine nominative singular) is added.
    • Puer portātūrus translates into "boy going to carry," or "boy who is going to carry."
  • The future passive participle is formed by taking the present stem, adding "-nd-", and then the adjective ending "-us, -a, -um". Thus "laudare" forms "laudandus".
    • The literal translation is "about to be praised", but this often extends a sense of obligation, thus "must be praised". Thus the "future passive participle" is often cross-listed as the "gerundive" (see below).
Participles
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Present active portāns, –antis terrēns, –entis petēns, –entis audiēns, –entis
Perfect passive portātus, –a, –um territus, –a, –um petītus, –a, –um audītus, –a, –um
Future active portātūrus, –a, –um territūrus, –a, –um petītūrus, –a, –um audītūrus, –a, –um
Future passive portandus, –a, –um terrendus, –a, –um petendus, –a, –um audiēndus, –a, –um

Infinitives

There are six infinitives. They are in the present active, present passive, perfect active, perfect passive, future active and future passive.

  • The present active infinitive is the second principal part (in regular verbs). It plays an important role in the syntactic construction of Accusativus cum infinitivo, for instance.
    • Portāre means, "to carry."
  • The present passive infinitive is formed by adding a –rī to the present stem. This is only so for the first, second and fourth conjugations. In the third conjugation, the thematical vowel, e, is taken from the present stem, and an –ī is added.
    • Portārī translates into "to be carried."
  • The perfect active infinitive is formed by adding an –isse onto the perfect stem.
    • Portāvisse translates into "to have carried."
  • The perfect passive infinitive uses the perfect passive participle along with the auxiliary verb esse. The perfect passive infinitive must agree with what it is describing in number and gender.
    • Portātus esse means, "to have been carried."
  • The future active infinitive uses the future active participle with the auxiliary verb esse.
    • Portātūrus esse means, "to be going to carry." The future active infinitive must agree with what it is describing in number and gender.
    • Esse has two future infinitives: futurus esse and fore (fore is mostly used in a substitute expression for the Future Passive Infinitive)
  • The future passive infinitive uses the supine with the auxiliary verb īrī.
    • Portātum īrī is translated as "to be going to be carried." This is normally used in indirect speech. For example: Omnēs senātōres dīxērunt templum conditum īrī. "All of the senators said that a temple would be built."
Infinitives
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Present active portāre terrēre petere audīre
Present passive portārī terrērī petī audīrī
Perfect active portāvisse terruisse petīvisse audīvisse
Perfect passive portātus esse territus esse petītus esse audītus esse
Future active portātūrus esse territūrus esse petītūrus esse audītūrus esse
Future passive portātum īrī territum īrī petītum īrī audītum īrī
Here, masculine endings are used.

The Future Passive Infinitive was actually not very commonly used (Wheelock's Latin mentions it exists but makes it a point to avoid using it in any practice examples). In practice, the Romans themselves often used an alternate expression, "fore ut" followed by a subjunctive clause.

Supine

The supine is the fourth principal part of the verb, as given in Latin dictionaries. It resembles a masculine noun of the fourth declension. Supines only occur in the accusative and ablative cases.

  • The accusative form ends in a –um, and is used with a verb of motion in order to show purpose. Thus it is only used with verbs like īre "to go", venīre "to come", etc. The accusative form of a supine can also take an object if needed.
    • Pater vēnit portātum līberōs suōs. – The father came to carry his children.
  • The ablative, which ends in a –ū, is used with the Ablative of Specification.
    • Arma haec facillima portātū erant. – These arms were the easiest to carry.
Supine
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Accusative portātum territum petītum audītum
Ablative portātū territū petītū audītū

Gerund

The gerund is formed similarly to the present active participle. However, the –ns becomes an –ndus, and the preceding ā or ē is shortened. Gerunds are neuter nouns of the second declension, but the nominative case is not present. The gerund is a noun, meaning "the act of doing (the verb)", and forms a suppletive paradigm to the infinitive, which cannot be declined. For example, the genitive form portandī can mean "of carrying", the dative form portandō can mean "to carrying", the accusative form portandum can mean "carrying", and the ablative form portandō can mean "by carrying", "in respect to carrying", etc.

Gerund
portāre terrēre petere audīre
Accusative portandum terrendum petendum audiendum
Genitive portandī terrendī petendī audiendī
Dative portandō terrendō petendō audiendō
Ablative

One common use of the gerund is with the preposition ad to indicate purpose. For example, paratus ad oppugnandum could be translated as "ready to attack". However the gerund was avoided when an object was introduced, and a passive construction with the gerundive was preferred. For example, for "ready to attack the enemy" the construction paratus ad hostes oppugnandos is preferred over paratus ad hostes oppugnandum.[13]

Gerundive

The gerundive has a form similar to that of the gerund, but it is a first and second declension adjective, and functions as a future passive participle (see § Participles above). It means "(which is) to be ...ed". Often, the gerundive is used with an implicit esse, to show obligation.

  • Puer portandus "The boy to be carried"
  • Oratio laudanda est means "The speech is to be praised". In such constructions a substantive in dative may be used to identify the agent of the obligation (dativus auctoris), as in Oratio nobis laudanda est meaning "The speech is to be praised by us" or "We must praise the speech".
Gerundive
portāre terrēre petere audīre
portandus, –a, –um terrendus, –a, –um petendus, –a, –um audiendus, –a, –um

For some examples of uses of Latin gerundives, see the Gerundive article.

Periphrastic conjugations

There are two periphrastic conjugations. One is active, and the other is passive.

Active

The first periphrastic conjugation uses the future participle. It is combined with the forms of esse. It is translated as "I am going to carry," "I was going to carry", etc.

Conjugation Translation
Pres. ind. portātūrus sum I am going to carry
Imp. ind. portātūrus eram I was going to carry
Fut. ind. portātūrus erō I shall be going to carry
Perf. ind. portātūrus fuī I have been going to carry
Plup. ind. portātūrus fueram I had been going to carry
Fut. perf. ind. portātūrus fuerō I shall have been going to carry
Pres. subj. portātūrus sim I may be going to carry
Imp. subj. portātūrus essem I should be going to carry
Perf. subj. portātūrus fuerim I may have been going to carry
Plup. subj. portātūrus fuissem I should have been going to carry

Passive

The second periphrastic conjugation uses the gerundive. It is combined with the forms of esse and expresses necessity. It is translated as "I am to be carried," "I was to be carried", etc., or as "I have to (must) be carried," "I had to be carried," etc.

Conjugation Translation
Pres. ind. portandus sum I am to be carried Imp. ind. portandus eram I was to be carried
Fut. ind. portandus erō I will deserve to be carried
Perf. ind. portandus fuī I was to be carried
Plup. ind. portandus fueram I had deserved to be carried
Fut. perf. ind. portandus fuerō I will have deserved to be carried
Pres. subj. portandus sim I may deserve to be carried
Imp. subj. portandus essem I should deserve to be carried
Perf. subj. portandus fuerim I may have deserved to be carried
Plup. subj. portandus fuissem I should have deserved to be carried
Pres. inf. portandus esse To deserve to be carried
Perf. inf. portandus fuisse To have deserved to be carried

Peculiarities

Irregular verbs

There are a few irregular verbs in Latin that are not grouped into a particular conjugation (such as esse and posse), or deviate slightly from a conjugation (such as ferre, īre, and dare). It consists of the following list and their compounds (such as conferre). Many irregular verbs lack a fourth principal part.

sum, esse, fuī, futūrum[1] – to be, exist
possum, posse[2], potuī – to be able, can
eō, īre, īvī / īī, ītum – to go
volō, velle, voluī – to wish, want
nōlō, nōlle, nōluī – not to want, refuse
mālō, mālle, māluī – to prefer
ferō, ferre, tulī, lātum – to bear, endure, carry, bring
fīō, fierī, factus sum – to become, happen, be made
edō, ēsse, ēdī, ēsum – to eat, waste
dō, dare, dedī, datum – to give, bestow

Of these, esse, ferre, and fierī are suppletive, that is, their deviating third and fourth principal parts reflect what was an entirely different verb historically (in Proto-Indo-European).

Deponent and semi-deponent verbs

Deponent verbs are verbs that are passive in form (that is, conjugated as though in the passive voice) but active in meaning. These verbs have only three principal parts, since the perfect of ordinary passives is formed periphrastically with the perfect participle, which is formed on the same stem as the supine. Some examples coming from all conjugations are:

1st conjugation: mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum – to admire, wonder
2nd conjugation: polliceor, pollicērī, pollicitus sum – to promise, offer
3rd conjugation: loquor, loquī, locūtus sum – to speak, say
4th conjugation:  mentior, mentīrī, mentītus sum – to tell a lie

Deponent verbs use active conjugations for tenses that do not exist in the passive: the gerund, the supine, the present and future participles and the future infinitive. They cannot be used in the passive themselves (except the gerundive), and their analogues with "active" form do not in fact exist: one cannot directly translate "The word is said" with any form of loquī, and there are no forms like loquō, loquis, loquit, etc.

Semi-deponent verbs form their imperfective aspect tenses in the manner of ordinary active verbs; but their perfect tenses are built periphrastically like deponents and ordinary passives; thus, semi-deponent verbs have a perfect active participle instead of a perfect passive participle. An example:

audeō, audēre, ausus sum – to dare, venture

Unlike the proper passive of active verbs, which is always intransitive, some deponent verbs are transitive, which means that they can take an object. For example:

Eo die quo consueverat intervallo hostes sequitur. – That day he follows the enemy at his usual distance.

Note: In the Romance languages, which lack deponent or passive verb forms, the Classical Latin deponent verbs either disappeared (being replaced with non-deponent verbs of a similar meaning) or changed to a non-deponent form. For example, in Spanish and Italian, mīrārī changed to mirar(e) by changing all the verb forms to the previously nonexistent "active form", and audeō changed to osar(e) by taking the participle ausus and making an -ar(e) verb out of it (note that au went to o).

Defective verbs

Defective verbs are verbs that are conjugated in only some instances.

  • Some verbs are conjugated only in the perfective aspect's tenses, yet have the imperfective aspect's tenses' meanings. As such, the perfect becomes the present, the pluperfect becomes the imperfect, and the future perfect becomes the future. Therefore, the defective verb ōdī means, "I hate." These defective verbs' principal parts are given in vocabulary with the indicative perfect in the first person and the perfect active infinitive. Some examples are:
ōdī, ōdisse – to hate
meminī, meminisse – to remember
coepī, coepisse – to have begun
  • A few verbs, the meanings of which usually have to do with speech, appear only in certain occurrences.
Cedo (plur. cette), which means "Hand it over" or "Out with it" is only in the imperative mood, and only is used in the second person.

The following are conjugated irregularly:

Aio

Conjugation of aiō
Indicative
present
Indicative
imperfect
Subjunctive
present
Imperative
present
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular
First person aiō —— aiēbam aiēbāmus —— —— ——
Second person ais aiēbās aiēbātis aiās* ai
Third person ait aiunt aiēbat aiēbant aiat aiant* ——
Present Active Participle:aiēns, –entis

Inquam

Conjugation of inquam
Present indicative Future
indicative
Perfect
indicative
Imperfect
indicative
Singular Plural Singular Singular Singular
First person inquam inquimus[14] —— inquiī[15] ——
Second person inquis —— inquiēs inquistī[16]
Third person inquit inquiunt inquiet inquit inquiēbat[3]

Fari

Conjugation of fārī
Present
indicative
Future
indicative
Perfect
indicative
Pluperfect
indicative
Present
imperative
Singular Plural Singular Singular Singular Singular Plural
First person for —— fābor fātus sum fātus eram —— ——
Second person —— —— —— —— fāre fāminī
Third person fātur fantur fābitur —— ——
Present Active Participlefāns, fantis
Present Active Infinitivefārī (variant: fārier)
Supine – (acc.) fātum, (abl.) fātū
Gerund – (gen.) fandī, (dat. and abl.) fandō, no accusative
Gerundivefandus, –a, –um

The Romance languages lost many of these verbs, but others (such as ōdī) survived but became regular fully conjugated verbs (in Italian, odiare).

Impersonal verbs

Impersonal verbs are those lacking a person. In English impersonal verbs are usually used with the neuter pronoun "it" (as in "It seems," or "It storms"). Latin uses the third person singular. These verbs lack a fourth principal part. A few examples are:

pluit, pluere, pluvit – to rain (it rains)
ningit, ningere, ninxit[4] – to snow (it snows)
oportet, oportēre, oportuit – to be proper (it is proper, one should/ought to)
licet, licēre, licuit – to be permitted [to] (it is allowed [to])

The third person forms of esse may also be seen as impersonal when seen from the perspective of English:

Nox aestīva calida fuit. – It was a hot, summer night.
Est eī quī terram colunt. – It is they who till the land.

Irregular future active participles

As stated, the future active participle is normally formed by removing the –um from the supine, and adding a –ūrus. However, some deviations occur.

Present
active
infinitive
Supine Future
active
participle
iuvāre iūtum iuvātūrus
lavāre/lavere lavātum (but PPP lautus) lavātūrus
parere partum paritūrus
ruere rutum ruitūrus
secāre sectum secātūrus
fruī frūctum/fruitum fruitūrus
nascī nātum nātūrus/nascitūrus
morī[5] mortuum moritūrus
orīrī ortum oritūrus

Alternative verb forms

Several verb forms may occur in alternative forms (in some authors these forms are fairly common, if not more common than the canonical ones):

  • The ending –ris in the passive voice may be –re as in:
portābārisportābāre
  • The ending –ērunt in the perfect may be –ēre (primarily in poetry) as in:
portāvēruntportāvēre
  • The ending –ī in the passive infinitive may be –ier as in:
portārīportārier, dicīdicier

Syncopated verb forms

Like in most Romance languages, syncopated forms and contractions are present in Latin. They may occur in the following instances:

  • Perfect stems that end in a –v may be contracted when inflected.
portāvisseportāsse
portāvistīportāstī
portāverantportārant
portāvissetportāsset
  • The compounds of noscere (to learn) and movēre (to move, dislodge) can also be contracted.
nōvistīnōstī
nōvistisnōstis
commōveramcommōram
commōverāscommōrās

Summary of forms

The four conjugations in the finite forms

The Four Conjugations, Finite Forms
1st 2nd 3rd 3rd (i-stem) 4th
laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus terreō, terrēre, terruī, territus agō, agere, ēgī, actus capiō, capere, cēpī, captus audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive
Present
Indicative
1st singular laudō laudor terreō terreor agō agor capiō capior audiō audior
2nd person laudās laudāris terrēs terrēris agis ageris capis caperis audīs audīris
3rd person laudat laudātur terret terrētur agit agitur capit capitur audit audītur
1st plural laudāmus laudāmur terrēmus terrēmur agimus agimur capimus capimur audīmus audīmur
2nd person laudātis laudāminī terrētis terrēminī agitis agiminī capitis capiminī audītis audīminī
3rd person laudant laudantur terrent terrentur agunt aguntur capiunt capiuntur audiunt audiuntur
Subjunctive
1st singular laudem lauder terream terrear agam agar capiam capiar audiam audiar
2nd person laudēs laudēris terreās terreāris agās agāris capias capiāris audiās audiāris
3rd person laudet laudētur terreat terreātur agat agātur capiat capiātur audiat audiātur
1st plural laudēmus laudēmur terreāmus terreāmur agāmus agāmur capiāmus capiāmur audiāmus audiāmur
2nd person laudētis laudēminī terreātis terreāminī agātis agāminī capiātis capiāminī audiātis audiāminī
3rd person laudent laudentur terreant terreantur agant agantur capiant capiantur audiant audiantur
Imperative
2nd person laudā laudāre terrē terrēre age agere cape capere audī audīris
2nd plural laudāte laudāminī terrēte terrēminī agite agiminī capite capiminī audīte audīminī
Imperfect
Indicative
1st singular laudābam laudābar terrēbam terrēbar agēbam agēbar capiēbam capiēbar audiēbam audiēbar
2nd person laudābās laudābāris terrēbās terrēbāris agēbās agēbāris capiēbās capiēbāris audiēbās audiēbāris
3rd person laudābat laudābātur terrēbat terrēbātur agēbat agēbātur capiēbat capiēbātur audiēbat audiēbātur
1st plural laudābāmus laudābāmur terrēbāmus terrēbāmur agēbāmus agēbāmur capiēbāmus capiēbāmur audiēbāmus audiēbāmur
2nd person laudābātis laudābāminī terrēbātis terrēbāminī agēbātis agēbāminī capiēbātis capiēbāminī audiēbātis audiēbāminī
3rd person laudābant laudābantur terrēbant terrēbantur agēbant agēbantur capiēbant capiēbantur audiēbant audiēbantur
Subjunctive
1st singular laudārem laudārer terrērem terrērer agerem agerer caperem caperer audīrem audīrer
2nd person laudārēs laudārēris terrērēs terrērēris agerēs agerēris caperēs caperēris audīrēs audīrēris
3rd person laudāret laudārētur terrēret terrērētur ageret agerētur caperet caperētur audīret audīrētur
1st plural laudārēmus laudārēmur terrērēmus terrērēmur agerēmus agerēmur caperēmus caperēmur audīrēmus audīrēmur
2nd person laudārētis laudārēminī terrērētis terrērēminī agerētis agerēminī caperētis caperēminī audīrētis audīrēminī
3rd person laudārent laudārentur terrērent terrērentur agerent agerentur caperent caperentur audīrent audīrentur
Future
Indicative
1st singular laudābō laudābor terrēbō terrēbor agam agar capiam capiar audiam audiar
2nd person laudābis laudāberis terrēbis terrēberis agēs agēris capiēs capiēris audiēs audiēris
3rd person laudābit laudābitur terrēbit terrēbitur aget agētur capiet capiētur audiet audiētur
1st plural laudābimus laudābimur terrēbimus terrēbimur agēmus agēmur capiēmus capiēmur audiēmus audiēmur
2nd person laudābitis laudābiminī terrēbitis terrēbiminī agētis agēminī capiētis capiēminī audiētis audiēminī
3rd person laudābunt laudābuntur terrēbunt terrēbuntur agent agentur capient capientur audient audientur
Subjunctive
1st singular laudātūrus, -a, -um sim territūrus, -a, -um sim actūrus, -a, -um sim captūrus, -a, -um sim audītūrus, -a, -um sim
2nd person laudātūrus, -a, -um sis territūrus, -a, -um sis actūrus, -a, -um sis captūrus, -a, -um sim sis audītūrus, -a, -um sis
3rd person laudātūrus, -a, -um sit territūrus, -a, -um sit actūrus, -a, -um sit captūrus, -a, -um sit audītūrus, -a, -um sit
1st plural laudātūrī, -ae, -a simus territūrī, -ae, -a simus actūrī, -ae, -a simus captūrī, -ae, -a simus audītūrī, -ae, -a simus
2nd person laudātūrī, -ae, -a sitis territūrī, -ae, -a sitis actūrī, -ae, -a sitis captūrī, -ae, -a sitis audītūrī, -ae, -a sitis
3rd person laudātūrī, -ae, -a sint territūrī, -ae, -a sint actūrī, -ae, -a sint captūrī, -ae, -a sint audītūrī, -ae, -a sint
Imperative
2nd person laudātō laudātor terrētō terrēre agitō agere capitō capitor audītō audītor
3rd person laudātō laudātor terrētō terrētor agitō agitor capitō capitor audītō audītor
2nd plural laudātōte terrētōte agitōte capitōte audītōte
3rd person laudantō laudantor terrentō terrentor aguntō agunto capiuntō capiuntor audiuntō audiuntor
Perfect
Indicative
1st singular laudāvī laudātus, -a, -um sum terruī territus, -a, -um sum ēgī actus, -a, -um sum cēpī captus, -a,-um sum audīvī audītus, -a, -um sum
2nd person laudāvistī laudātus, -a, -um es terruistī territus, -a, -um es ēgistī actus, -a, -um es cēpistī captus, -a,-um es audīvistī audītus, -a, -um es
3rd person laudāvit laudātus, -a, -um est terruit territus, -a, -um est ēgit actus, -a, -um est cēpit captus, -a,-um est audīvit audītus, -a, -um est
1st plural laudāvimus laudātī, -ae, -a sumus terruimus territī, -ae, -a sumus ēgimus actī, -ae, -a sumus cēpimus captī, -ae, -a sumus audīvimus audītī, -ae, -a sumus
2nd person laudāvistis laudātī, -ae, -a estis terruistis territī, -ae, -a estis ēgistis actī, -ae, -a estis cēpistis captī, -ae, -a estis audīvistis audītī, -ae, -a estis
3rd person laudāvērunt laudātī, -ae, -a sunt terruērunt territī, -ae, -a sunt ēgērunt actī, -ae, -a sunt cēpērunt captī, -ae, -a sunt audīvērunt audītī, -ae, -a sunt
Subjunctive
1st singular laudāverim laudātus, -a, -um sim terruerim territus, -a, -um sim ēgerim actus, -a, -um sim cēperim captus, -a,-um sim audīverim audītus, -a, -um sim
2nd person laudāveris laudātus, -a, -um sis terrueris territus, -a, -um sis ēgeris actus, -a, -um sis cēperis captus, -a,-um sis audīveris audītus, -a, -um sis
3rd person laudāverit laudātus, -a, -um sit terruerit territus, -a, -um sit ēgerit actus, -a, -um sit cēperit captus, -a,-um sit audīverit audītus, -a, -um sit
1st plural laudāverimus laudātī, -ae, -a simus terruerimus territī, -ae, -a simus ēgerimus actī, -ae, -a simus cēperimus captī, -ae, -a simus audīverimus audītī, -ae, -a simus
2nd person laudāveritis laudātī, -ae, -a sitis terrueritis territī, -ae, -a sitis ēgeritis actī, -ae, -a sitis cēperitis captī, -ae, -a sitis audīveritis audītī, -ae, -a sitis
3rd person laudāverint laudātī, -ae, -a sint terruerint territī, -ae, -a sint ēgerint actī, -ae, -a sint cēperint captī, -ae, -a sint audīverint audītī, -ae, -a sint
Pluperfect
Indicative
1st singular laudāveram laudātus, -a, -um eram terrueram territus, -a, -um eram ēgeram actus, -a, -um eram cēperam captus, -a,-um eram audīveram audītus, -a, -um eram
2nd person laudāverās laudātus, -a, -um erās terruerās territus, -a, -um erās ēgerās actus, -a, -um erās cēperās captus, -a,-um erās audīverās audītus, -a, -um erās
3rd person laudāverat laudātus, -a, -um erat terruerat territus, -a, -um erat ēgerat actus, -a, -um erat cēperat captus, -a,-um erat audīverat audītus, -a, -um erat
1st plural laudāverāmus laudātī, -ae, -a erāmus terruerāmus territī, -ae, -a erāmus ēgerāmus actī, -ae, -a erāmus cēperāmus captī, -ae, -a erāmus audīverāmus audītī, -ae, -a erāmus
2nd person laudāverātis laudātī, -ae, -a erātis terruerātis territī, -ae, -a erātis ēgerātis actī, -ae, -a erātis cēperātis captī, -ae, -a erātis audīverātis audītī, -ae, -a erātis
3rd person laudāverant laudātī, -ae, -a erant terruerant territī, -ae, -a erant ēgerant actī, -ae, -a erant cēperant captī, -ae, -a erant audīverant audītī, -ae, -a erant
Subjunctive
1st singular laudāvissem laudātus, -a, -um essem terruissem territus, -a, -um essem ēgissem actus, -a, -um essem cēpissem captus, -a,-um essem audīvissem audītus, -a, -um essem
2nd person laudāvissēs laudātus, -a, -um essēs terruissēs territus, -a, -um essēs ēgissēs actus, -a, -um essēs cēpissēs captus, -a,-um essēs audīvissēs audītus, -a, -um essēs
3rd person laudāvisset laudātus, -a, -um esset terruisset territus, -a, -um esset ēgisset actus, -a, -um esset cēpisset captus, -a,-um esset audīvisset audītus, -a, -um esset
1st plural laudāvissēmus laudātī, -ae, -a essēmus terruissēmus territī, -ae, -a essēmus ēgissēmus actī, -ae, -a essēmus cēpissēmus captī, -ae, -a essēmus audīvissēmus audītī, -ae, -a essēmus
2nd person laudāvissētis laudātī, -ae, -a essētis terruissētis territī, -ae, -a essētis ēgissētis actī, -ae, -a essētis cēpissētis captī, -ae, -a essētis audīvissētis audītī, -ae, -a essētis
3rd person laudāvissent laudātī, -ae, -a essent terruissent territī, -ae, -a essent ēgissent actī, -ae, -a essent cēpissent captī, -ae, -a essent audīvissent audītī, -ae, -a essent
Future Perfect
Indicative
1st singular laudāverō laudātus, -a, -um erō terruerō territus, -a, -um erō ēgerō actus, -a, -um erō cēperō captus, -a,-um erō audīverō audītus, -a, -um erō
2nd person laudāverīs laudātus, -a, -um erīs terruerīs territus, -a, -um erīs ēgerīs actus, -a, -um erīs cēperīs captus, -a,-um erīs audīverīs audītus, -a, -um erīs
3rd person laudāverit laudātus, -a, -um erit terruerit territus, -a, -um erit ēgerit actus, -a, -um erit cēperit captus, -a,-um erit audīverit audītus, -a, -um erit
1st plural laudāverimus laudātī, -ae, -a erimus terruerimus territī, -ae, -a erimus ēgerimus actī, -ae, -a erimus cēperimus captī, -ae, -a erimus audīverimus audītī, -ae, -a erimus
2nd person laudāveritis laudātī, -ae, -a eritis terrueritis territī, -ae, -a eritis ēgeritis actī, -ae, -a eritis cēperitis captī, -ae, -a eritis audīveritis audītī, -ae, -a eritis
3rd person laudāverint laudātī, -ae, -a erunt terruerint territī, -ae, -a erunt ēgerint actī, -ae, -a erunt cēperint captī, -ae, -a erunt audīverint audītī, -ae, -a erunt

Notes

^ Futūrus esse is sometimes contracted as fore as seen in Caesar's De Bello Gallico.
^ The archaic uncontracted form potesse occurs frequently in Lucretius.
^ Form moriri, Ovid, Metamorphoses (poem) 14.215[17]
^ Used by Cicero frequently.
^ Used personally by Lucretius (2.627): ningunt[18]

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster online dictionary "Conjugation".
  2. ^ Donatus [Ars Maior], 10.16.
  3. ^ Priscian, "Liber octauus de uerbo" (Corpus Grammaticorum Latinorum)
  4. ^ Daniel J. Taylor "Latin declensions and conjugations: from Varro to Priscian" Historie Épistémologie Langage 13.2 (1991), p. 85–93.
  5. ^ e.g. Gildersleeve and Lodge, 3rd edition (1895), §120.
  6. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge, Latin Grammar (1895), §163.
  7. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge, Latin Grammar (1895), §164.
  8. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge Latin Grammar (1985), §166.
  9. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1903), Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar, p. 89.
  10. ^ Jenney, Charles; Roger Scudder; Eric C. Baade (1979). First Year Latin. Allyn and Bacon. p. 123. ISBN 0-205-07859-1. 
  11. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1903), Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar p. 175.
  12. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1903), Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar, pp. 173, 318–9.
  13. ^ Eitrem, S. (2006). Latinsk grammatikk (3 ed.). Oslo: Aschehoug. p. 111. 
  14. ^ Horace. "1.3.66". Sermonum liber primus (in Latin). 
  15. ^ Catullus. "10.27". Poems of Catullus (in Latin). 
  16. ^ Cicero. "2.259". De Oratore (in Latin). 
  17. ^ "P. OVIDI NASONIS METAMORPHOSEN LIBER QVARTVS DECIMVS". The Latin Library. Retrieved September 1, 2010. 
  18. ^ "TITI LVCRETI CARI DE RERVM NATVRA LIBER SECVNDVS". The Latin Library. Retrieved September 1, 2010. 

See also

References

External links

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