To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lahnda (/ˈlɑːndə/)[3] also known as Lahndi or Western Punjabi (/pʌnˈɑːbi/), is a group of north-western Indo-Aryan language varieties spoken in Pakistani Punjab and in parts of the neighbouring Azad Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.[4] These terms are exonyms and are not used by the speakers themselves.[5] The emerging languages of this dialect area are Saraiki, Hindko and Pothohari.[6] The validity of Lahnda as a genetic grouping has not been established.[7]


Lahnda means "western" in Punjabi. It was coined by William St. Clair Tisdall (in the form Lahindā) probably around 1890 and later adopted by a number of linguists — notably George Abraham Grierson — for a dialect group that had no general local name.[8]:883 This term has currency only among linguists.[7]


Below is a list of the varieties of Lahnda:[9]

Within Lahnda, Ethnologue also includes what it labels as "Western Punjabi" (ISO 639-3 code: pnb) – the Majhi dialects transitional between Lahnda and Eastern Punjabi; these are spoken by about 62 million people.[10]

Recently, Saraiki and Hindko are being cultivated as literary languages.[11] The development of the standard written Saraiki began in the 1960s.[12][13] The national census of Pakistan has counted Saraiki and Hindko speakers since 1981.[14]

Some of the northern dialects of what has for geographical reasons been considered Gujarati are actually closer to Lahnda.[citation needed]

Lahnda has several traits that distinguish it from Punjabi, such as a future tense in -s-. Like Sindhi, Siraiki retains breathy-voiced consonants, has developed implosives, and lacks tone. Hindko, also called Panjistani or (ambiguously) Pahari, is more like Punjabi in this regard, though the equivalent of the low-rising tone of Punjabi is a high-falling tone in Peshawar Hindko.[11]

Sindhi, Lahnda, Punjabi, and Western Pahari form a dialect continuum with no clear-cut boundaries. Ethnologue classifies the western dialects of Punjabi as Lahnda, so that the Lahnda–Punjabi isogloss approximates the Pakistani–Indian border.[15]


  1. ^ Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Lahnda". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "Lahnda". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  4. ^ Defined as a "macrolanguage" in Simons & Fennig (2017) and as a "series of dialects" in Masica (1991, pp. 17–18). For the difficulties in assigning the labels "language" and "dialect", see Shackle (1979) for Punjabi and Masica (1991, pp. 23–27) for Indo-Aryan generally.
  5. ^ Masica 1991, p. 17–18.
  6. ^ Shackle 1979, p. 198.
  7. ^ a b Masica 1991, p. 18.
  8. ^ Grierson, George A. (1930). "Lahndā and Lahndī". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 5 (4): 883–887. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00090571.
  9. ^ Simons & Fennig 2017.
  10. ^ Lewis, Simons & Fennig 2016b.
  11. ^ a b Shackle, Christopher (2010). "Lahnda". In Brown, Keith; Ogilvie, Sarah (eds.). Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Oxford: Elsevier. p. 635. ISBN 9780080877754.
  12. ^ Rahman 1997, p. 838.
  13. ^ Shackle 1977.
  14. ^ Javaid 2004, p. 46.
  15. ^ Lahnda at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)


External links

This page was last edited on 1 March 2020, at 16:50
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.