The Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences is awarded once a year by the Inamori Foundation. The Prize is one of three Kyoto Prize categories; the others are the Kyoto Prize in Advanced Technology and the Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy. The first Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences was awarded to Claude Elwood Shannon, the “Establishment of Mathematical Foundation of Information Theory”.^{[1]} The Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in fields which are traditionally not honored with a Nobel Prize.^{[2]}
Fields
The Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences is awarded on a rotating basis to researchers in the following four fields:
Laureates
Biological sciences
Mathematical sciences
Year 
Laureate 
Country 


1985 

Claude Elwood Shannon 
United States 
1916–2001 
Establishment of Mathematical Foundation of Information Theory^{[13]} 
1989 

Izrail Moiseevich Gelfand 
Soviet Union 
1913–2009 
Outstanding Contribution to Many Fields of Mathematical Sciences, Especially Pioneering Studies in Functional Analysis^{[14]} 
1994 

André Weil 
France 
1906–1998 
Broad Contribution to the Modern Mathematics, Especially through the Foundational Works in Algebraic Geometry and Number Theory^{[15]} 
1998 

Kiyoshi Itō 
Japan 
1915–2008 
Fundamental Contribution to the Stochastic Analysis, through His Invention of Stochastic Differential Equations, Which Have Been Applied in Various Sciences^{[16]} 
2002 

Mikhail Gromov 
France 
born 1943 
Contributions through dramatic developments in a range of mathematical fields by introducing the innovative method of a metric structure for families of various geometrical objects^{[17]} 
2006 

Hirotsugu Akaike 
Japan 
1927–2009 
Major contribution to statistical science and modeling with the development of the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC)^{[18]} 
2010 

László Lovász 
Hungary 
born 1948 
Outstanding Contributions to Mathematical Sciences Based on Discrete Optimization Algorithms^{[19]} 
2014 

Edward Witten 
United States 
born 1951 
Outstanding Contributions to the Development of Mathematical Sciences through the Exploration of Superstring Theory^{[20]} 
Earth and planetary sciences, astronomy and astrophysics
Year 
Laureate 
Country 


1987 

Jan Hendrik Oort 
Netherlands 
1900–1992 
Outstanding Contribution to Astronomy by the Elucidation of Structure and Dynamics of the Galaxy^{[21]} 
1991 

Edward Norton Lorenz 
United States 
1917–2008 
Outstanding Contribution to Earth Science and Mathematical Science by the Development of Theoretical Basis of Numerical Study in Meteorology and the Discovery of Deterministic Chaos^{[22]} 
1995 

Chūshirō Hayashi 
Japan 
1920–2010 
Outstanding Contribution to Astrophysics through the Theoretical Studies of the Stellar Formation and Evolution and the Formation of Solar System^{[23]} 
1999 

Walter Heinrich Munk 
United States 
born 1917 
Outstanding Contribution to the Earth Science by the Elucidation of Dynamical Mechanism of Ocean and Its Waves^{[24]} 
2003 

Eugene Newman Parker 
United States 
born 1927 
Contributions to Astrophysics through the Elucidation of the Solar Wind and Cosmical Magnetohydrodynamic Phenomena^{[25]} 
2007 

Hiroo Kanamori 
Japan 
born 1936 
Elucidation of Physical Processes of Earthquakes and Its Application to Hazard Mitigation^{[26]} 
2011 

Rashid Alievich Sunyaev 

born 1943 
Proposal of the Theory of Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation to Explore the Expanding Universe, and Outstanding Contribution to HighEnergy Astronomy^{[27]} 
2015 

Michel Mayor 
Switzerland 
born 1942 
Outstanding Contributions in Evolving a New Vision of the Universe through the Discovery of Extrasolar Planet^{[28]} 
Life sciences
Year 
Laureate 
Country 


1992 

Yasutomi Nishizuka 
Japan 
1932–2004 
Elucidation of Intracellular Signal Transduction System through the Discovery and Functional Analysis of the Protein Kinase C^{[29]} 
1996 

Mario Renato Capecchi 
United States 
born 1937 
Production of Knockout Mice through the Development of Gene Targeting Technique and Outstanding Contribution to Elucidation of Gene Function^{[30]} 
2000 

Walter Jakob Gehring 
Switzerland 
born 1939 
Discovery of Conserved Developmental Mechanisms^{[31]} 
2004 

Alfred G. Knudson 
United States 
1922–2016 
Seminal contribution to the establishment of the theory of the tumor suppressor gene in the mechanism of human carcinogenesis^{[32]} 
2008 

Anthony James Pawson 

1952–2013 
Proposing and Proving the Concept of Adapter Molecules in the Signal Transduction^{[33]} 
2012 

Yoshinori Ohsumi 
Japan 
born 1945 
Outstanding Contribution to Elucidating the Molecular Mechanisms and Physiological Significance of Autophagy, a Cellular Adaptive System to Environment^{[34]} 
2016 

Tasuku Honjo 
Japan 
born 1942 
Discovery of the Mechanism Responsible for the Functional Diversification of Antibodies, Immunoregulatory Molecules and Clinical Applications of PD1^{[35]} 
Cognitive science
Year 
Laureate 
Country 


1988 

Avram Noam Chomsky 
United States 
born 1928 
Creation of the Theory of Generative Grammar and Substantial Contribution to the Formation and Development of Cognitive Science^{[36]} 
See also
References
This page was last edited on 29 March 2018, at 15:18.