To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Lakewood, Ohio

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lakewood, Ohio
Lakewood Downtown Historic District
Lakewood Downtown Historic District
"City of Beautiful Homes"
"A Great Place to Call Home"
Location in Cuyahoga County and the state of Ohio.
Location in Cuyahoga County and the state of Ohio.
Lakewood, Ohio is located in the United States
Lakewood, Ohio
Lakewood, Ohio
Coordinates: 41°28′55″N 81°47′54″W / 41.48194°N 81.79833°W / 41.48194; -81.79833
Country United States
State Ohio
 • TypeMayor-council
 • MayorMeghan George (D)[1]
 • Total6.70 sq mi (17.34 km2)
 • Land5.54 sq mi (14.36 km2)
 • Water1.15 sq mi (2.98 km2)
Elevation702 ft (214 m)
 • Total50,942
 • Density9,190.33/sq mi (3,548.69/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP code
Area code216
FIPS code[4]39-41664
GNIS feature ID1064966[3]

Lakewood is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States, on the southern shore of Lake Erie. Established in 1889, it is one of Cleveland's historical streetcar suburbs and part of the Cleveland metropolitan area. The population was 50,942 at the 2020 census, making it the third largest city in Cuyahoga County, behind Cleveland and Parma.[5]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    4 002
    1 244
    17 860
  • Lakewood, Ohio
  • Madison Avenue in Lakewood, OH - Exploring from Riverside to W. 117th (October 12, 2022)
  • Boom's Pizza in Lakewood Ohio
  • Lakewood Ohio Past & Present
  • Looks like Renting in Lakewood Ohio is attractive to OnlyFans Models | HoltonWiseTV Highlights



Lakewood was incorporated as a village in 1889, and named for its lakefront location.[6]

Earliest days

The wilderness west of the Cuyahoga River was delayed being settled due to a treaty the American government made with the Native Americans in 1785, whereby no white man was to settle on that land. Consequently, when Moses Cleaveland arrived in 1796, his activities were confined to the east side of the river.

The area now called Lakewood was populated by the Ottawa, Potawatomi, Chippewa, Wyandot, Munsee, Delaware and Shawnee tribes until the Treaty of Ft. Industry pushed them west in 1805.[7] The treaty, signed at Ft. Industry near what is now downtown Toledo, Ohio, ceded 500,000 acres of some of the tribes' land to the United States for about $18,000 or 3.5 cents/acre. The Shawnee and Seneca, living with the Wyandot, were to get $1000 "...every year forever hereafter."[8]

The area now occupied by Lakewood, Rocky River, Fairview Park, and West Park was purchased from the Connecticut Land Company by a syndicate of six men headed by Judson Canfield on April 4, 1807, for $26,084.

In 1806 the area was formally surveyed as Rockport Township. In 1818, permanent settlement began with the arrival from Connecticut of James Nicholson.[9] Other early pioneers included Jared Kirtland and Mars Wager. Settlements were mostly along Detroit Avenue, a toll road operated by the Rockport Plank Company from 1848 to 1901, with large farms and properties extending north to Lake Erie. Making bricks and planting orchards were among the most prolific occupations until natural gas and oil wells were developed in the early 1880s.[7]

By 1819 18 families lived in Rockport Township. In 1893, streetcars came to Lakewood with the construction of the Detroit Avenue line, followed by the Clifton Boulevard line in 1903 and the Madison Avenue line in 1916.[10]

First government

Lakewood, the first suburb west of Cleveland on the shores of Lake Erie, began as Township 7, Range 14, of the Connecticut Western Reserve in 1805. It was a wooded wilderness through which cut the old Huron Post Road that ran from Buffalo, New York, to Detroit, Michigan. In 1819 a small group of eighteen families living in the area of present-day Lakewood, Rocky River, and part of Cleveland's West Park neighborhood named the growing community Rockport Township. In April of that year, the first election took place in Rufus Wright's tavern with a member of each household present. Three were elected as trustees: Henry Alger, Erastus Johnson, and Rufus Wright. Elected as overseers of the poor were James Nicholson and Samuel Dean. Henry Canfield was elected clerk. This type of government served Rockport for the next 70 years, with an election held each year.

In 1889 East Rockport, with 400 residents, separated from the township and became the Hamlet of Lakewood. Settlement accelerated rapidly, with Lakewood becoming a village with 3,500 residents in 1903. City status, with 12,000 residents, came just eight years later. By 1930 the population of Lakewood was 70,509.


The early settlers in Township 7 sustained their lives through farming. The land was ideal for fruit farming and many vineyards began to emerge.[11] Current street names reflect this history such as Orchard Grove and Blossom Park. The fertile soil and lake climate that were ideal for producing crops is what attracted many people to move to the township. There was also vast amounts of trees to be used for building homes and other structures. The most common occupations in Lakewood were farming and the building trades.

First roads

Roads were the earliest influence on development in Lakewood. The Rockport Plank Road Company improved the old Detroit Road in 1848, opening a toll road from present-day West 25th Street in Cleveland to five miles west of the Rocky River. It continued operating as a toll road until 1901. A series of bridges spanning the Rocky River Valley, the first of which was built in 1821, improved commerce between Cleveland and the emerging communities to its west. An 1874 atlas of Cuyahoga County shows present-day main roads such as Detroit Avenue, Madison Avenue, Franklin Boulevard, Hilliard Road, Warren Road, and Riverside Drive.


Under the Ohio Common School Act of April 9, 1867, three schools were allotted to East Rockport, called 6, 8, and 10; they were later designated East, Middle, and West. Each school had one teacher. As the community began to grow and more schools were required, the school board adopted the policy of honoring Ohio's presidents by assigning their names to the school buildings.


The Rocky River Railroad was organized in 1869 by speculators as an excursion line to bring Clevelanders to the resort area they developed at the mouth of the Rocky River. Financially unsuccessful as a pleasure and amusement venture, the line was sold to the Nickel Plate Railroad in 1881. The railroad line still exists today, running in an east–west direction north of Detroit Avenue.

Lakewood Hospital

Lakewood Hospital first opened its doors in 1907. The hospital, founded by Dr. Lee Graber, was originally located in a double house on Detroit Avenue, then built a "modern" building in 1917 and was renovated in 1940, 1950, 1967 and 1970-71. The city of Lakewood purchased the hospital in 1931. The Cleveland Clinic added the hospital to its health system in 2006.[12]

In January 2015, the Cleveland Clinic announced it would close the hospital in 2016 and replace it with a family medical center. After a year of community debate, the hospital was closed. The new medical center which included outpatient programs, an emergency department and wellness services opened across the street from the old hospital site in 2018. None of the 845 employees of Lakewood lost their jobs, as they were offered other positions in the Cleveland Clinic system.[13] There was opposition to the closing from a citizens' group called "Save Lakewood Hospital" who contended that the city could find another entity to manage the hospital and keep it open.[14]


Lake Erie shore at Lakewood Park
A residential street in Lakewood
Lake Shore Towers on Edgewater Drive

Lakewood is located about 6 miles (9.7 km) west of Downtown Cleveland. The city borders Lake Erie to the north, the Cleveland neighborhoods of Edgewater and Cudell to the east, and the neighborhoods of Jefferson and Kamm's Corners to the south. It borders the suburb of Rocky River to the west at the Rocky River valley. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.69 square miles (17.33 km2), of which 5.53 square miles (14.32 km2) is land and 1.16 square miles (3.00 km2) is water.[15]


  • Arts District - Centered around the Beck Center for the Arts, on the west side of Lakewood.[citation needed]
  • Birdtown - Southeastern corner of Lakewood, a well-known 8-street residential district on the southeast side of the city that was built specifically for the workers of the nearby National Carbon Company in the 1890s. The houses are distinctive and most of the streets are named after birds.[16] Birdtown was designated a National Register Historic District in 2006. It is adjacent to Madison Park, the former Union Carbide factory, and the W. 117th St. Rapid Transit Station.[16] Many of the original houses built there were boarding houses.[17] Birdtown achieved National Historic Register status in 2006.
  • Clifton Boulevard - Lined with big trees and multi-family homes, apartment complexes, and 4×4 brick structures, and turn of the century single family colonials, the seven-lane Clifton Boulevard is one of the busiest streets in greater Cleveland.[citation needed]
  • Clifton Park - The wealthiest neighborhood of Lakewood is situated in the northwestern corner of the city, and consists mostly of magnificent Victorian mansions. It is bounded by Sloane on the south, Webb Road on the east, the Rocky River on the west, and Lake Erie on the north. Built in the late 19th century, this area has been historically, and continues to be, home to many of greater Cleveland's most prominent citizens. Includes the private Clifton Beach community.[citation needed][18]
  • Downtown Lakewood - The main section of Lakewood is centered at Detroit Avenue and Warren Road. Downtown Lakewood spans from Bunts Avenue to the east and Arthur Avenue to the west along Detroit.[19] This district was formally identified when Lakewood was chosen as a member of the national MainStreet program in 2005. The area is lined with office buildings, restaurants, and variety shops. Lakewood Library, the USPS, and the site of the former Lakewood Hospital are all located in this district.
  • The Edge - This easternmost neighborhood includes many concert venues, pubs, and taverns.[citation needed]
  • Victorian Village - This was named after the large Victorian homes on Grace, Clarence and Cohassett Avenues on the city's east end. When constructed in the early 1900s, it served as residences for executives from the National Carbon Company.[citation needed][20]
  • The Gold Coast - Collection of high rises on the northeast end of Lakewood, bordering Lake Erie.[citation needed]
  • Rockport Square - Rockport Square (not to be confused with the former Rockport Township) is an urban renewal project along Detroit Avenue on the eastern side of the city. Construction began in 2004 of roughly 200 condos, lofts, and live-work spaces.[citation needed]
  • West End - The West End is the westernmost neighborhood of Lakewood, along the Rocky River Reservation. In 2002, the administration of Mayor Madelaine Cain proposed to seize homes in this area using eminent domain, to replace them with retail development. After a citizen-led resistance attracted national media attention from 60 Minutes, the West End proposal failed in a 2003 referendum.[21]


Historical population

As of the census[25] of 2010, there were 52,131 people, 25,274 households, and 11,207 families residing in the city. The population density was 9,426.9 inhabitants per square mile (3,639.7/km2). There were 28,498 housing units at an average density of 5,153.3 per square mile (1,989.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 87.5% White, 6.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 1.3% from other races, and 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population.

There were 25,274 households, of which 22.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.7% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.8% had a male householder with no wife present, and 55.7% were non-families. 44.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.05 and the average family size was 2.99.

The median age in the city was 35.4 years. 19.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 34.3% were from 25 to 44; 25.7% were from 45 to 64; and 11% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.1% male and 50.9% female.

As of the 2007 American Community Survey, the median income for a household in the city was $42,602, and the median income for a family was $59,201. Males had a median income of $42,599 versus $35,497 for females. The per capita income for the city was $26,939. About 10.9% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.3% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. Of the city's population over the age of 25, 39.0% hold a bachelor's degree or higher.[26]

According to the 2020 United States census, Lakewood had a population of 50,942. Of which, 82.7% were non-hispanic White, 5.2% were non-hispanic Black, 4.8% were Hispanic/Latino, 2.4% were Asian, 5.9% were mixed or other.[27]

Ethnicity and immigration

Lakewood's ethnic mosaic includes Albanian, Arab, Chinese, German, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Mexican, Nepalese, Puerto Rican, Polish, Russian, Slovak, and Ukrainian ancestries.[28] As of 2019, 12.2% spoke a language other than English at home, including Arabic, Spanish, Albanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, and Hungarian.[29] The community is a hotspot for immigrants, arriving primarily from Southeast Europe (especially Albania, Romania, Greece, and the former Yugoslavia),[30][31] the Middle East (Lebanon, Syria, and Iran),[31][32] South Asia (India, Nepal, and Myanmar),[7][33] and the former USSR (Russia, Uzbekistan, and Ukraine).[7][34] The foreign-born population was approximately 8.6% in 2019.[29]



Lakewood Park gazebo
Lakewood Park gazebo
  • The Lakewood Library's 2008 expansion (its first in over 20 years) increased the main library to 93,000 square feet; the collection then grew to over 474,000 items by 2015. The Lakewood Library also celebrated its centennial in 2016.[35] The Madison branch of the Library, designed by architectural firm Walter and Weeks, opened in 1929 in the southeastern part of the city. It underwent a $2.1 million renovation and expansion, and reopened to the public in March 2022.[36]
  • Rockport Square was developed on the eastern end of the city in 2004 and incorporated residential townhouses all along Detroit Avenue.[37]
  • The Cleveland Clinic completed construction of a new one-story facility on Detroit Avenue in 2005, adjacent to Rockport Square.
  • The Lakewood YMCA finished construction of its new facility on Detroit Avenue in 2004. The two-story gymnasium features state-of-the-art exercise equipment, an indoor swimming pool, yoga lessons, and an extended babysitting service.
  • The Cleveland Clinic began demolition in 2016 of a professional office building and garage in preparation for the construction of a new $34 million, 62,000 square foot family health building, which will serve as a replacement, in part, for Lakewood Hospital. The hospital's emergency department remains open through the construction, which is scheduled to be completed in 2018.[38]
  • The highways that go through Lakewood are U.S. Route 20, U.S. Route 6 Alternate, and Ohio State Route 237. In the south of the city, Interstate 90 enters the city limits.


  • In 2009, the American Institute of Architects and the Cleveland Restoration Society honored the City of Lakewood Department of Planning & Development and LakewoodAlive[39] with an award for Creative & Effective Preservation Advocacy in 2009.
  • The City of Lakewood was accepted into the nationally renowned Ohio Main Street Program in 2005.[40]

Arts and culture


  • Lakewood Park is one of the largest lakefront parks in Ohio and features a live concert stage, outdoor swimming pool, picnic pavilions, 4-season public pavilion, kids' playground, baseball, volleyball, and a skate park, which opened in 2004. Lakewood has more than 150 acres (0.61 km2) of greenspace citywide. The park's million dollar lakefront promenade opened in 2006 and offers an excellent panorama of Downtown Cleveland and the presence of viewing telescopes enhances the viewing experience of Downtown Cleveland. An all-purpose trail that circles the park was built in 2006.
On October 30, 2015, Lakewood opened its "Solstice Steps" in the northwest corner of the park. The steps are aligned in the direction of sunset on the summer solstice. They are constructed of white concrete blocks in five tiers; each tier has four steps separated by green grass strips.[41]
A renovated Charles A. Foster Pool is expected to open for the 2023 outdoor swimming season.[42]
The Rocky River Reservation of the Cleveland Metroparks System forms part of the city's western border. The Lakewood Dog Park, built in 2004, is located next to the Metroparks, in the Rocky River valley.
  • Lakewood Public Library[43] has won numerous awards[44] and has two branches: the main branch on Detroit Avenue and a smaller branch on Madison Avenue. The Lakewood Library is normally ranked one of the top 5 libraries in the US for its size on a regular basis,[45] and was awarded "Best Place to Hang Out if You're Broke" by Scene Magazine in 2009.
  • The Lakewood Civic Auditorium, a 2,000-seat performing arts venue located on the campus of Lakewood High School, opened in 1955. The auditorium hosted the Great Lakes Shakespeare Festival from 1962 to 1981.[46] The facade of the auditorium features the world's largest free-standing ceramic sculpture, Early Settler, created by Viktor Schreckengost.[47] The sculpture is commonly known as "Johnny Appleseed" who was the subject of Schreckengost's design.[48]
  • The Beck Center for the Arts is the largest cultural arts center on Cleveland's west shore.[49]
  • Geiger's, a retailer of clothing and ski equipment and accessories, was founded in downtown Lakewood in 1932. The company, now run by the third generation of the Geiger family, moved to its present location in 1936.[50]
  • The home of Malley's Chocolates is in Lakewood.[51]
  • Aladdin's Eatery, a national restaurant brand, is based in Lakewood. Their first restaurant was founded in Lakewood by Fady and Sally Chamoun in 1994.[52] Aladdin's Lakewood Headquarters was expanded in 2007.


Lakewood is governed by an elected mayor and elected council. The council has seven members, with four members representing wards in the city and the other three are at-large council members.[53] Once politically dominated by New England Republicans, Lakewood has become a center for the progressive wing of the Democratic Party in Ohio. It was a stronghold of support for former Congressman Dennis Kucinich, and in the 2016 Democratic presidential primary, its voters strongly backed Bernie Sanders.[54] The city is currently represented in the U.S. House of Representatives by Shontel Brown (OH-11, D).[55] In the Ohio General Assembly it is represented by Nickie Antonio (D) in the State Senate[56] and by Michael Skindell in the (D) State House.[57]

Notable former mayors include Anthony Sinagra (1978 – 1990), Madeline Cain (1996 – 2003), and Ed FitzGerald (2008 – 2010).[58]


Public schools

Lakewood High School, April 2009
Lakewood High School, April 2009

The City of Lakewood Public School System is managed by a directly elected school board.[59] The Lakewood City Schools was rated as having "Continuous Improvement" by the Ohio Department of Education in 2013. Lakewood rebuilt or renovated the city's high school, two middle schools and seven elementary schools in a process completed in 2017.[60] The investment was the first major school building program in Lakewood since 1920. The school system is one of the largest employers in the city of Lakewood.

  • Lakewood High School
  • Franklin Elementary, Franklin Boulevard - opened in 1909, closed in June 2009
  • Grant Elementary, 1470 Victoria Avenue
  • Emerson Elementary, 13439 Clifton Boulevard
  • Harrison Elementary, 2080 Quail Street
  • Hayes Elementary, 16401 Delaware Avenue
  • Lincoln Elementary,[61] 15615 Clifton Boulevard
  • Horace Mann Elementary, 1215 West Clifton Boulevard
  • Roosevelt Elementary, 14327 Athens Avenue
  • Harding Middle School - a new building replaced the original facility in 2007
  • Garfield Middle School - a new middle school building that was formerly an elementary school, re-opened in 2007; efforts were made to retain the original facade of the school, which was constructed in the late 1800s
  • Taft Elementary - closed June 2008; now the home of the Lakewood City Schools administrative offices.

Private schools

  • Lakewood Catholic Academy, K-8, founded in 2005 through a consolidation of four parochial elementary schools, St. James, St. Luke and St. Clements and Transfiguration on the site of the former St. Augustine Academy. Since its founding, over $1.5 million has been invested in capital improvements, making LCA a "significant institution for parochial education in Lakewood.[62]
  • Lakewood Lutheran School - K-8 integrated elementary education
  • Padre Pio Academy - a K-12 elementary/high school founded by lay Catholics striving to be loyal to the Magisterium of the Church; offers a classical curriculum; member of NAPCIS, the National Association of Private Catholic and Independent Schools
  • St. Edward High School - private Roman Catholic High School for boys which attracts students from around northeastern Ohio; new athletic facilities and chapel constructed in 2004 and 2006; they were Ohio Division I football champions in 2010, 2014, 2015, 2018, 2021, 2022
  • The Virginia Marti College of Design - offers degrees in Digital Media, Fashion Design, Fashion Merchandising, Graphic Design and Interior Design
  • The University of Akron holds evening classes at Lakewood High School



Notable people


Former/current residents

Other notes

  • The City of Lakewood first introduced curbside recycling in 1989 and has one of the highest recycling rates in all of Ohio: 79% in 2009.[85]
  • A handful of print and online media chronicle Lakewood, including, a Lakewood channel of, The Sun Post-Herald, and The Lakewood Observer.[citation needed]
  • Lakewood operates a CERT[86] program. This all-citizen emergency response program was created in 2005.
  • According to the Free Times and The Plain Dealer, Lakewood has the highest concentration of vegetarians and vegans in northeast Ohio.[citation needed]
  • Historical housing throughout the city and an active historical society are the norm in Lakewood. The "Make Lakewood Beautiful" program involves contests in which residents compete to make their homes look and resemble their original design and architecture, and awards are given to several homeowners each year. The city offers tours of the most famous homes in the spring, summer, and fall.[87]


  1. ^ Exner, Rich (November 16, 2013). "Democrats outnumber Republicans as mayors in Cuyahoga County, 39-14". Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  2. ^ "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
  3. ^ a b U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Lakewood, Ohio
  4. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  5. ^ "U.S. Census website". Retrieved March 20, 2010.
  6. ^ Overman, William Daniel (1958). Ohio Town Names. Akron, OH: Atlantic Press. p. 72.
  7. ^ a b c d Miller, April. "Lakewood". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
  8. ^ Erb, Robin (November 16, 2003). "1805 Fort Industry treaty entices Toledo historians". The Blade. Toledo Ohio: Block Communications.
  9. ^ Murray, Lorraine. "Lakewood Ohio US". Chicago IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.
  10. ^ Johnston, Laura (January 11, 2019). "9 Lakewood historical milestones: Inner-ring Divide". Cleveland OH: AdvanceOhio.
  11. ^ Becker, Thea Gallo (2003). Lakewood. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. pp. Introduction, i, 12–13. ISBN 073852333X.
  12. ^ Encyclopedia of Cleveland History (May 11, 2018). LAKEWOOD HOSPITAL. Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved April 21, 2022.
  13. ^ Ellison, Alya (February 11, 2016). "Cleveland Clinic's Lakewood Hospital ceases inpatient services". Becker's Hospital Review.
  14. ^ Geiselman, Bruce; Clevel, Special to (February 11, 2016). "Mayor Michael Summers describes orderly wind down at Lakewood Hospital". cleveland.
  15. ^ "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 2, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  16. ^ a b "Birdtown". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. May 11, 2020. Retrieved July 25, 2022.
  17. ^ "Birdtown". Cleveland Historical. Retrieved July 25, 2022.
  18. ^ Becker, Thea Gallo (2003). Lakewood. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. pp. 97–99, 103. ISBN 073852333X.
  19. ^ "Downtown Lakewood | Studio Graphique". August 25, 2014. Archived from the original on August 25, 2014.
  20. ^ Butler, Margaret Manor (1949). The Lakewood Story. Stratford House. pp. 256–257.
  21. ^ "How the West End Was Won".
  22. ^ "Number of Inhabitants: Ohio" (PDF). 18th Census of the United States. U.S. Census Bureau. 1960. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  23. ^ "Ohio: Population and Housing Unit Counts" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  24. ^ "Incorporated Places and Minor Civil Divisions Datasets: Subcounty Population Estimates: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 11, 2013. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
  25. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  26. ^ "Population estimates, July 1, 2015, (V2015)". Archived from the original on March 1, 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  27. ^ "Explore Census Data".
  28. ^ "Ancestry in Lakewood, Ohio". Statistical Atlas. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
  29. ^ a b "U.S. Census Bureau Quick Facts: Lakewood, Ohio". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  30. ^ "Albanians". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
  31. ^ a b Meiser, Rebecca (November 29, 2006). "Destination Lakewood: How a bar town became an immigration hot spot". Cleveland Scene. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  32. ^ "National Origin in Lakewood, Ohio". Statistical Atlas. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  33. ^ Kim, Joon-Li (January 6, 2015). "Asia in Lakewood". The Lakewood Observer. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  34. ^ "Russians". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved July 2, 2019.
  35. ^ Kovach, Carol (May 31, 2016). "Lakewood Public Library turns the page on its first 100 years". AdvanceOhio. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  36. ^ John Benson, special to cleveland com (March 25, 2022). "Lakewood Public Library opening newly renovated Madison branch: Photos". cleveland. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  37. ^ "Lakewood City Council Approves New Townhomes at Rockport Square | The City of Lakewood, Ohio". Retrieved November 11, 2022.
  38. ^ Magaw, Timothy (October 25, 2016). "Site prep starts for Cleveland Clinic's new Lakewood health center". Crain's Cleveland Business. Crain Publishing Co. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  39. ^ "Home - LakewoodAlive".
  40. ^ "Lakewood Is Ohio's Newest Main Street - The Lakewood Observer". Retrieved May 19, 2017.
  41. ^ Litt, Steven (October 26, 2015). "Lakewood Solstice Steps give city a quietly spectacular lakefront amenity". The Plain Dealer (Cleveland OH). Retrieved December 7, 2015.
  42. ^ Benson, John (February 17, 2022). "Lakewood tweaks $4.5 million Foster Pool renovation, plans for late summer construction". Retrieved March 18, 2023.
  43. ^ "Lakewood Public Library (Lakewood, Ohio)". Archived from the original on October 7, 2009. Retrieved March 2, 2004.
  44. ^[permanent dead link]
  45. ^ "Library Name".
  46. ^ Miller, William (April 19, 1981). "Can Great Lakes Shakespeare round out Playhouse Square?". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland, Ohio.
  47. ^ "lha5401". Retrieved February 19, 2023.
  48. ^ Amata, Carmie (August 14, 1983). "An Artist Catches the Essence of an Era". The Plain Dealer Magazine. Cleveland, Ohio. Of course, somewhere along the line city fathers decided that Johnny Appleseed wasn't a proper image for young people. They figured that he was a wanderer — an early hippie — and they started calling him Early Settler. But they can call him what they want, I made him and I know he's Johnny Appleseed all right.
  49. ^ "About Lakewood Ohio". Mellott Investments LLC.
  50. ^ Segal, Grant (November 5, 2015). "Geiger's count on downtown for their third store". The Plain Dealer. Advance Ohio. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
  51. ^ "Malley's Chocolates Corporate Headquarters". Malleys Chocolates.
  52. ^ Trattner, Douglas. "The Production Facility and Bakery Behind Aladdin's 40 Restaurants". Cleveland Scene.
  53. ^ "Third Amended Charter of the City of Lakewood, Ohio" (PDF). The City of Lakewood, Ohio. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  54. ^ Exner, Rich (March 16, 2016). "Did your neighborhood vote for Hillary Clinton or Bernie Sanders? Cuyahoga County city and precinct votes". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved August 6, 2022.
  55. ^ "District". Congresswoman Marcy Kaptur. U.S. House of Representatives. December 4, 2012. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  56. ^ "Senator Nickie J. Antonio". The Ohio Senate. The Ohio Senate. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  57. ^ "Representative Michael J. Skindell". The Ohio House of Representatives. Ohio House of Representatives. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  58. ^ "History of the Mayor's Office". City of Lakewood, Ohio. Retrieved August 30, 2020.
  59. ^ "Board of Education". Lakewood City Schools. SchoolPointe. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  60. ^ "School Construction". Lakewood City Schools. SchoolPointe. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  61. ^ "Lincoln Elementary School PTA - Lakewood, Ohio". Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2005.
  62. ^ "The History & Formation of LCA | Lakewood Catholic Academy". Archived from the original on April 26, 2019. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
  63. ^ a b c d "Routes".
  64. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  65. ^ "Board Votes to Name Cornerstone Venue 'Richard F. Celeste Theatre'". May 25, 2011.
  66. ^ Welsh, James M.; Phillips, Gene D.; Hill, Rodney F. (August 27, 2010). The Francis Ford Coppola Encyclopedia. Scarecrow Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-8108-7651-4.
  67. ^ "Brian Hoyer".
  68. ^ Cabot, Mary Kay (May 16, 2013). "Cleveland Browns agree to terms with QB Brian Hoyer, a Cleveland native". Cleveland Plain Dealer. Retrieved January 20, 2014. Born in Lakewood and a resident of North Olmsted...
  69. ^ "Haub School of Environment and Natural Resources | University of Wyoming".
  70. ^ Simakis, Andrea (June 11, 2017). "Lakewood native Dave Malloy made Tony darling the "Great Comet," but what made Dave Malloy?". AdvanceOhio. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
  71. ^ "A look at Boston's Cardinal Sean O'Malley". February 27, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2022.
  72. ^ Larkin, Colin (2011). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music. Omnibus Press. p. 30. ISBN 9780857125958.
  73. ^ Endress, Jeff (April 23, 2007). "Davis Celebration to Feature Renowned LHS Grad David Conte". Lakewood Observer. Retrieved March 30, 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  74. ^ Washington, Julie (September 6, 2011). "Mike Douglas made me famous (sort of): Cleveland Remembers". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  75. ^ "Jimmie Foxx Field". Lakewood Community Baseball Association. Retrieved May 31, 2023.
  76. ^ Bennett, John. "James E. Foxx". ALL-AMERICAN GIRLS PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL LEAGUE. Society of American Baseball Research. Retrieved May 31, 2023.
  77. ^ Ingraham, Jim (December 25, 2013). "Indians: Former broadcaster Mike Hegan dies". News-Herald. Willoughby Ohio. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
  78. ^ Theiss, Evelyn (April 25, 2011). "Gary Lewis of Gary Lewis and the Playboys: Whatever happened to ...?". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  79. ^ Mark, Dawidziak (April 12, 2013). "John Lithgow returns to Akron to share stories and talk about storytelling". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  80. ^ "Prick Rising".
  81. ^ Chabek, Dan (December 7, 1995). "Meredith's Lakewood memories are mostly unhappy". Lakewood Sun Post. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  82. ^ Cacho, Daniela (February 13, 2015). "One of many Tri-C Alumni Contains a Creator of Children's Literature – The Voice". Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  83. ^ Mosby, Chris (November 8, 2019). "Lakewood Soccer Player To Join Columbus Crew". Lakewood, Ohio Patch. Retrieved October 23, 2021.
  84. ^ "In memoriam". JCU Alumni Magazine. John Carroll University. November 7, 2016. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  85. ^ according to the city web site, accessed October 1, 2009[verification needed]
  86. ^ "CERT Training To Be Held Beginning February 20th | The City of Lakewood, Ohio". Retrieved August 4, 2019.
  87. ^ "State of the suburbs: Lakewood". Retrieved November 11, 2022.

Further reading

  • Butler, Margaret Manor (1962). Romance in Lakewood Streets. Cleveland: William Feather Co.
  • Borchert, Jim; Borchert, Susan (1989). Lakewood: The First Hundred Years. Virginia Beach: The Donning Company. ISBN 9780898657746.
  • Gallo Becker, Thea (2003). Lakewood. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 073852333X.

External links

This page was last edited on 1 June 2023, at 03:20
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.