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Lancaster, Lancashire

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lancaster
Rooftops of Lancaster.JPG

View over Lancaster, with the Ashton Memorial in the distance and the spire of Lancaster Cathedral
Lancaster is located in the City of Lancaster district
Lancaster
Lancaster
Shown within the City of Lancaster district
Lancaster is located in Lancashire
Lancaster
Lancaster
Location within Lancashire
Population52,234 [1]
DemonymLancastrian
OS grid referenceSD475615
District
Shire county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townLANCASTER
Postcode districtLA1, LA2
Dialling code01524
PoliceLancashire
FireLancashire
AmbulanceNorth West
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Lancashire
54°02′49″N 2°48′04″W / 54.047°N 2.801°W / 54.047; -2.801

Lancaster (/ˈlæŋkəstər/,[2][3][4][5]/ˈlænkæs-/)[6] is a city and the county town of Lancashire, England. It stands on the River Lune, with a population of 52,234. The wider City of Lancaster local government district has a population of 138,375.[7] The House of Lancaster was a branch of the English royal family, whilst the Duchy of Lancaster holds large estates on behalf of Elizabeth II, who is also Duke of Lancaster. As an ancient settlement, it is marked by Lancaster Castle, Lancaster Priory Church, Lancaster Cathedral and the Ashton Memorial. It is the seat of Lancaster University and of a campus of the University of Cumbria. The Port of Lancaster played historically a major role in the growth of Lancaster, but for many years the outport of Glasson Dock has become the principal location for shipping.

History

The name of the city first appeared in the Domesday Book of 1086, as Loncastre, where "Lon" refers to the River Lune and "castre", from the Old English cæster and Latin castrum for "fort", to the Roman fort which stood at the site.[8]

Roman and Saxon eras

Roman bath house on Castle Hill
Roman bath house on Castle Hill

A Roman fort was built by the end of the 1st century CE on the hill where Lancaster Castle now stands, and possibly as early as the AD 60s, based on Roman coin evidence.[9][10] The coin evidence also suggests that the fort was not continuously inhabited in those early years.[11] It was rebuilt in stone around AD 102.[12] The fort's name is known only in an abbreviated form; the only evidence is a Roman milestone found 4 miles outside Lancaster, with an inscription ending L MP IIII, meaning "from L – 4 miles".[13] The name of the fort was probably Calunium.[14][unreliable source]

Roman baths were discovered in 1812 and can be seen near the junction of Bridge Lane and Church Street. There was presumably a bath-house belonging to the 4th-century fort. The Roman baths incorporated a reused inscription of the Gallic Emperor Postumus, dating from AD 262–266. The 3rd-century fort was garrisoned by the ala Sebosiana and the numerus Barcariorum Tigrisiensium.[15]

The ancient Wery Wall was identified in 1950 as the north wall of the 4th-century fort, which constituted a drastic remodelling of the 3rd-century one, while retaining the same orientation. Exceptionally the later fort is the only example in north-west Britain of a 4th-century type, with massive curtain-wall and projecting bastions typical of the Saxon Shore or in Wales. The extension of this technique as far north as Lancaster shows that the coast between Cumberland and North Wales was not left defenceless after the attacks on the west coast and the disaster in the Carausian Revolt of AD 296, following on from those under Albinus in AD 197.

The fort underwent further extensions: at its largest it covered 9–10 acres (4–4 ha).[16] Evidence suggests that it remained in use until the end of Roman occupation of Britain.[17] Church Street and part of St Leonard's Gate probably mark the initial course of the Roman road up the valley to the fort at Over Burrow.[18]

Little is known of Lancaster between the end of Roman rule in Britain in the early 5th century and the Norman Conquest in the late 11th century. Despite a lack of documentation in that period, it is likely that Lancaster was still inhabited. Lancaster was on the fringes of the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria, and over time, control may have changed from one to the other.[19] Archaeological evidence suggests there was a monastery on or near the site of today's Lancaster Priory by the 700s or 800s. For example, an Anglo-Saxon runic cross found at the Priory in 1807, known as "Cynibald's cross", is thought to have been made in the late 9th century. Lancaster was probably one of numerous monasteries founded under Wilfrid.[20]

Medieval

Lancaster in 1728
Lancaster in 1728

After the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Lancaster fell under the control of William I, as stated in the Domesday Book of 1086, which has the earliest known mention of Lancaster in any document. The founding charter of the Priory, dated 1094, is the first known document specific to Lancaster.[21] By this time William had given Lancaster and its surroundings to Roger de Poitou. The document also suggests the monastery had been refounded as a parish church at some time before 1066.[21]

Lancaster became a borough in 1193 under King Richard I. Its first charter, dated 12 June 1193, was from John, Count of Mortain, who later became King of England.[22]

Lancaster from the south in 1825
Lancaster from the south in 1825

Lancaster Castle, partly built in the 13th century and enlarged by Elizabeth I, stands on the site of a Roman garrison. In 1322, damage was done to the castle by Robert the Bruce, whose attack it successfully resisted, but it was restored and strengthened by John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, who added much of the Gateway Tower and a turret on the keep or Lungess Tower, which on that account has been named "John o' Gaunt's Chair".[23] In 1322 the Scots burnt the town, it was rebuilt but removed from its original position on the hill to the slope and foot. Again in 1389, after the Battle of Otterburn, it was destroyed by the Scots.[23] Lancaster Castle is well known as the site of the Pendle witch trials in 1612. It was said that the court based in the castle (the Lancaster Assizes) sentenced more people to be hanged than any other in the country outside London, earning Lancaster the nickname, "the Hanging Town".[24] Lancaster also figured prominently in the suppression of Catholicism during the Reformation, when at least eleven Catholic priests were executed. A memorial to these Lancaster Martyrs stands close to the city centre.

Lancaster in the 19th century
Lancaster in the 19th century

The traditional emblem for the House of Lancaster is the Red Rose of Lancaster, similar to that of the House of York, which shows a white rose. The names derive from emblems of the Royal Duchies of Lancaster and York in the 15th century. This erupted into a civil war over rival claims to the throne during the Wars of the Roses.

In more recent times, the term "Wars of the Roses" has been applied to rivalry in sports between teams representing Lancashire and Yorkshire, not just the cities of Lancaster and York. It is also applied to the Roses Tournament, in which Lancaster and York universities compete every year.[25]

St. George's Quay
St. George's Quay

Lancaster gained its first charter in 1193[26] as a market town and borough, but was not given city status until 1937.[27] Many buildings in the city centre and along St George's Quay date from the 18th century, built as the port became one of the busiest in the UK and the fourth most important in the UK's slave trade.[28] Prominent Lancaster slave-traders include Dodshon Foster,[29] Thomas Hinde and his son also called Thomas.[30] However, Lancaster's role as a major port was short-lived, as the river began to silt up.[26] Morecambe, Glasson Dock and Sunderland Point served as Lancaster's outports for brief periods. Heysham Port has now eclipsed all the ports on the River Lune as the district's main port.

Recent history

Lancaster is mainly a service-oriented city. Products include animal feed, textiles, chemicals, livestock, paper, synthetic fibre, farm machinery, HGV trailers and mineral fibres. In recent years, a high-tech sector has emerged out of Information Technology and Communications firms investing in the city.

A permanent military presence was built up with the completion of Bowerham Barracks in 1880.[31] The Phoenix Street drill hall was completed in 1894.[32]

In March 2004, Lancaster was granted Fairtrade City status.[33]

Lancaster was home to the European headquarters of Reebok. After merging with Adidas, Reebok moved to Bolton and Stockport in 2007.[34]

In May 2015 Queen Elizabeth II visited the castle for commemorations for the 750th anniversary of the creation of the Duchy of Lancaster.[35]

Governance

Lancaster Town Hall, Dalton Square

Lancaster and Morecambe have grown into a conurbation. The former City and Municipal Borough of Lancaster and the Municipal Borough of Morecambe and Heysham along with other authorities merged in 1974 to form the City of Lancaster district within the shire county of Lancashire. This was given city status in the United Kingdom and Lancaster City Council is the local governing body for the district. Lancaster is an unparished area and has no separate council. It is divided into wards such as Bulk, Castle, Ellel, John O'Gaunt (named after John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster), Scotforth East, Scotforth West, Skerton East, Skerton West, and University and Scotforth Rural.

Political representation

Most of the city lies in the Lancaster and Fleetwood constituency for elections of Members of Parliament to the House of Commons. The current MP for Lancaster and Fleetwood is Cat Smith of the Labour Party. The Skerton part of the city lies in the Morecambe and Lunesdale constituency represented by David Morris of the Conservative Party.

Before Brexit, it was in the North West England European Parliamentary Constituency.

In the late 1990s and early first decade of the 21st century, the city council was under the control of the Morecambe Bay Independents (MBIs), who campaigned for an independent Morecambe council. In 2003, their influence waned and Labour became the largest party on the council. They formed a coalition with the Liberal Democrats and Greens. At the May 2007 local elections, Labour lost ground to the Greens in Lancaster and the MBIs in Morecambe, resulting in no overall control, with all parties represented in a PR administration. The 2011 elections saw Labour emerge as the largest party. They reached a joint administrative arrangement with the Greens.

The 2019 Lancaster City Council election results put no party in overall control. The council is run by a coalition of Labour, Green, Eco-Socialist Independent and Liberal Democrat councillors, supported by the Independent Group, with Conservatives and MBIs in opposition. The cabinet consists of 4 Labour, 4 Green, 1 Eco-Socialist, 1 Independent Group. At 10 seats, Lancaster has one of the country's largest Green Party representations.

Geography

Lancaster is Lancashire's northernmost city, three miles (4.8 km) inland from Morecambe Bay on the River Lune (from which comes its name), and the Lancaster Canal. It becomes hillier from the Lune Valley eastwards, with Williamson Hill in the north-west a notable peak at 109 metres (358 ft).

Green belt

There is a small portion of green belt on the northern fringe of Lancaster, covering the area into Carnforth and helping to prevent further urban expansion towards nearby Morecambe, Hest Bank, Slyne and Bolton-le-Sands.[36]

Transport

Road

King Street with the castle in the background
King Street with the castle in the background

The M6 motorway passes to the east of Lancaster with junctions 33 and 34 to the south and north. The A6 road, one of the main historic north–south roads in England, leads south to Preston, Chorley and Manchester and north to Carnforth, Kendal, Penrith and Carlisle. It currently runs from Luton, Bedfordshire, to Carlisle, Cumbria. In passing through Lancaster it gives access to nearby Carnforth, Kendal and Garstang. The Bay Gateway opened in 2016, linking Heysham and the M6 with a dual carriageway.[37]

Lancaster's main bus operator is Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire, with a network of services from Lancaster bus station throughout the Lancaster District and frequent services to more distant places such as Kendal, Keswick, Kirkby Lonsdale, Preston and Blackpool. There are frequent buses to Lancaster University, with the No. 1 and No. 2 services running every 10–15 minutes using double-deckers, with less frequent services 4, 41 and 42.[38]

Other routes are covered by Kirkby Lonsdale Coach Hire, including the 582 to Kirkby Lonsdale, Settle and Skipton and the 89 to Knott End-on-Sea.

Rail

Lancaster railway station
Lancaster railway station
Red pog.svg Railway station
Pink pog.svg Site of former railway station

Lancaster is served by the West Coast Main Line, which runs through Lancaster railway station. The station was formerly named Lancaster Castle, to differentiate it from Lancaster Green Ayre on the Leeds–Morecambe line, which closed in 1966. There are through train services to and from London, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds and Barrow-in-Furness, with a local service to Morecambe.

The long-term aim of the city council is to open a railway station serving the university and south Lancaster, although this is not feasible in the short or medium term with current levels of demand.[39] The Caton–Morecambe section of the former North Western railway is now used as a cycle path.

Water and air

Historically, the Port of Lancaster gained importance in the 18th century. In 1750 the Lancaster Port Commission was established to develop the port. However, in more recent years, shipping visits Glasson Dock, where the Port commission is now based.[40]

The Lancaster Canal and River Lune pass through the city.

The nearest airports are Manchester, Liverpool and Blackpool.

Cycling

In 2005, Lancaster was one of six English towns chosen to be cycling demonstration towns to promote cycling as a means of transport.[41] The project ended in 2011 and despite considerable improvements made to cycling facilities and a rising level of cycle traffic, no further improvements have been made.

Education

Lancaster Royal Grammar School
Lancaster Royal Grammar School

At Bailrigg, south of the city, is Lancaster University, a research university founded in the 1960s with an annual income of about £319 million.[42] It employs 3,000 staff and has 17,415 registered students. It has one of only two business schools in the country to have achieved a six-star research rating[43] and its Physics Department was rated #1 in the United Kingdom in 2008.[44][45] InfoLab21 at the university is Centre of Excellence for Information and Communication Technologies.[46] LEC (Lancaster Environment Centre) has over 200 staff and shares its premises with the government-funded CEH. In 2017 it was rated 21st nationally for research in The Times Higher league table. For teaching, it obtained the highest Gold ranking for teaching quality in the 2017 government TEF, and in 2018 was ranked 9th for its teaching by The Independent[47] and 9th by The Guardian.[48] The Times Higher placed it 137th worldwide for research, and 58th worldwide for arts and humanities.[49] Lancaster University was named International University of the Year by The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide, 2020.[50] The university has campuses in Malaysia, China and Ghana, and a project has been launched to open one in Leipzig, Germany.[50]

Lancaster is also home to a campus of the University of Cumbria – more centrally located on the site of the former St Martin's College – which was inaugurated in 2007. It provides undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the arts, social sciences, business, teacher training, health care and nursing.

Jamea Al Kauthar Islamic College, in the former Royal Albert Hospital building on Ashton Road, is an independent girls' school, providing education in a Muslim tradition.[51]

Further education

Secondary schools

Primary schools

  • Lancaster Steiner School
  • Scotforth St Pauls CofE Primary School
  • Moorside Primary School
  • St Bernadette's Catholic Primary School
  • Bowerham Primary School
  • The Cathedral Catholic Primary School
  • Dallas Road Community Primary School
  • Willow Lane (formally Marsh) Community Primary School
  • Castle View (formally Ridge) Community Primary School
  • Lancaster Christ Church CofE Primary School
  • St Joseph's Catholic Primary School
  • Skerton St Lukes CofE Primary School
  • Lancaster Ryelands Primary School

Special Educational Needs (SEN) Schools

  • The Loyne
  • Morecambe Road School

Culture

Lune Millennium Bridge
Lune Millennium Bridge
Penny's Hospital almshouses
Penny's Hospital almshouses

Lancaster has a range of historic buildings and venues, having retained many fine examples of Georgian architecture. Lancaster Castle, the Priory Church of St. Mary and the Edwardian Ashton Memorial are among the sites of historical importance. Its many museums include Lancaster City Museum, Maritime Museum, the Cottage Museum,[53] and Judges' Lodgings Museum.

Lancaster Friends Meeting House dating from 1708, is the longest continual Quaker meeting site in the world, with an original building built in 1677. George Fox, founder of Quakerism, was near the site several times in the 1660s and spent two years imprisoned in Lancaster Castle.[54] The meeting house holds regular Quaker meetings and a wide range of cultural activities including adult learning, meditation, art classes, music and political meetings. The Lancaster Grand Theatre is another historic cultural venue, under its many names. It has played a major part in social and cultural life since it was built in 1782.[55]

Lancaster Castle
Lancaster Castle

Lancaster is known nationally for its Arts scene.[56] There are 600 business and organisations in the region involved directly or indirectly in arts and culture.[57]

In 2009 several major arts bodies based in the district formed a consortium called Lancaster Arts Partners (LAP) to champion strategic development of arts activities in Lancaster District.[58] Notable partners include Ludus Dance,[59] More Music,[60] the Dukes[61] among others. LAP curates and promotes "Lancaster First Fridays", a monthly multi-disciplinary mini-festival under its brand "Lancaster Arts City".

Lancaster University has a public arts organisation, part of LAP, known as Lancaster Arts at Lancaster University. Its programmes include Lancaster's Nuffield Theatre, one of the largest professional studio theatres in Europe, the Peter Scott Gallery, with the most significant collection of Royal Lancastrian ceramics in Britain, and the Lancaster International Concerts Series, drawing nationally and internationally renowned classical and world-music artists.[62]

The gallery in the Storey Creative Industries Centre is now programmed and run by Lancaster City Council. In 2013 the previous incumbent organisation "The Storey Gallery" moved out of the building and reformed as "Storey G2".[63] The Storey Creative Industries Centre is also home to Lancaster's Litfest, which runs an annual literature festival. In the summer months Williamson Park hosts outdoor performances, including a Dukes "Play in the Park", which over the past 26 years has attracted 460,000 people, as the UK's biggest outdoor walkabout theatre event.[64]

Lancaster is known as the Northern City of Ale, with almost 30 pubs serving cask ale.[65][66] The pubs include the White Cross, Three Mariners, Borough and Water Witch.[65] There are two cask ale breweries: Lancaster Brewery and a microbrewery run by the Borough. There is a local CAMRA (Campaign for Real Ale) branch at Lunesdale.[67]

The Lancaster Grand Theatre and the Dukes are notable venues for live performance, as are the Yorkshire House, Robert Gillow, The John O' Gaunt and The Bobin. Throughout the year events are held in and around the city, such as the Lancaster Music Festival, Lancaster Jazz Festival, and Chinese New Year celebrations in the city centre.[68]

Every November the city hosts a daylight and art festival entitled "Light Up Lancaster",[69] which includes a prominent fireworks display.[70]

Lancaster still has two city-centre cinemas; the 1930s art deco Regal Cinema closed in 2006.[71] The Gregson Centre is also known for small film screenings and cultural events.

Sport

Giant Axe Ground, Home of Lancaster City F.C.
Giant Axe Ground, Home of Lancaster City F.C.

Lancaster's main football team, Lancaster City, plays in the Northern Premier League Premier Division having won promotion as champions of Division One North in 2016–2017. It plays its home matches at the Giant Axe, which can take 3,500 (513 seated) and was formed in 1911 originally as Lancaster Town F.C. Lancaster City has been six-times Lancashire FA Challenge cup winners and in 2010-11 won the Northern Premier League President's cup for a second time. Lancaster John O' Gaunt Rowing Club is the fifth-oldest surviving rowing club in the UK, outside the universities.[72] It competes nationally at regattas and heads races run by British Rowing. The clubhouse stands next to the weir at Skerton.

The city entertains contestants in the Lancaster International Youth Games, a multi-sport 'Olympic' style event featuring competitors from Lancaster's twin towns: Rendsburg (Germany), Perpignan (France), Viana do Castelo (Portugal), Aalborg (Denmark), Almere (Netherlands), Lublin (Poland) and Växjö (Sweden).[citation needed]

Lancaster Cricket Club is sited near the River Lune. It has two senior teams that participate in the Palace Shield. Rugby union is a popular sport in the area, with the local clubs being Vale of Lune RUFC and Lancaster CATS.

Lancaster is home to the Golf Centre, Lansil Golf Club, Forest Hills and Lancaster Golf Club. It also has a Lancaster Amateur Swimming and Waterpolo Club that competes in the north-west. It trains at Salt Ayre and at Lancaster University Sports Centre. Lancaster is home to a senior UK team. Water polo is also popular in the area.[citation needed]

The local athletics track near the Salt Ayre Sports Centre is home to both Lancaster and Morecambe AC. It regularly fields athletes across disciplines including track and field, cross country, road and fell running. It competes in several local and national leagues including the Young Athletics League, the Northern Athletics League and the local Mid Lancs League (Cross-Country in Winter, and Track and Field in Summer).[citation needed]

Music

The city's semi-professional Haffner Orchestra has a reputation for classical music. It performs in the Ashton Hall in the city centre and at Lancaster University.

Lancaster has been producing successful bands and musicians since the 1990s, notably the drummer Keith Baxter of 3 Colours Red and folk-metal band Skyclad, who also featured Lancaster guitarist Dave Pugh, and the thrash metal band D.A.M., who were all from Lancaster, recording two albums for the Noise International label, with Dave Pugh appearing on the second.

The all-girl punk-rock band Angelica used the Lancaster Musicians' Co-operative, the main rehearsal and recording studio in the area.

The city has also produced many other musicians, including singer and songwriter John Waite, who first became known as lead singer of The Babys and had a solo #1 hit in the US, "Missing You". As part of the band Bad English, John Waite also had a #1 hit in the Billboard top hundred in the 1970s called "When I See You Smile". Additionally, Paul James, better known as The Rev, former guitarist of English punk band Towers of London who is now in the band Day 21 and plays guitar live on tour for The Prodigy; Chris Acland, drummer of the early 1990s shoegaze band Lush; Tom English, drummer of North East indie band Maxïmo Park and Steve Kemp, drummer of the indie band Hard-Fi.

Lancaster continues to produce bands and musicians such as singer-songwriter Jay Diggins, and acts like The Lovely Eggs, receiving considerable national radio play and press coverage in recent years. More recently, Lancaster locals Massive Wagons signed to Nottingham-based independent label Earache Records. The city is also the founding home of the dance-music sound systems Rhythm Method and ACME Bass Company. Pioneers in the field of the free party, these two systems and others forged strong representations of the genre in the North West of England in the 1990s.

Since 2006, Lancaster Library has hosted regular music events under the Get it Loud in Libraries initiative. Musicians such as The Wombats, The Thrills, Kate Nash, Adele and Bat for Lashes have taken part.[73] Get It Loud in Libraries has gained national exposure, featuring on The One Show on BBC1 and having gigs reviewed in Observer Music Monthly, NME and Art Rocker.[74]

Notable popular music venues include The Dukes, The Grand Theatre, The Gregson Centre, The Bobbin and The Yorkshire House,[75] which since 2006 has hosted such acts as John Renbourn, Polly Paulusma, Marissa Nadler, Baby Dee, Diane Cluck, Alasdair Roberts, Jesca Hoop, Lach, Jack Lewis, Tiny Ruins and 2008 Mercury Prize nominees Rachel Unthank and the Winterset. Other venues include the Dalton Rooms, the V Bar, the Park Hotel and The Hall, China Street. These host Lancaster's diverse music culture, such as the Lancaster Speakeasy[76] or Stylus.[77]

The Lancaster Jazz and Lancaster Music Festivals are respectively held every September and October, at venues throughout the city. In 2013 the headline jazz act was The Neil Cowley Trio, performing at The Dukes, whilst one of the Lancaster Music Festival headline acts was Jay Diggins at the Dalton Rooms.[78]

Media

Heart North Lancashire & Cumbria (formerly "The Bay") has been a commercial radio station for north Lancashire and south Cumbria. Its studios are based at St George's Quay in the city and it broadcasts on three frequencies: 96.9 FM (Lancaster), 102.3 FM (Windermere) and 103.2 FM (Kendal). It is now part of the Manchester-based Heart North West.[citation needed]

Beyond Radio is a voluntary, non-profit community radio station for Lancaster and Morecambe and broadcasts on 103.5FM and online.[79] Operated by Proper Community Media (Lancaster) Ltd, the station and broadcasts 24 hours a day from The Old Bowling Pavilion in Palatine Avenue Park, Bowerham. It took over from Diversity FM, a community radio station run by Lancaster and District YMCA, which had closed in April 2012.

Lancaster University has its own student radio station, Bailrigg FM, broadcasting on 87.7 FM, and an online student-run television station called LA1:TV (formerly LUTube.tv)[80] and a student-run newspaper named SCAN.[81]

The city is home to the film production company A1 Pictures, which founded the independent film brand Capture.[citation needed]

Commercially available newspapers include the tabloids The Lancaster Guardian and The Visitor (mainly targeted at residents of Morecambe). Both are based on the White Lund Industrial Estate in Morecambe. Virtual Lancaster, founded in 1999, is a non-commercial volunteer-led resource website also featuring local news, events and visitor information.

Places of interest

Ashton Memorial, Williamson Park
Ashton Memorial, Williamson Park

Notable people

Alphabetical by category. All information is taken from each person's Wikipedia page. Notability implies a lengthy period of fame.

Myles Standish was born near Lancaster
Myles Standish was born near Lancaster

Arts and entertainment

Business

Crime

  • Lauren Jeska (born 1974) – a transgender athlete, was convicted of the attempted murder of an official, Ralph Knibbs.[82]
  • Edward Stringer, (1819–1863) – convict and prospector, discovered the Walhalla, Victoria goldfield in Australia.[83]
  • Buck Ruxton (1899–1936) – marital murderer, resided and practised medicine at 2 Dalton Square.

Politics and journalism

Science and humanities

Sport

Twinned cities

Lancaster is twinned with:[84]

See also

References

  1. ^ Lancaster City is made up of nine wards (Bulk, Duke, Castle, Skerton East and West, Scotforth East and West, University and John O'Gaunt. [https://web.archive.org/web/20160314090716/http://www.ukcensusdata.com/lancaster-e07000121#sthash.sGUu3f28.LVIHxslk.dpbs Archived 14 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Archived 14 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine]
  2. ^ "Lancaster - Dictionary Definition". Vocabulary.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  3. ^ "LANCASTER • DICTIONARY ONE.COM • Definition of Lancaster". www.dictionaryone.com. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  4. ^ "Lancaster definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary". www.collinsdictionary.com. Archived from the original on 16 June 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  5. ^ "Definition of Lancaster | Dictionary.com". www.dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  6. ^ Roach, Peter; Hartman, James; Setter, Jane; Jones, Daniel, eds. (2006). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (17th ed.). Cambridge: CUP. ISBN 978-0-521-68086-8.
  7. ^ Evans, Jacqueline. "Lancashire's Population, 2011". Lancashire County Council. Lancashire County Council. Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  8. ^ Eilert Ekwall, 'The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Placenames' (1960), 4th edition, p. 285.
  9. ^ Shotter, p. 5.
  10. ^ I. A. Richmond: Excavations on the Site of the Roman Fort at Lancaster (1950) [1] Archived 6 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Shotter, p. 9.
  12. ^ Shotter, p. 10.
  13. ^ Rivet, A. L. F.; Smith, Colin (1979). The Place-Names of Roman Britain. London: B. T. Batsford. p. 382. ISBN 0713420774.
  14. ^ "Map, etc. Retrieved 11 July 2020". Archived from the original on 13 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  15. ^ Birley, CW- XXXIX, p. 222.[full citation needed]
  16. ^ Shotter, p. 14.
  17. ^ Shotter, p. 27.
  18. ^ Ratledge, David. "The Roman Road from Lancaster to Burrow (in Lonsdale)". Roman Roads Research Association. Archived from the original on 13 January 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  19. ^ White 2001, p. 33
  20. ^ White, p. 34.
  21. ^ a b White, p. 57.
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Bibliography

  • Shotter, David (2001), "Roman Lancaster: Site and Settlement", A History of Lancaster, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 3–31, ISBN 0-7486-1466-4
  • White, Andrew (2001), "Continuity, Charter, Castle and County Town, 400–1500", A History of Lancaster, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 33–72, ISBN 0-7486-1466-4

External links

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