To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kugelrohr
Kugelrohr - numbered.jpg
1  Heating cage
2  Bulb containing item to be distilled
3  Cooling bath containing ice
4  Vacuum outlet and electric motor (to rotate ball-string)
UsesDistillation
Related itemsVacuum distillation

A Kugelrohr (German for "ball tube") is a short-path vacuum distillation apparatus[1] typically used to distill relatively small amounts of compounds with high boiling points (usually greater than 300 °C) under greatly reduced pressure.

Design

"Short path" refers to the short distance that the vapors of the distillate need to travel, which helps reduce loss and speed up collection of the distillate. Distilling under vacuum is used to prevent the compound from charring due to atmospheric oxygen, as well as to allow the distillation to proceed at a lower temperature.[2][3]

The apparatus consists of an electric heater with a digital thermostat and two or more bulbs connected with ground glass joints. The compound to be distilled is placed in the last bulb. The other bulbs can be used to collect the distillates sequentially; when they are collecting the desired fraction, the bulb is cooled with ice to aid condensation. A motor drive is used to rotate the string of bulbs to reduce bumping and give even heating for an efficient distillation.

See also

References

  1. ^ Laurence M. Harwood, Christopher J. Moody (13 Jun 1989). Experimental organic chemistry: Principles and Practice (Illustrated ed.). WileyBlackwell. pp. 150. ISBN 978-0-632-02017-1.
  2. ^ Kugelrohr Distillation Apparatus at the Sigma-Aldrich company website, accessed 8 Sep 2006.
  3. ^ Kugelrohr Distillation Apparatus at the Buchi company website, accessed 15 Nov 2006.

Gallery

This page was last edited on 8 October 2020, at 03:13
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.