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Demographics of Haiti

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Population of Haiti (in thousands) from 1961 to 2003
Population of Haiti (in thousands) from 1961 to 2003

Haiti is the eighty-fifth most populous country in the world, with an estimated population of 11,123,178 as of July 2018.[1] According to DNA tests on part of the population, 95% of the population of Haiti is of Black ethnicity. Of this percentage, 86% are Black African, 12% black European, and 2% Native American. The remaining population is primarily Mulattoes, Europeans, Asians, and Arabs. Hispanic residents in Haiti are mostly Cuban and Dominican. About two-thirds of Haitian people live in rural areas.

Although there was a national census taken in Haiti in 2003, much of that data has not been released. Several demographic studies, including those by social work researcher Athena Kolbe, have shed light on the current status of urban residents. In 2006, each Haitian household averaged 4.5 members.

Population of Haiti

According to the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects[2][3] the total population was 11,123,178 in 2018, compared to 3,221,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 36.2%. 59.7% of the population was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 4.5% was 65 years or older.[4] According to the World Bank, Haiti's dependency rate is 7.51 dependents per 100 working age persons.[5]

Total population Proportion
aged 0–14
(%)
Proportion
aged 15–64
(%)
Proportion
aged 65+
(%)
1950 3 221 000 39.6 56.7 3.7
1955 3 516 000 39.7 56.9 3.4
1960 3 869 000 40.3 56.5 3.2
1965 4 275 000 41.7 54.9 3.4
1970 4 713 000 41.8 54.5 3.7
1975 5 144 000 41.3 54.8 3.9
1980 5 692 000 41.1 54.9 4.0
1985 6 389 000 42.2 53.8 4.0
1990 7 110 000 43.1 52.9 4.0
1995 7 838 000 42.6 53.5 3.9
2000 8 578 000 40.3 55.7 4.0
2005 9 261 000 38.1 57.8 4.2
2010 9 29182 000 36.2 59.7 4.5

Structure of the population [6]

Structure of the population (01.07.2010) (Estimates) :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 4 993 731 5 091 483 10 085 214 100%
0-4 644 550 618 772 1 263 322 12.53%
5-9 608 495 586 984 1 195 479 11.85%
10-14 588 618 569 860 1 158 478 11.49%
15-19 551 467 540 897 1 092 364 10.83%
20-24 509 042 510 547 1 019 589 10.11%
25-29 454 123 465 513 919 636 9.12%
30-34 340 518 362 078 702 596 6.97%
35-39 261 157 286 847 548 004 5.43%
40-44 235 182 253 300 488 482 4.84%
45-49 204 077 219 300 423 377 4.20%
50-54 166 418 176 495 342 913 3.40%
55-59 136 034 148 697 284 731 2.82%
60-64 95 939 110 896 206 835 2.05%
65-69 81 854 94 044 175 898 1.74%
70-74 58 181 71 255 129 436 1.28%
75-79 35 538 45 360 80 898 0.80%
80+ 22 538 30 638 53 176 0.53%
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 1 841 663 1 775 999

66

3 617 229 35.87%
15-64 2 953 957 3 074 620 6 028 577 59.78%
65+ 198 111 241 297 439 408 4.36%

Structure of the population (01.07.2011) (Estimates) :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 5 075 517 5 172 789 10 248 306 100
0-4 647 465 621 432 1 268 897 12.38%
5-9 611 472 589 690 1 201 161 11.72%
10-14 591 018 572 066 1 163 085 11.35%
15-19 556 085 544 798 1 100 883 10.74%
20-24 514 235 514 898 1 029 132 10.04%
25-29 465 396 475 451 940 847 9.18%
30-34 358 927 379 066 737 993 7.20%
35-39 270 574 296 362 566 936 5.53%
40-44 237 754 257 273 495 026 4.83%
45-49 208 671 224 746 433 416 4.23%
50-54 171 468 182 332 353 800 3.45%
55-59 140 392 152 742 293 134 2.86%
60-64 99 846 114 973 214 819 2.10%
65-69 82 201 94 868 177 069 1.73%
70-74 59 833 72 957 132 790 1.30%
75-79 36 751 47 083 83 834 0.82%
80+ 23 431 32 053 55 484 0.54%
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 1 849 955 1 783 188 3 633 143 35.45%
15-64 3 023 346 3 142 640 6 165 986 60.17%
65+ 202 216 246 961 449 177 4.38%

Structure of the population (DHS 2012) (Males 28,122, Females 29,844 = 57,966) :

Age Group Male (%) Female (%) Total (%)
0-4 12.9% 11.7% 12.3%
5-9 12.1% 10.9% 11.5%
10-14 12.9% 11.7% 12.3%
15-19 11.6% 11.7% 11.6%
20-24 9.5% 10.0% 9.8%
25-29 7.7% 8.4% 8.1%
30-34 6.0% 6.3% 6.2%
35-39 5.2% 5.2% 5.2%
40-44 4.3% 4.2% 4.3%
45-49 3.6% 4.0% 3.8%
50-54 3.3% 4.1% 3.7%
55-59 2.8% 3.4% 3.1%
60-64 2.5% 2.6% 2.5%
65-69 2.0% 1.8% 1.9%
70-74 1.6% 1.4% 1.5%
75-79 0.8% 0.9% 0.9%
80+ 1.1% 1.5% 1.3%
Age group Male (%) Female (%) Total (%)
0-14 37.9% 34.3% 36.1%
15-64 56.6% 60.1% 58.3%
65+ 5.5% 5.6% 5.6%

Vital statistics

The registration of vital events in Haiti is not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [4]

Period Live births
per year
Deaths
per year
Natural change
per year
CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy
total
Life expectancy
males
Life expectancy
females
1950–1955 154 000 89 000 65 000 45.7 26.5 19.2 6.30 220 37.6 36.3 38.9
1955–1960 165 000 87 000 78 000 44.6 23.6 21.0 6.30 194 40.7 39.4 42.0
1960–1965 177 000 86 000 91 000 43.5 21.1 22.4 6.30 171 43.6 42.3 44.9
1965–1970 183 000 84 000 99 000 40.7 18.6 22.1 6.00 150 46.3 44.9 57.6
1970–1975 188 000 85 000 104 000 38.2 17.2 21.1 5.60 135 48.0 46.8 49.3
1975–1980 217 000 87 000 129 000 40.0 16.1 23.9 5.80 131 50.0 48.5 51.5
1980–1985 259 000 94 000 164 000 42.8 15.6 27.2 6.21 122 51.5 50.2 52.9
1985–1990 264 000 94 000 170 000 39.1 13.9 25.3 5.70 100 53.6 52.2 55.0
1990–1995 265 000 93 000 172 000 35.5 12.5 23.1 5.15 85 55.3 53.7 56.8
1995–2000 268 000 93 000 175 000 32.7 11.3 21.3 4.62 70 56.9 55.2 58.7
2000–2005 265 000 95 000 171 000 29.7 10.6 19.1 4.00 56 58.1 56.4 59.9
2005–2010 265 000 90 000 175 000 27.7 9.4 18.3 3.55 49 60.7 59.0 62.4
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

While limited, evidence suggests that natural and man-made disasters can cause human populations to increase in the long term, rather than decrease. Documented fertility spikes followed the Khmer Rouge conflict and 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami; potential causes may include reduced access to contraception and families desiring more children following child death.[7] In Haiti's case, the fertility rate nearly tripled after the quake, and is likely to remain elevated (above pre-quake levels) for long after.[8]

Births and deaths

[9]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2005 9,292,282 ~258,325 ~87,347 ~170,978 27.8 9.4 18.4 3.5
2006 9,445,412 ~258,804 ~87,842 ~170,962 27.4 9.3 18.2 3.4
2007 9,602,305 ~260,222 ~87,381 ~172,841 27.1 9.1 18.0 3.4
2008 9,761,929 ~260,644 ~87,857 ~172,787 26.7 9.0 17.7 3.3
2009 9,923,243 ~261,874 ~87,325 ~174,549 26.4 8.8 17.6 3.3
2010 10,085,216 ~262,216 ~200,000 ~62,216 26.0 19.8 6.2 3.2
2011 10,248,306 ~265,431 ~88,135 ~177,296 25.9 8.6 17.3
2012 10,413,211 ~267,620 ~88,512 ~179,108 25.7 8.5 17.2 3.2
2013 10,579,230 ~247,025 ~84,634 ~162,391 23.35 8 15.35 2.88

Number of births and deaths are calculated based on Crude Birth and Death Rates.

Fertility and births

The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[10]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1994–95 34 4.8 (3.0) 31 3.3 (2.2) 35 5.9 (3.7)
2000 32.6 4.7 (2.7) 29.4 3.3 (2.0) 34.0 5.8 (3.4)
2005–2006 28.7 4.0 (2.4) 26.2 2.8 (1.8) 30.1 5.0 (2.9)
2012 27.8 3.5 (2.2) 24.4 2.6 (1.9) 29.4 4.4 (2.6)
2016-17 24.3 3.0 (1.9) 21.1 2.1 (1.5) 26.3 3.9 (2.3)

Other demographic statistics

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[11]

  • One birth every 2 minutes
  • One death every 6 minutes
  • One net migrant every 15 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 4 minutes

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[12]

Population
10,788,440 (July 2018 est.)
Ethnic groups
Black 95%, mixed and white 5%
Age structure
Population pyramid of Haiti in 2017
Population pyramid of Haiti in 2017
0-14 years: 32.27% (male 1,733,920 / female 1,747,387)
15-24 years: 21.11% (male 1,139,188 / female 1,137,754)
25-54 years: 37.32% (male 1,997,816 / female 2,028,495)
55-64 years: 5.1% (male 262,494 / female 287,515)
65 years and over: 4.21% (male 199,617 / female 254,254) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 23.3 years. Country comparison to the world: 172nd
male: 23.1 years
female: 23.6 years (2018 est.)
Birth rate
22.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 65th
Death rate
7.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 111st
Total fertility rate
2.66 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 65th
Net migration rate
-2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 163th
Population growth rate
1.31% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 84th
Mother's mean age at first birth
22.8 years (2016/7 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Contraceptive prevalence rate
34.3% (2016/17)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 62.3 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 54.8 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 7.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 13.3 (2015 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 64.6 years
male: 61.9 years
female: 67.2 years (2018 est.)
Urbanization
urban population: 55.3% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.9% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Religions
Roman Catholic 58.7%, Protestant 33.5% (Baptist 15.4%, Pentecostal 14.9%, Adventist 3%, Methodist 1.5%, other 0.7%), vodou 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 1.2% (2018 est.)
note: many Haitians practice elements of vodou in addition to another religion, most often Roman Catholicism; vodou was recognized as an official religion in 2003
Education expenditures
2.4% of GDP (2016) Country comparison to the world: 162nd
Literacy

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

Total population: 60.7%
Male: 64.3%
Female: 57.3% (2015 est.)
Languages
Nationality
  • noun: Haitian(s)
  • adjective: Haitian

Languages

Taíno was the major pre-Columbian language in the region of what is Haiti (or Ayti), a name rooted in the language to refer to the entire island of Hispaniola.[13][14] The phrase means "land of high mountains."[15]

Today, the Republic of Haiti has two official languages. They are French and Haitian Creole; the latter, a French-based creole where 90% of its vocabulary is derived from, with influences from Portuguese, Spanish, Taíno, and West African languages.[16] French is the principal written and administratively authorized language (as well as the main language of the press) and is spoken by 42% of Haitians.[17][18] It is spoken by most educated Haitians, is the medium of instruction in most schools, and is used in the business sector. It is also used in ceremonial events such as weddings, graduations, and church masses.

Haiti is one of two independent nations in the Americas (along with Canada) to designate French as an official language; the other French-speaking areas are all overseas départements, or collectivités, of France. Haitian Creole,[19] which has recently undergone a standardization, is spoken by virtually the entire population of Haiti.[20] It is related to the other French creoles, but most closely to Antillean Creole and Louisiana Creole variants.

Spanish, though not an official language, is spoken by a growing percentage of the population. Spanish is spoken more frequently near the border of the Dominican Republic. English is increasingly spoken among the young and in the business sector.[21]

Religion

The main religions practiced in Haiti are Roman Catholicism, Pentecostalism, Islam, and Judaism. In addition, the Protestant population is continuing to grow, along with Islam and Judaism. Almost 99% of Haitians claim at least one religion, with a part of them practicing some part of Vodou.[22] The state religion is Roman Catholicism, which 55–60% of the population professes. 30–35% of Haitians practice Protestantism (mostly Pentecostalism). A certain percentage[clarification needed] of the population practices Vodou, mostly along with another religion.[12]

Vodou is rare among the urban elite and is often compared to Cuban Santeria due to the large Cuban population in Haiti.[23] The practice of Vodou revolves around family spirits called Lwa that protect children. To repay the spirits, children perform two ceremonies where the Lwa are given gifts like food and drinks. That does depend of the monetary status of these families, poorer families wait until there is a need to perform the rituals. [24]

Vodou in relation to Christianity came along two different paths, the path with the Catholics and the path with the Protestants. For the Catholic path; under French rule the slaves were not allowed to practice Vodou, but they were allowed to occasionally have dances on the weekends. These dances turned out to be Vodou services, until they were liberated in 1804. Most Haitians see practicing Vodou and Christianity as normal due to the many components they share. The Catholic Church wasn't always as accepting of Vodou as it is now. In 1941-1942 a holy war was waged against Vodou, which killed many of the higher-ups in the Vodou religion. This war ended around 1950 when the Catholics decided give up the prosecution of those who practiced Vodou and to have a relative peace. The path with the Protestants was less peaceful. The Protestants came to Haiti in 1970. Since then, they have been bitter enemies of Vodou, often calling it devil worship.[25]

A fictionalized version of Vodou commonly called "voodoo" has been used in American movies and by authors such as H.P. Lovecraft. Vodou and voodoo are not interchangeable, although the word lives on in American pop culture.[26]

Education

Although public education at the primary level is now free, private and parochial schools provide around 75% of educational programs offered.

In recent years, several annual literacy campaigns launched in by the Martelly administration has increased overall literacy among adults in Haiti.[27] UNESCO projects an overall literacy rate of 61.1% in Haiti by 2015.[28] As of December 2014, the World Bank has reported that school enrollment has increased from 78% to 90% in Haiti, very close to the goal of universal child enrollment.[29]

Labor

In 2004, 300,000 children were restavecs, the practice of which is comparable to indentured service of minors.[30]

Emigration

Large-scale emigration, principally to the Dominican Republic, United States, and Canada (predominantly to Quebec, with other areas of the country) – but also to Cuba, other areas of Europe and the Americas (like Argentina) such as France (with French Guiana), Spain, Belgium, the United Kingdom and Ireland; and Venezuela, Brazil, Chile, the Bahamas and other Caribbean neighbors – has created what Haitians refer to as the Eleventh Department or the Diaspora. About one in every six Haitians live abroad.[31]

Immigration

45,000 Westerners from the United States live in Haiti. They represent 0.4% of its total population.[32]

References

  1. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". population.un.org. Retrieved 2020-09-29.
  2. ^ ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  3. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision". Esa.unorg. Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  5. ^ "Population ages 15-64 (% of total) - Data". Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  6. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  7. ^ Frankenberg, Laurito & Thomas, Duke University, 2014, The Demography of Disasters
  8. ^ "Haiti's rate of fertility tripled - report". jamaica-gleaner.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  9. ^ "DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE: HAITI" (PDF). Caricomstats.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  10. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". microdata.worldbank.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  11. ^ "Haiti Population 2019", World Population Review
  12. ^ a b "World Factbook CENTRAL AMERICA : HAITI", The World Factbook, July 12, 2018 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  13. ^ Guitar, Lynne; Ferbel-Azcárate, Pedro; Estevez, Jorge (2006). "iii: Ocama-Daca Taíno (Hear me, I am Taíno)". Indigenous Resurgence in the Contemporary Caribbean. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. p. 41. ISBN 0-8204-7488-6. LCCN 2005012816. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  14. ^ Senauth, Frank (2011). The Making and Destruction of Haiti. Bloomington, Indiana, USA: AuthorHouse. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4567-5384-9. LCCN 2011907203.
  15. ^ Haydn, Joseph; Vincent, Benjamin (1860). "A Dictionary of Dates Relating to All Ages and Nations: For Universal Reference Comprehending Remarkable Occurrences, Ancient and Modern, The Foundation, Laws, and Governments of Countries-Their Progress In Civilization, Industry, Arts and Science-Their Achievements In Arms-And Their Civil, Military, And Religious Institutions, And Particularly of the British Empire". p. 321. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  16. ^ Bonenfant, Jacques L. (December 1989). Haggerty, Richard A. (ed.). "History of Haitian-Creole: From Pidgin to Lingua Franca and English Influence on the Language" (PDF). Library of Congress Federal Research Division.
  17. ^ La langue française dans le monde 2014 (PDF). Nathan. 2014. ISBN 978-2-09-882654-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  18. ^ À ce propos, voir l'essai Prétendus Créolismes : le couteau dans l'igname, Jean-Robert Léonidas, Cidihca, Montréal 1995
  19. ^ Valdman, Albert. "Creole: The National Language of Haiti". Footsteps. Indiana University Creole Institute. 2 (4): 36–39.
  20. ^ "creolenationallanguageofhaiti". Indiana University. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  21. ^ "What Languages Are Spoken in Haiti?". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 2019-09-23.
  22. ^ "Religious Beliefs In Haiti". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  23. ^ "Religious Beliefs In Haiti". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  24. ^ "Haiti - RELIGION". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  25. ^ "Haiti: Introduction to Voodoo". faculty.webster.edu. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
  26. ^ McGee, Adam (2012). "Haitian Vodou and voodoo: Imagined religion and popular culture". Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses. 41 (2): 231–256. doi:10.1177/0008429812441311. S2CID 40197372.
  27. ^ "Haiti – Social : The fight against illiteracy, one of the Government's priorities". Haitilibre.com. September 9, 2014.[permanent dead link]
  28. ^ "Literacy Statistics trends 1985–2015" (PDF). Uis.unesco.org. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  29. ^ "Extreme poverty drops in Haiti. Is it sustainable?". Worldbank.org. 4 December 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
  30. ^ Cohen, Gigi (2004-03-24). "Haiti's Dark secret:The Restavecs". National Public Radio.
  31. ^ IBP, Inc. Haiti Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments, Volume 1. Lulu.com, 2013. p. 106. ISBN 1438774567.
  32. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/18/world/americas/18americans.html?_r=0
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