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LDL-receptor-related protein-associated protein

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Protein LRPAP1 PDB 1lre.png
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesLRPAP1, A2MRAP, A2RAP, HBP44, MRAP, MYP23, RAP, alpha-2-MRAP, LDL-receptor-related protein associated protein, LDL receptor related protein associated protein 1
External IDsMGI: 96829 HomoloGene: 37612 GeneCards: LRPAP1
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 4 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 4 (human)[1]
Band4p16.3Start3,506,376 bp[1]
End3,532,559 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE LRPAP1 201186 at fs.png
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 4: 3.51 – 3.53 MbChr 5: 35.09 – 35.11 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse
PDB 2fyl EBI.jpg
haddock model of the complex between double module of lrp, cr56, and first domain of receptor associated protein, rap-d1.
Symbol Alpha-2-MRAP_N
Pfam PF06400
InterPro IPR009066
SCOP 1lre
PDB 2ftu EBI.jpg
solution structure of domain 3 of rap
Symbol Alpha-2-MRAP_C
Pfam PF06401
InterPro IPR010483

Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-associated protein 1 also known as LRPAP1 or RAP is a chaperone protein which in humans is encoded by the LRPAP1 gene.[5][6]

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Mutation is a word that generates apprehension and even fear, mostly because genetic mutations are related to the causes of many diseases. But not every mutation results in something negative. In fact, some generate very interesting phenotypes. Let's see some genes that when mutated end up giving us some advantages. Or might we call them super powers? Can you imagine having to steel bones? Or simply, unbreakable bones? A mutation in the LRP5 gene, which regulates the bone density can result in bones with a greater than the average density. People with this mutation have "unbreakable" bones and scientists believe that studying this mutation it will be possible to find a cure for diseases such as osteoporosis, in which bone density is reduced. Better than unbreakable bones would be to have the superpower of not feeling pain. A mutation in the PRDM12 gene causes a condition called congenital analgesia, in which carriers are not able to feel pain. This inability to feel pain would be quite a "superpower", but in fact, this condition is extremely dangerous. People with this mutation may have serious injuries, especially internal injuries, and not realizing it, resulting in a large risk for their survival. If it is not very safe to feel no pain, what about having strength and speed above average? Geneticists have studied several speed and power athletes, and found that one allele of the gene ACTN3, allele A was more frequent in these athletes, whether in the genotype RR or RX, than in general population. This allele R produces a protein called 3-alpha-actin, and it controls fast twitch muscle fibers, which are the cells responsible for the rapid tension and flexing of the muscles involved in sprinting and weight lifting. Apparently, being a good athlete relies, in part, on genes. Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy is a rare condition characterized by reduced body fat and increased muscle size, which is the desire of many people out there. Affected individuals have up to twice the normal amount of muscle mass in the body, and they tend to have an increased muscle strength. This condition is caused by mutations in the MSTN gene. Marfan syndrome is a genetic condition that affects the connective tissue and one of the characteristics of people with this syndrome is to have a abnormal flexibility. It is caused by mutations in the gene FBN1 on chromosome 15, encoding fibrillin-1, a glycoprotein component of the extracellular matrix which is essential for the biogenesis and maintenance of elastic fibers. Marfan is a spectrum disorder, which means that severe cases can lead to fatal defects in heart and other organs. However, those with mild symptoms can live normal and healthy lives. Another very useful superpower would be able to survive very low temperatures, and we know humans with this skill. Scientists have discovered that the Inuit from Greenland are able to survive extremely low temperatures thanks to a gene variant in a region that contains two genes, WARS2 and TBX15. These genes might be related to determining brown fat levels, a type that is abundant in newborns and generates heat by burning calories. In Inuit, these gene variants may promote more brown fat as a special adaptation the cold. A mutation in the erythropoietin receptor gene results in 50% more hemoglobin in the blood, allowing more oxygen to be carried in bloodstream. This means a great advantage in terms of resistance, as the case of a famous Finnish skier who has a medal record in cross-country skiing, a competition that requires a lot of resistance. With all these superpowers it would also be good to recover quickly. While most people need 8 hours of daily sleep, some people feel completely revitalized after only 4 hours of sleep a day. Scientists believe that this ability is related to a mutation in the hDEC2 gene. Other mutations may improve our health or prevent some diseases. In most people, PCSK9 protein increases the "bad" cholesterol called LDL, but some people have a mutation in the PSCK9 gene, which causes a non-functional version of the protein to be made. Individuals with this "defective" gene keep very low levels of LDL cholesterol without even trying. Some people have a genetic mutation that disables the CCR5 protein - used by HIV as entrance to human cells. If a person does not have CCR5, they are extremely unlikely to become infected with the disease. Some people even have the two alleles with the mutation of this gene, making them even more resistant to HIV. Just looking closely at our genome we can identify where these superpowers come from. If you want to see more videos like this, give a thumbs-up and share. Leave suggestions and messages in the comment section as well. See you in the next video.



LRPAP1 is involved with trafficking of certain members of the LDL receptor family including LRP1 and LRP2.[7] It is a glycoprotein that binds to the alpha-2-macroglobulin receptor, as well as to other members of the low density lipoprotein receptor family. It acts to inhibit the binding of all known ligands for these receptors, and may prevent receptor aggregation and degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum, thereby acting as a molecular chaperone.[8] It may be under the regulatory control of calmodulin, since it is able to bind calmodulin and be phosphorylated by calmodulin-dependent kinase II.


LDL-receptor-related protein-associated protein has been shown to interact with LRP2.[9][10]

Mutations and diseases related to LRPAP1

Lipid metabolizing proteins may elevate susceptibility to dementia leading to differences in genetic makeup.[11] PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique is used for genotyping of LRPAP1 intron 5 insertion/deletion.[11] The studies suggested that DD genotype and *D allele of LRPAP gene showed increased frequency for degenerative dementias on comparison with the control group and that LRPAP1-D allele remarkably increases the vulnerability to degenerative dementias.[11] On genotyping of LRPAP1 polymorphism is observed because of 37 base pair insertion in intron 5.[11] Also insertion allele being larger than deletion allele makes possible in detecting difference by gel electrophoresis.[12] Suppression of receptor-binding domain of LRP LDLR is due to overexpression of LRPAP (the protein product of LRPAP gene).[13] LRP gives protection across LDL by LRPAP and its downregulation may be subjected for an elevation of LDL and Ab-related neuronal toxicity as LRP supports in binding of ligand and internalization of LRP ligands like apo-E-enriched LDL cholesterol and Ab protein.[11] Insertion/deletion is an intronic polymorphism of LRPAP gene, Influencing DD genotype and D allele for the synthesis of LRPAP protein can be lrp-mediated mechanism contributing to dementia.[11] Concern for developing sensitivity for dementia is because of several shared common genetic platforms and DD genotype or D allele of LRPAP gene may be one such.[11] So on 37-bp insertion/deletion that was studied as an intronic polymorphism, it could be having an unintended pursuit for lipid receptor protein by regulation of LRPAP expression, or it could be in linkage disequilibrium in addition to other biologically relevant polymorphism in the LRPAP1 or an adjacent gene in chromosome 4.[14] Results being consistent with earlier study where the authors have endowed deletion allele frequency clearly high in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease patients on comparison with non-demented aged controls.[14]

Mendelian forms of myopia has been identified in four consanguineous families and are the likely causal mutations implementing exome /autozygome investigated to recognize homozygous truncating variants in LRPAP1.[15] Influencing TGF-β activity,chaperone of LRP1 is encoded by LRPAP1.Notably salient deficiency of LRP1 and upregulation of TGF-β in affected individuals cells, the known data being consistent on the importance of TGF-β in remodeling for the sclera of myopia and the increased frequency in individuals for myopia having Marfan syndrome which has characteristics of upregulated TGF-β signaling.[16] Analysizing the absence of the normal protein was done with immunoblot for affected individuals having LRPAP1 mutations revealing the mutations in LRPAP1 probability of loss-of-function mutations.[15] Encoding (Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein Associated protein 1) LRPAP is a largely expressed gene, and a 357 amino acid protein thought as a chaperone binding and protecting the lipoproteins receptor-related proteins LRP1 and LRP2.[17][18] A model suggested by a study wherein LRPAP1 leading to deficiency of LRP1 which was responsible to perturbation of TGF-β regulation and might cause abnormal ECM remodeling in the eye development.[15] On observation for increasing axial length was one of the salient features of Marfan syndrome also resulting in TGF-β supported the model.[19][20] Therefore, individuals having myopia responding to therapeutic strategy initiated before ECM remodeling could be considered as an approach for individuals with LRPAP1 related myopia.[15]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163956 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000029103 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ Strickland DK, Ashcom JD, Williams S, Battey F, Behre E, McTigue K, Battey JF, Argraves WS (Jul 1991). "Primary structure of alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein. Human homologue of a Heymann nephritis antigen". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (20): 13364–9. PMID 1712782. 
  6. ^ Korenberg JR, Argraves KM, Chen XN, Tran H, Strickland DK, Argraves WS (Jul 1994). "Chromosomal localization of human genes for the LDL receptor family member glycoprotein 330 (LRP2) and its associated protein RAP (LRPAP1)". Genomics. 22 (1): 88–93. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1348. PMID 7959795. 
  7. ^ "Entrez Gene: LRPAP1 low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein associated protein 1". 
  8. ^ Nielsen PR, Ellgaard L, Etzerodt M, Thogersen HC, Poulsen FM (Jul 1997). "The solution structure of the N-terminal domain of alpha2-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94 (14): 7521–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.14.7521. PMC 23854Freely accessible. PMID 9207124. 
  9. ^ Lou X, McQuistan T, Orlando RA, Farquhar MG (Apr 2002). "GAIP, GIPC and Galphai3 are concentrated in endocytic compartments of proximal tubule cells: putative role in regulating megalin's function". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 13 (4): 918–27. PMID 11912251. 
  10. ^ Orlando RA, Farquhar MG (Apr 1994). "Functional domains of the receptor-associated protein (RAP)". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 91 (8): 3161–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.8.3161. PMC 43535Freely accessible. PMID 7512726. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Pandey P, Pradhan S, Mittal B (2008). "LRP-associated protein gene (LRPAP1) and susceptibility to degenerative dementia". Genes, Brain and Behavior. 7: 943–950. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2008.00436.x. PMID 18721259. 
  12. ^ Pandey P, Pradhan S, Mittal B (2008). "LRP-associated protein gene (LRPAP1) and susceptibility to degenerative dementia". Genes, Brain, and Behavior. 7 (8): 943–50. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2008.00436.x. PMID 18721259. 
  13. ^ Willnow TE, Sheng Z, Ishibashi S, Herz J (1994). "Inhibition of hepatic chylomicron remnant uptake by gene transfer of a receptor antagonist". Science. 264 (5164): 1471–4. doi:10.1126/science.7515194. PMID 7515194. 
  14. ^ a b Sánchez L, Alvarez V, González P, González I, Alvarez R, Coto E (2001). "Variation in the LRP-associated protein gene (LRPAP1) is associated with late-onset Alzheimer disease". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 105 (1): 76–8. doi:10.1002/1096-8628(20010108)105:1<76::aid-ajmg1066>;2-i. PMID 11425005. 
  15. ^ a b c d Aldahmesh MA, Khan AO, Alkuraya H, Adly N, Anazi S, Al-Saleh AA, Mohamed JY, Hijazi H, Prabakaran S, Tacke M, Al-Khrashi A, Hashem M, Reinheckel T, Assiri A, Alkuraya FS. "Mutations in LRPAP1 Are Associated with Severe Myopia in Humans". Am J Hum Genet. 93: 313–20. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.06.002. PMC 3738831Freely accessible. PMID 23830514. 
  16. ^ Aldahmesh MA, Khan AO, Alkuraya H, Adly N, Anazi S, Al-Saleh AA, Mohamed JY, Hijazi H, Prabakaran S, Tacke M, Al-Khrashi A, Hashem M, Reinheckel T, Assiri A, Alkuraya FS (2013). "Mutations in LRPAP1 are associated with severe myopia in humans". American Journal of Human Genetics. 93 (2): 313–20. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.06.002. PMC 3738831Freely accessible. PMID 23830514. 
  17. ^ Willnow TE, Armstrong SA, Hammer RE, Herz J (1995). "Functional expression of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein is controlled by receptor-associated protein in vivo". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 92 (10): 4537–41. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.10.4537. PMC 41979Freely accessible. PMID 7538675. 
  18. ^ Willnow TE, Rohlmann A, Horton J, Otani H, Braun JR, Hammer RE, Herz J (1996). "RAP, a specialized chaperone, prevents ligand-induced ER retention and degradation of LDL receptor-related endocytic receptors". The EMBO Journal. 15 (11): 2632–9. PMC 450198Freely accessible. PMID 8654360. 
  19. ^ Loeys BL, Dietz HC, Braverman AC, Callewaert BL, De Backer J, Devereux RB, Hilhorst-Hofstee Y, Jondeau G, Faivre L, Milewicz DM, Pyeritz RE, Sponseller PD, Wordsworth P, De Paepe AM (2010). "The revised Ghent nosology for the Marfan syndrome". Journal of Medical Genetics. 47 (7): 476–85. doi:10.1136/jmg.2009.072785. PMID 20591885. 
  20. ^ Brooke BS, Habashi JP, Judge DP, Patel N, Loeys B, Dietz HC (2008). "Angiotensin II blockade and aortic-root dilation in Marfan's syndrome". The New England Journal of Medicine. 358 (26): 2787–95. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0706585. PMC 2692965Freely accessible. PMID 18579813. 

Further reading

External links

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: IPR010483
This page was last edited on 27 October 2017, at 04:55
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