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List of halal and kosher fish

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of fish considered halal according to the Shia Muslims in the Jafari jurisprudence as well as being kosher according to Jews as per the kashrut dietary laws in the halakha of rabbinic Judaism.

In the Jafari Muslim tradition, these fish are halal because they possess the appropriate characteristic of having true fish scales.[1][2]

In Judaism, in addition to requiring the presence of true fish scales, kosher fish must also have fins. This seemingly redundant requirement serves to remove ambiguity by excluding finless sea creatures that possess various features which might be confused for scales, including shells (such as those of shrimp or prawns). While not every fish that has fins will have scales, every true fish that has true fish scales by default also has fins.[3] As per the modern scientific definition, in Judaism also, the shells of crustaceans are their exoskeleton ("outer skeleton"), and they are thus not kosher for not only lacking fins but also for lacking true scales.

In some Islamic schools of thought where scales are also a trait required of halal fish, including the Jafari Shia, exoskeletons are also not included as "scales". However, other Islamic schools of thought, both Sunni and Shia, have looser definitions which include the exoskeleton of crustaceans as "scales", others yet include the softer exoskeletons of prawns as "scales" but exclude the harder exoskeletons of lobsters.

While there is nothing specifically mentioned in Jewish halakha requiring kosher fish having an endoskeleton ("inner skeleton") and gills (as opposed to lungs), every true fish that has both scales and fins by default also possesses an endoskeleton and gills. Any sea creature that lacks gills and can only breathe oxygen from air through lungs, or has an exoskeleton instead of and endoskeleton[4]:343 , is by default not kosher because it cannot be a fish.

The list of fish on this page, therefore, coincides with those which possess the combination of endoskeleton, gills, fins, and scales.

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According to the chok or divine decrees of the Torah and the Talmud, for a fish to be declared kosher, it must have scales and fins.[5] The definition of "scale" differs from the definitions presented in biology, in that the scales of a kosher fish must be visible to the eye, present in the adult form, and can be easily removed from the skin either by hand or scaling knife.[5] Thus, a grass carp, mirror carp, and salmon are kosher, whereas a shark, whose scales are microscopic, a sturgeon, whose scutes can not be easily removed without cutting them out of the body, and a swordfish, which loses all of its scales as an adult, are all not kosher.[5]

When a (kosher) fish is removed from the water, it is considered "slaughtered," and it is unnecessary to ritually kill it in the manner of kosher livestock. However, kosher law explicitly forbids the consumption of a fish while it is still alive.[5] Although there is an opinion of Rabbi Yosef Karo of Safed (in his 16th century legal commentary, Beit Yosef) that milk and fish should not be cooked or eaten together, Karo references the Shulhan Aruch (OC 173:2) which actually deals with meat, and not fish. Most rabbinic authorities from that time onwards (including almost all Ashkenazi ones) have ruled that this was a scribal error, and there is neither Talmudic basis nor any other rabbinical precedent for prohibiting milk and fish, and thus permit such mixtures. Indeed two passages in the Babylonian Talmud (Hulin 76b, 111b) implicitly state that it is entirely permissible. Nevertheless, since Karo wrote that milk and fish should not be mixed, there are those who do not mix them.[6] The Chabad custom is not to eat fish together with actual milk, but to permit it where other dairy products are involved, so that adding a touch of butter or cream to the milk is sufficient to permit mixing it with fish.[7]



Shia Islam's regulation of fish in the Jaafari school of jurisprudence comes from several sahih hadiths, one of them is, as narrated by the fifth imam Muhammad al-Baqir:

Eat any fish that has scales, and do not eat what does not have scales.

— Al-Kulayni, Al-Kafi, Vol.6, p. 219


In Sunni Islam, there are two general schools of thought. Most Sunni Muslim schools of jurisprudence (Shafi'i, Hanbali, and Maliki) hold as a general rule that all "sea game" (animals of the sea) are permissible to eat with a few minor exceptions.

Thus, for example, the traditional Laksa soup of Shafi'i Sunni Muslim majority Malaysia (which includes meats such as shrimp and squid with a soup base made from shrimp paste) is permissible.


In the Hanafi school of Sunni Muslim jurisprudence, to which the majority population of Sunni Muslims belong to, only "fish" (as opposed to all "sea game") are permissible, including eel and hagfish.

Any other sea (or water) creatures which are not fish, therefore, are also haram (forbidden), whether they breathe oxygen from water through gills (such as prawns, shrimp, lobsters and crabs which are crustaceans) and especially if they breathe oxygen from air through lungs (such as sea turtles and sea snakes which are reptiles, dolphins and whales which are mammals, or semi-aquatic animals like penguins which are birds, saltwater crocodiles which are reptiles, seals which are mammals, and frogs which are amphibians).[8]

For Hanafi Sunni Muslims, therefore, laksa soup would be haram (prohibited).

List of permitted fish


  1. ^ Common Halal and Non-Halal Sea Foods. Retrieved on 25 April 2015
  2. ^ Food & Drink - Permitted & Prohibited - Retrieved on 25 April 2015.
  3. ^ ([ Source])
  4. ^ Margolese, Faranak (2005). Off the Derech: Why Observant Jews Leave Judaism : How to Respond to the Challenge. Createspace.
  5. ^ a b c d Aryeh Citron, "All About Kosher Fish"
  6. ^ Brody, Shlomo (25 February 2011). "Ask the Rabbi: On eating fish with milk". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  7. ^
  8. ^

External links

This page was last edited on 27 June 2019, at 02:54
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