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Korean Buddhist temples

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Buddhist temples are an important part of the Korean landscape. This article gives a brief overview of Korean Buddhism, then describes some of the more important temples in Korea. Most Korean temples have names ending in -sa (사, 寺), which means "temple" in Sino-Korean.

Many temples, like Sudeoksa, offer visitors a Temple Stay program.[1]

Background

A distinctive form of Buddhism evolved in Korea. This was facilitated by the geographical location and cultural conditions. Buddhism first arrived in Korea in 372 in Goguryeo. In 374 the influential Han Chinese monk Ado arrived in the kingdom and inspired King Sosurim of Goguryeo the following year. The first two temples Seongmunsa and Ilbullansa were built in 375 on the order of the king. Buddhism soon became the national religion of Goguryeo.

With the advent of Taoism in 624 the rulers began to suppress Buddhism and its importance quickly declined. The Baekje Kingdom, on the other hand, flourished under the influence of Buddhism. In 552 Buddhist scriptures were sent to Japan. This eventually led to the establishment of Buddhism in Japan.

In Silla, Buddhism was important, too. It flourished during the reign of Jinheung of Silla (540 to 576). Heungnyunsa was built, where any commoner could become a monk. The study of scriptures was greatly highlighted. For about 250 years Buddhism thrived in Later Silla.

Buddhism was admired by Wang Geon, who was enthroned as Taejo of Goryeo. Throughout the country pagodas and other Buddhist structures were built.

In late Goryeo, Buddhism became linked with corruption of the regime. A great number of monks were involved in politics. Bit by bit anti-Buddhist sentiments grew, leading to chaos which was ended by the establishment of Joseon. Taejo of Joseon himself was a devout Buddhist, but the influence of monks was reduced. At times monks were treated as outcasts, but generally there was no hindrance to their practising. Buddhist heritage can be found all over the country in the form of temples, pagodas, sculptures, paintings, handicrafts and buildings.

Typical Layout

A typical Korean temple consists of the following elements:[2]

  1. Iljumun (일주문, 一柱門) - One pillar gate found at the entrance to temple grounds
  2. Sacheonwangmun (사천왕문, 四天王門), also Cheonwangmun - Gate of the Four Heavenly Kings, to mark the entrance of the temple's boundaries
  3. Beopdang (법당, 法堂) - Dharma hall, used for lectures and sermons
  4. Monastic quarters
  5. Jonggo (종고, 鐘鼓) - bell tower
  6. Daeungjeon (대웅전, 大雄殿) - main shrine hall housing the temple's main Buddha images
  7. Pagoda
  8. Myeongbujeon (명부전, 冥府殿) - judgment hall, housing an image of the bodhisattva Kshitigarbha (지장, 地藏) and depictions of the Buddhist hell
  9. Nahanjeon (나한전, 羅漢殿) - Hall of the Arhats
  10. Sansingak (산신각, 山神閣) - a shamanic shrine dedicated to the mountain god Sanshin (산신, 山神), who can be depicted as both a male or a female.[3] Sometimes called chilseong-gak (칠성각, 七星閣) or samseong-gak (삼성각, 三星閣), this shrine is usually found behind the main shrine hall.
  11. Hermitage
Sacheonwangmun
Beomeosa in Busan.
Daeungjeon
Jeungsimsa in Gwangju.
Jonggak
Guinsa.
Typical layout (to be completed)

North Korea

It is reported that many temples have been taken over by the state. Once the government controls these buildings, they are used mainly as museums of ancient Korean traditions. A few temples are still in use and they are considered National Treasures. Though few temples in large cities survived the US carpet bombings of the Korean War, many still survive in rural areas, and some of the more famous, large temples destroyed have since been rebuilt (such as the Ryongtongsa and Singyesa). All in all, there are 300 temples,[4] but only in a few are religious services permitted. In the list [1] that follows, temples marked with a "×" were destroyed during the Korean War or no longer exist for other reasons; temples marked with an "*" have been rebuilt.

Yongmyongsa in the 1930s
Singyesa in the 1930s
Sogwangsa in the 1930s
Pictures taken in the 1930s

South Korea

There are about 900 traditional Buddhist temples in South Korea, out of about 20,000 Buddhist temples in total.[5]

Notable temples in both Koreas


The following list is sorted by Romanized names, but it also can be sorted by Korean names, by provinces (SK=South Korea, NK=North Korea), or by counties (i.e. gun or si). Some Korean names, and founding dates are to be completed (the founding date applies to the location, even if none of the original structures survive). A star in the first column denotes the 31 head temples designated during the Japanese colonial period. Recommended policy: no new entries, except from temples having their own English page in Wikipedia.

* Province Temple Location County Hangul Hanja Founded
NK South Hamgyong Anbulsa Tonghung-ri Kumya-gun 안불사 安佛寺
NK Kangwon Anbyon Pohyonsa Ryongsin-ri Anbyŏn-gun 보현사 普賢寺
NK South Pyongan Anguksa Ponghak-dong Pyongsong-si 안국사 安國寺 503
NK North Hwanghae Anhwasa Koryo-dong Kaesong-si 안화사 安和寺 930
* SK South Jeolla Baegyangsa Bukha-myeon Jangseong-gun 백양사 白羊寺 632
SK Gangwon Baekdamsa near Seoraksan Inje-gun 백담사 百潭寺 650 circa
SK North Gyeongsang Baekryulsa in Gyeongju Geumgangsan, Dongcheon-dong Gyeongju-si 백률사 栢栗寺 692
SK South Jeolla Baengnyeonsa Doam-myeon Gangjin-gun 백련사 白蓮寺 650 circa
* SK South Gyeongsang Beomeosa Geumjeongsan Busan-si 범어사 梵魚寺 678
SK Jeju Island Beophwasa - -
* SK North Chungcheong Beopjusa Songnisan, Naesongni-myeon Boeun-gun 법주사 法住寺 553
SK North Gyeongsang Bogyeongsa - -
SK Gyeonggi Bomunsa - -
* SK Seoul Bongeunsa Samseong-dong Gangnam-gu 봉은사 奉恩寺 794
SK North Gyeongsang Bongjeongsa Cheondeungsan Andong-si 봉정사 鳳停寺 672
SK Gyeonggi Bongnyeongsa - -
* SK Gyeonggi Bongseonsa Jinjeop-eup Namyangju 봉선사 奉先寺 969
SK Seoul Bongwonsa Bongwon-dong Seodaemun-gu 봉원사 奉元寺 889
* SK North Jeolla Boseoksa? - - 보석사 寶石寺
SK North Gyeongsang Bulguksa (and Seokguram) Tohamsan, Jinheon-dong Gyeongju-si 불국사 佛國寺 528 and 751
SK North Gyeongsang Buseoksa Bonghwangsan Yeongju-si 부석사 浮石寺 676
NK South Hwanghae Chahyesa Sowon-ri Sinchon-gun 자혜사 慈惠寺
NK Kangwon Changansa× Naegang-ri Kumgang-gun 장안사 長安寺
SK Gangwon Cheongpyeongsa - -
NK South Hamgyong Chonggwangsa× Wonsa-ri Riwon-gun 정광사 定光寺
NK South Pyongan Chongjinsa Hyangpung-ri Songchon-gun 정진사 淨進寺
NK Pyongyang Chongrungsa* Ryongsan-ri Ryokpo-guyok 정릉사 定陵寺
NK Kangwon Chongyangsa Naegang-ri Kumgang-gun 정양사 正陽寺
NK North Pyongan Chonjusa Yangsan Yongbyon-gun 천주사 天柱寺 1684
NK Ryanggang Chunghŭngsa Kwanp'yŏng-ri Samsu-gun 중흥사 重興寺
* SK South Jeolla Daeheungsa Duryunsan, Samsan city Haenam-gun 대흥사 大興寺 514 ?
SK Gangwon Deungmyeong-nakgasa - -
* SK North Gyeongsang Donghwasa Palgongsan, Dohak-dong, Dong-gu Daegu-si 동화사 桐華寺 493 and 832
SK Seoul Doseonsa Bukhansan : 264 Ui-dong Gangbuk-gu 도선사 道詵寺 862
* SK North Gyeongsang Eunhaesa? Cheongtong-myeon Yeongcheon 은해사 銀海寺
SK North Jeolla Eunsusa Maisan (Horse Ear Mountain) Jinan-gun 은수사 銀水寺
* SK Gangwon Geonbongsa* ??? Goseong-gun 건봉사 乾鳳寺
SK North Jeolla Geumdangsa Maisan (Horse Ear Mountain) Jinan-gun 금당사 金塘寺 814
SK North Jeolla Geumsansa Moaksan Gimje-si 금산사 金山寺 600 and 770
SK South Jeolla Geumtapsa Cheondeungsan, Podu-myeon Goheung-gun 금탑사 金塔寺 650 circa
* SK North Gyeongsang Gimryongsa? - - 김룡사 金龍寺
* SK North Gyeongsang Girimsa Hamwolsan Gyeongju-si 기림사 祇林寺 643
* SK North Gyeongsang Go-unsa ? - - 고운사 孤雲寺
SK North Gyeongsang Golgulsa Yangbuk-Myeon Gyeongju-si 골굴사 骨窟寺 *
SK North Chungcheong Guinsa Sobaeksan Danyang-gun 구인사 救仁寺 1945
SK Gangwon Guryongsa - -
SK Seoul Gwaneumsa (Seoul) - - 관음사 觀音寺
SK Jeju Island Gwaneumsa (Jeju) - -
SK Seoul Gyeongguksa 753 Jeongneung-dong Jongno-gu 경국사 慶國寺 1325
NK North Pyongan Habiro Hermitage Hyangam-ri Hyangsan-gun 하비로암 下毘盧庵
SK South Gyeongsang Haedong Yonggungsa ??? Busan-si 해동용궁사 海東龍宮寺
* SK South Gyeongsang Haeinsa Gayasan Hapcheon-gun 해인사 海印寺 802
NK South Hwanghae Hakrimsa× Hakrim-ri Changyon-gun 학림사 鶴林寺
NK South Hwanghae Hanging Hermitage Changsusan, Sorim-ri Chaeryong-gun 현암 縣庵
NK South Hamgyong Hungbok Hermitage Sudong-ri Hamhung-si 흥복암 興復庵
NK North Hwanghae Hungwangsa× Sambong-ri Kaepung-gun 흥왕사 興王寺
* SK South Jeolla Hwaeomsa Jirisan, Masan-myeon Gurye-gun 화엄사 華嚴寺 544
NK North Pyongan Hwajang Hermitage Hyangam-ri Hyangsan-gun 화장암 華藏庵
SK North Gyeongsang Hwangnyongsa Tohamsan Gyeongju National Park 황룡사 皇龍寺 553
NK North Hamgyong Hwasong Ssanggyesa Puam-ri Myonggan-gun 쌍계사 雙磎寺
SK Gyeonggi Jajaeam - -
* SK Gyeonggi Jeondeungsa ??? Ganghwa-gun 전등사 傳燈寺
SK South Jeolla Jeungsimsa Mudeungsan Gwangju-si 증심사 証心寺
SK North Gyeongsang Jikjisa Hwangaksan, Daehang-myeon Gimcheon-si 직지사 直指寺 418
SK Seoul Jingwansa - - 진관사 津寬寺
SK Seoul Jogyesa Gyeonji-dong Jongno-gu 조계사 曹溪寺 1395 & 1910
NK North Hamgyong Kaesimsa Pochon-ri Myongchon-gun 개심사 開心寺 826 and 1377
NK North Pyongan Kaewonsa Tangsang-ri Kwaksan-gun 개원사 開元寺
NK South Hwanghae Kangsosa Kangho-ri Paechon-gun 강서사 江西寺
NK North Pyongan Kumgwangsa Kumgwang-ri Uiju-gun 금광사 金光寺
NK Pyongyang Kwangbopsa* Taesong-dong Taesong-guyok 광법사 廣法寺
NK South Hamgyong Kwangjesa Chuksang-ri Pukchong-gun 광제사 光濟寺
NK North Hwanghae Kwanumsa Pakyon-ri Kaesong-si 관음사 觀音寺 970 and 1393
NK North Hwanghae Kwijinsa Songwol-ri Sohung-gun 귀진사 歸眞寺
* NK South Hamgyong Kwijusa× Kumsil-dong Hamhung-si 귀주사 歸州寺
NK North Pyongan Kyejo Hermitage Hyangam-ri Hyangsan-gun 계조암 繼祖庵
* SK South Chungcheong Magoksa Taehwasan Gongju-si 마곡사 麻谷寺 640
NK Kangwon Mahayon Hermitage× Naegang-ri Kumgang-gun 마하연 摩訶衍
NK North Pyongan Mannyonsa Songan-dong Kusong-si 만년사 萬年寺
NK Chagang Mansu Hermitage Changp'yong-ri Huichon-si 만수암 萬壽庵
NK North Pyongan Mansu Hermitage Hyangam-ri Hyangsan-gun 만수암 萬壽庵
SK South Jeolla Mihwangsa Dalmasan Haenam-gun 미황사 美黃寺 749
SK North Jeolla Mireuksa Geumma-myeon Iksan-si 미륵사 彌勒寺 602
NK Kangwon Myongjoksa Yongsam-ri Wonsan-si 명적사 明寂寺
SK North Jeolla Naesosa Jinseo-myeon Buan-gun 내소사 633
SK Gangwon Naksansa Ganghyeon-myeon [[Yangyang-gun 낙산사 洛山寺 671
NK North Pyongan Nungin Hermitage Hyangam-ri Hyangsan-gun 능인암 能仁唵
SK Gangwon Oseam Seoraksan ??? 오세암 五歲庵 643
* NK South Hwanghae Paeyopsa× Paeyop-ri Anak-gun 패엽사 貝葉寺
SK North Gyeongsang Pagyesa Palgongsan Daegu-si 파계사 把溪寺
NK North Pyongan Pakchon Simwonsa Sangyang-ri Pakchon-gun 심원사 深源寺
NK Pyongyang Pobun Hermitage Ryongbong-ri Mangyongdae-guyok 법운암 法雲庵
NK Kangwon Podok Hermitage Naegang-ri Kumgang-gun 보덕암 普德庵
* NK North Pyongan Pohyonsa Hyangam-ri Hyangsan-gun 보현사 普賢寺 1025 circa
NK Kangwon Pomun Hermitage Solbong-ri Kosan-gun 보덕암 普德庵
* NK South Pyongan Pophungsa Sinsong-ri Pyongwon-gun 법흥사 法興寺
NK North Pyongan Powolsa Uhyon-ri Kujang-gun 보월사 寶月寺
NK North Hwanghae Pulilsa× Sonjok-ri Changpung-gun 관음사 佛日寺
NK Kangwon Pulji Hermitage Naegang-ri Kumgang-gun 불지암 佛地庵
NK South Hamgyong Pulji Hermitage Ponghung-ri Yonggwang-gun 불지암 佛地庵
NK North Pyongan Puryong Hermitage Hyangam-ri Hyangsan-gun 불영대 佛影臺
NK Kangwon Pyohunsa Naegang-ri Kumgang-gun 표훈사 表訓寺 670
NK South Hamgyong Ryangchonsa Nakchon-ri Kowon-gun 량천사 梁泉寺
NK Kangwon Ryongchusa Mihyon-ri Anbyŏn-gun 령추사 靈鷲寺
NK South Hamgyong Ryonghungsa Ponghung-ri Yonggwang-gun 룡흥사 龍興寺 1048
NK Pyongyang Ryonghwasa Kaeson-dong Moranbong-guyok 룡화사 龍華寺
NK North Pyongan Ryongmunsa Ryongdung Worker's District Kujang-gun 룡문사 龍門寺
NK North Hwanghae Ryongtongsa* Ryonghung-dong Kaesong-si 령통사 靈通寺 1027
SK Gangwon Samhwasa Samhwa-dong Donghae-si 삼화사 三和寺
NK North Pyongan Sangwon Hermitage Hyangam-ri Hyangsan-gun 상원암 上元庵
* SK South Jeolla Seonamsa? Jogyesan Suncheon-si 선암사 仙巖寺
SK Jeju Island Seondeoksa - -
SK North Jeolla Seonunsa Dosolsan, Asan-myeon Gochang-gun 선운사 禪雲寺 577
SK Gyeonggi Silleuksa 73, Silleuksa-gil Yeoju-si 신륵사 神勒寺 580
SK North Jeolla Silsangsa ??? Namwon-si 실상사 實相寺
NK North Hwanghae Yontan Simwonsa Yontan Yŏntan-gun 심원사 心源寺 *
NK South Hwanghae Singwangsa× Singwang-ri Haeju-si 신광사 神光寺
NK Kangwon Singyesa* Onjong-ri Kosong-gun 신계사 神溪寺 519
SK Gangwon Sinheungsa Seoraksan Sokcho-si 신흥사
향성사
神興寺
香城寺
650 circa
* NK South Hamgyong ? Sogwangsa× Solbong-ri Kosan-gun 석왕사 釋王寺 1386
* NK North Hwanghae Songbulsa Jongbang-ri Sariwon-si 성불사 成佛寺 898
* SK South Jeolla Songgwangsa Songgwangsan ??? 송광사 松廣寺 867 and 1190
NK South Hwanghae Songwol Hermitage Hakrim-ri Changyon-gun 송월암 松月庵
NK North Pyongan Sounsa Yongbyon ??? 서운사 棲雲寺
SK South Gyeongsang Ssanggyesa Jirisan, Hwagae-myeon Hadong-gun 쌍계사 雙磎寺 772
SK South Chungcheong Sudeoksa Deoksungsan, Deoksan-myeon Yesan-gun 수덕사 修德寺 1308
NK North Hwanghae Taehungsa Pakyon-ri Kaesong-si 대흥사 大興寺
SK North Jeolla Tapsa Maisan (Horse Ear Mountain) Jinan-gun 탑사 塔寺 1885
NK Pyongyang Tong-kumgangamsa Osan-ri Sunan-guyok 동금강암사 東金剛庵寺
NK South Hamgyong Tongdoksa Tuyon-ri Tanchon-si 동덕사 東德寺
* SK South Gyeongsang Tongdosa Chiseosan Yangsan-si 통도사 通度寺 646
SK South Jeolla Unjusa (NT #312) Doam-myeon Hwasun-gun 운주사 雲住寺
* SK North Jeolla Wibongsa? - - 위봉사 威鳳寺
* SK Gangwon Woljeongsa Odaesan Pyeongchang-gun 월정사 月精寺 643
NK South Hwanghae Woljongsa Woljong-ri Anak-gun 월정사 月精寺
NK Chagang Wŏnmyŏngsa Ryujung-ri Huichon-si 원명사 圓明寺
SK Jeju Island Yakcheonsa 293-28 Ieodo-ro Seogwipo-si 약천사 藥泉寺
NK North Pyongan Yanghwasa Sangdan-ri Taechon-gun 양화사 陽和寺
SK Seoul Yeonghwasa - - 영화사 永華寺
SK Gyeonggi Yeonjuam - -
* SK Gyeonggi Yongjusa Hwasan, Taean-eup Hwaseong-si 용주사 龍珠寺 854
* NK Pyongyang Yongmyongsa× NK Moranbong Park Moranbong-guyok 영명사 永明寺 *
* NK Kangwon Yujomsa× Naegang-ri Kumgang-gun 유점사 楡岾寺 550 circa and 1168

See also

References

  1. ^ Cerny, Branko (4 October 2011). "Temple stay: 48 hours at Sudeoksa Temple". CNN Travel. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  2. ^ Grayson, James Huntley (2002). Korea: a religious history. Psychology Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-7007-1605-0.
  3. ^ "San shin – The Mountain god (산신)". Dale's Korean Temple Adventures. 17 December 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
  4. ^ "Korea, Democratic People's Republic of: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices".
  5. ^ CNN, Cin Woo Lee. "33 of South Korea's most beautiful temples". CNN. Retrieved 2020-07-05.
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