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L. Paul Howland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Leonard Paul Howland
L. Paul Howland-hec.17164.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 20th district
In office
March 4, 1907 – March 3, 1913
Preceded byJacob A. Beidler
Succeeded byWilliam Gordon
Personal details
Born(1865-12-05)December 5, 1865
Jefferson, Ohio
DiedDecember 23, 1942(1942-12-23) (aged 77)
Cleveland, Ohio
Resting placeLake View Cemetery, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
Political partyRepublican

Leonard Paul Howland (December 5, 1865 – December 23, 1942) was a U.S. Representative from Ohio.

Paul Howland was born in Jefferson, Ohio. Howland completed preparatory studies. He graduated from Oberlin College (Ohio) in 1887 and from the law department of Harvard University in 1890. He was admitted to the bar in 1890 and commenced practice in Jefferson, Ohio. He moved to Cleveland in 1894 and continued the practice of law. He served as second lieutenant, squadron adjutant, First Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, during the Spanish–American War.

Howland was elected as a Republican to the Sixtieth, Sixty-first, and Sixty-second Congresses (March 4, 1907 – March 3, 1913). He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1912 to the Sixty-third Congress. He was one of the managers appointed by the House of Representatives in 1912 to conduct the impeachment proceedings against Robert W. Archbald, judge of the United States Commerce Court. He resumed the practice of law. He served as a delegate to the Republican National Conventions in 1916, 1920, and 1924. He died in Cleveland, Ohio, December 23, 1942. He was interred in Lake View Cemetery.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Magnetoencephalography: measuring brain activity with magnetism

Transcription

So there's this thing in your head called a brain, and it seems to be where thoughts and feelings and memories and perceptions and everything elses happen, so it would be great to know how it works. The obvious way to see how something works is to pull it out, open it up and have a look, but when you do that with a brain, it stops working, and tends to upset its owner, so what we really need are ways to study brains while they're working inside people's heads. Which... isn't easy, but can be done with a range of different brain imaging techniques. One of the popular techniques is MEG, magnetoencephalography, which is much less scary than it sounds. Magneto means magnetism, encephalo means brain, and ography means images, so magnetoencephalography means images of the magnetism of the brain. 'Cause the brain is made up of billions of cells called neurons. When the brain does stuff, these neurons are sending electrical signals to each other, which, like all electrical signals, generate magnetic fields. Magnetoencephalography measures and locates these magnetic fields, which indicate the electrical activity of the neurons, which is the activity of the brain. With magnetoencephalography, we can see the brain working, as its working, inside someone's head. The magnetic fields caused by brain activity are tiny and faint so we measure them with highly sensitive magnetism detectors called SQUIDs, just like you’d use a highly sensitive microphone to measure a very quiet sound. If you were measuring a very quiet sound you’d have to do in a very quiet room or else you couldn’t hear the sound over the noise of air conditioning next door and cars down the road – and you get the same problem detecting the brain’s magnetism over the magnetism coming from nearby phones and computers and from the earth itself. To block out this noise, MEG is performed in a shielded room built with thick layers of metal that block magnetic fields from outside. Another complication is that SQUIDs, our super-sensitive magnetism detectors, only work when they’re cooled down to about minus 270 degrees Celsius, which is almost the absolute coldest it is possible for anything to be. Liquid helium can be used to keep the SQUIDs this cool. The SQUIDs are then arranged in a sort of a helmet, with a few hundred of the detectors held right up close to the head. Some specialised systems have smaller helmets to better fit children. The SQUIDs do need to be close because they can only detect brain activity a few centimetres into the brain, and even then only some kinds of brain activity. But overall, MEG is still a pretty great brain imaging technique, partly because the process is so easy. The subject just sticks their head in the helmet, lies very still, and a detailed record is made of their brain activity. It’s non-invasive, meaning we don’t have to cut anyone open, or inject anything, or expose anyone to radiation, which a lot of the other techniques do involve. It also has really good spatial and temporal resolution, meaning it captures a lot of detail and can do so thousands of times per second so we can see changes in the brain moment-by-moment. Techniques like EEG have less detail, and MRI can only take an image every second or two. It’s important to keep in mind, though, that MEG doesn’t show the physical structure of the brain – just its activity – so MEG scans are often combined with MRI scans so we can see both together. But yeah. MEG has a lot of advantages as a brain imaging technique, and because of these advantages, it’s widely used in research and diagnosis, where it can show which bits of the brain are active when people do different things, and which parts of the brain aren’t working in patients. Some of the really cool things you can do with MEG include brain-computer interfaces, where a computer can monitor and respond to brain activity. In one study, a computer was set up to move a cursor on a screen when a particular kind of brain activity was detected by MEG. Stoke victims who couldn’t move their hands learned to produce that kind of brain activity – so they were able to move the cursor with their minds. When the computer was connected to a mechanical hand, the stroke victims could open and close the hand with their brain activity. Similar stuff has been done with monkeys controlling robotic arms. With this kind of technology, we can potentially restore movement to people who can’t move, and communication to people who can’t speak. We can even work out what people are seeing and thinking by measuring their brain activity. Much of this kind of research involves implants in the brain rather than MEG, but it’s great when MEG can be used because it’s so easy and non-invasive. But yeah the point is that technologies like MEG are taking us closer and closer to Luke Skywalker robot-hands and mind reading. In summary, magnetoencephalography works by using super-sensitive magnetism detectors called SQUIDs to measure and locate the electrical activity of the brain. You’ve got to do it in a shielded room, and with special cooling, but it’s relatively easy to do, and it has great spatial and temporal resolution. Thanks for watching. Subscribe for more quick, clear explanations and analysis on stuff like Game of Thrones. Cheers.

Sources

  • United States Congress. "L. Paul Howland (id: H000871)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov.

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Jacob A. Beidler
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Ohio's 20th congressional district

1907–1913
Succeeded by
William Gordon
This page was last edited on 8 March 2021, at 20:16
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