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Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences
Kyoto Prize(U-S-A-) 2013-11-03 17-37.jpg
Awarded for Global achievement in Basic Sciences
Country Japan
Presented by Inamori Foundation
First awarded 1985
Official website www.kyotoprize.org

The Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences is awarded once a year by the Inamori Foundation. The Prize is one of three Kyoto Prize categories; the others are the Kyoto Prize in Advanced Technology and the Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy. The first Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences was awarded to Claude Elwood Shannon, the “Establishment of Mathematical Foundation of Information Theory”.[1] The Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in fields which are traditionally not honored with a Nobel Prize.[2]

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  • Message from László Lovász - THE 2010 KYOTO PRIZE
  • László Lovász - Impressions of Receiving the Kyoto Prize - THE 2010 KYOTO PRIZE
  • Dr. László Lovász
  • Message from Hirotugu Akaike - THE 2006 KYOTO PRIZE
  • Education Is a System of Indoctrination of the Young - Noam Chomsky

Transcription

Contents

Fields

The Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences is awarded on a rotating basis to researchers in the following four fields:

Laureates

Biological sciences

Year Laureate Country
1986
G Evelyn Hutchinson 1935.jpg
George Evelyn Hutchinson  United States 1903–1991 Outstanding Contribution to Limnology and Community Ecology by Integrative Ecological Niche Theory[3]
1990
Jane Goodall 2015.jpg
Jane Goodall  United Kingdom born 1934 Long-Term Study of Behavior, Sociology, and Ecology of Chimpanzees in the Wild[4]
1993
W D Hamilton.jpg
William Donald Hamilton  United Kingdom 1936–2000 Proposal of Inclusive Fitness and the Establishment of Evolutionary Theory of Sociality and Cooperation[5]
1997
Daniel Hunt Janzen cropped.jpg
Daniel Hunt Janzen  United States born 1939 Pioneering Study of Biodiversity in Tropics and Its Maintenance Mechanisms[6]
2001
John Maynard Smith.jpg
John Maynard Smith  United Kingdom 1920–2004 Contribution to Evolutionary Biology by Proposing the Idea of the Evolutionarily Stable Strategy (ESS)[7]
2005 Simon Asher Levin  United States born 1941 Establishment of the field of spatial ecology and the proposition of the biosphere as a "complex adaptive system"[8]
2009 Barbara Rosemary Grant  United Kingdom born 1936 Demonstrating Rapid Evolution Caused by Natural Selection in Response to Environmental Changes[9][10]
Peter Raymond Grant  United Kingdom born 1936
2013
Masatoshi Nei - 2013.jpg
Masatoshi Nei  United States born 1931 Research on the Evolution of Biological Populations Using Quantitative Analyses of Genetic Variation and Evolutionary Time[11]

Mathematical sciences

Year Laureate Country
1985
ClaudeShannon MFO3807.jpg
Claude Elwood Shannon  United States 1916–2001 Establishment of Mathematical Foundation of Information Theory[12]
1989
IM Gelfand.jpg
Izrail Moiseevich Gelfand  Soviet Union 1913–2009 Outstanding Contribution to Many Fields of Mathematical Sciences, Especially Pioneering Studies in Functional Analysis[13]
1994
André Weil cropped.jpg
André Weil  France 1906–1998 Broad Contribution to the Modern Mathematics, Especially through the Foundational Works in Algebraic Geometry and Number Theory[14]
1998
Kiyosi Ito.jpg
Kiyoshi Itō  Japan 1915–2008 Fundamental Contribution to the Stochastic Analysis, through His Invention of Stochastic Differential Equations, Which Have Been Applied in Various Sciences[15]
2002
Gromov Mikhail Leonidovich.jpg
Mikhail Gromov  France born 1943 Contributions through dramatic developments in a range of mathematical fields by introducing the innovative method of a metric structure for families of various geometrical objects[16]
2006 Hirotsugu Akaike  Japan 1927–2009 Major contribution to statistical science and modeling with the development of the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC)[17]
2010
Laszlo Lovasz mg 1867 cropped.jpg
László Lovász  Hungary born 1948 Outstanding Contributions to Mathematical Sciences Based on Discrete Optimization Algorithms[18]
2014
Edward Witten.jpg
Edward Witten  United States born 1951 Outstanding Contributions to the Development of Mathematical Sciences through the Exploration of Superstring Theory[19]

Earth and planetary sciences, astronomy and astrophysics

Year Laureate Country
1987
JanOort2.png
Jan Hendrik Oort  Netherlands 1900–1992 Outstanding Contribution to Astronomy by the Elucidation of Structure and Dynamics of the Galaxy[20]
1991
Edward lorenz.jpg
Edward Norton Lorenz  United States 1917–2008 Outstanding Contribution to Earth Science and Mathematical Science by the Development of Theoretical Basis of Numerical Study in Meteorology and the Discovery of Deterministic Chaos[21]
1995 Chūshirō Hayashi  Japan 1920–2010 Outstanding Contribution to Astrophysics through the Theoretical Studies of the Stellar Formation and Evolution and the Formation of Solar System[22]
1999
Crafoordprize 2010-10.jpg
Walter Heinrich Munk  United States born 1917 Outstanding Contribution to the Earth Science by the Elucidation of Dynamical Mechanism of Ocean and Its Waves[23]
2003
Prof. Eugene Parker from University of Chicago.jpg
Eugene Newman Parker  United States born 1927 Contributions to Astrophysics through the Elucidation of the Solar Wind and Cosmical Magnetohydrodynamic Phenomena[24]
2007 Hiroo Kanamori  Japan born 1936 Elucidation of Physical Processes of Earthquakes and Its Application to Hazard Mitigation[25]
2011
Sunyaev.jpg
Rashid Alievich Sunyaev born 1943 Proposal of the Theory of Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation to Explore the Expanding Universe, and Outstanding Contribution to High-Energy Astronomy[26]
2015
Michel Mayor.JPG
Michel Mayor   Switzerland born 1942 Outstanding Contributions in Evolving a New Vision of the Universe through the Discovery of Extrasolar Planet[27]

Life sciences

Year Laureate Country
1992
Nishiz, yasutomi.jpg
Yasutomi Nishizuka  Japan 1932–2004 Elucidation of Intracellular Signal Transduction System through the Discovery and Functional Analysis of the Protein Kinase C[28]
1996
MarioCapecchiFotoThalerTamas2.JPG
Mario Renato Capecchi  United States born 1937 Production of Knockout Mice through the Development of Gene Targeting Technique and Outstanding Contribution to Elucidation of Gene Function[29]
2000
Walter Jakob Gehring 2014.jpg
Walter Jakob Gehring   Switzerland born 1939 Discovery of Conserved Developmental Mechanisms[30]
2004
Nci-vol-8196-300 alfred knudson.jpg
Alfred G. Knudson  United States 1922–2016 Seminal contribution to the establishment of the theory of the tumor suppressor gene in the mechanism of human carcinogenesis[31]
2008
Anthony pawson.jpg
Anthony James Pawson 1952–2013 Proposing and Proving the Concept of Adapter Molecules in the Signal Transduction[32]
2012
Yoshinori Osumi 201511.jpg
Yoshinori Ohsumi  Japan born 1945 Outstanding Contribution to Elucidating the Molecular Mechanisms and Physiological Significance of Autophagy, a Cellular Adaptive System to Environment[33]
2016
Tasuku Honjo 201311.jpg
Tasuku Honjo  Japan born 1942 Discovery of the Mechanism Responsible for the Functional Diversification of Antibodies, Immunoregulatory Molecules and Clinical Applications of PD-1[34]

Cognitive science

Year Laureate Country
1988
Noam Chomsky portrait 2015.jpg
Avram Noam Chomsky  United States born 1928 Creation of the Theory of Generative Grammar and Substantial Contribution to the Formation and Development of Cognitive Science[35]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Claude Elwood Shannon". Retrieved 17 June 2016. 
  2. ^ "Kyoto Prize honors achievement and character". USA Today. 11 November 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
  3. ^ "George Evelyn Hutchinson". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  4. ^ "Jane Goodall". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  5. ^ "William Donald Hamilton". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  6. ^ "George Evelyn Hutchinson". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  7. ^ "John Maynard Smith". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  8. ^ "Simon Asher Levin". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  9. ^ "Barbara Rosemary Grant". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  10. ^ "Peter Raymond Grant". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  11. ^ "Masatoshi Nei". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  12. ^ "Claude Elwood Shannon". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  13. ^ "Izrail Moiseevich Gelfand". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  14. ^ "André Weil". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  15. ^ "Kiyosi Itô". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  16. ^ "Mikhael Leonidovich Gromov". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  17. ^ "Hirotugu Akaike". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  18. ^ "László Lovász". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  19. ^ "Edward Witten". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  20. ^ "Jan Hendrik Oort". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  21. ^ "Edward Norton Lorenz". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  22. ^ "Chushiro Hayashi". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  23. ^ "Walter H. Munk". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  24. ^ "Eugene Newman Parker". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  25. ^ "Hiroo Kanamori". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  26. ^ "Rashid Alievich Sunyaev". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  27. ^ "Michel Mayor". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  28. ^ "Yasutomi Nishizuka". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  29. ^ "Mario Renato Capecchi". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  30. ^ "Walter Jakob Gehring". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  31. ^ "Alfred George Knudson, Jr.". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  32. ^ "Anthony James Pawson". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  33. ^ "Yoshinori Ohsumi". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  34. ^ "Tasuku Honjo". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  35. ^ "Avram Noam Chomsky". Inamori Foundation. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
This page was last modified on 10 November 2016, at 12:57.
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