To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

International Klein Blue

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

IKB 191 (1962), one of a number of works Klein painted with International Klein Blue
IKB 191 (1962), one of a number of works Klein painted with International Klein Blue

International Klein Blue (IKB) is a deep blue hue first mixed by the French artist Yves Klein. IKB's visual impact comes from its heavy reliance on ultramarine, as well as Klein's often thick and textured application of paint to canvas.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    10 499
    16 433
    31 434
  • ✪ What Inspired Yves Klein?
  • ✪ The Life and Work of Yves Klein told by Rotraut
  • ✪ Yves Klein: With the Void, Full Powers




Synthetic ultramarine, similar to that used in IKB pigment
Synthetic ultramarine, similar to that used in IKB pigment

International Klein Blue (IKB) was developed by Yves Klein in collaboration with Edouard Adam, a Parisian art paint supplier whose shop is still in business on the Boulevard Edgar-Quinet in Montparnasse.[1] IKB uses a matte, synthetic resin binder which suspends the color and allows the pigment to maintain as much of its original qualities and intensity of color as possible.[2] The synthetic resin used in the binder is a polyvinyl acetate developed and marketed at the time under the name Rhodopas M or M60A by the French pharmaceutical company Rhône-Poulenc.[3] Adam still sells the binder under the name "Médium Adam 25".[1]

In May 1960, Klein deposited a Soleau envelope, registering the paint formula under the name International Klein Blue (IKB) at the Institut national de la propriété industrielle (INPI),[2] but he never patented IKB. Only valid under French law, a Soleau envelope registers the date of invention, according to the depositor, prior to any legal patent application. The copy held by the INPI was destroyed in 1965. Klein's own copy, which the INPI returned to him duly stamped, still exists.[4]

In March 1960, Klein patented a method by which he was able to distance himself from the physical creation of his paintings by remotely directing models covered in the color.[5]

Use in Yves Klein's art

L'accord bleu (RE 10), 1960, mixed media piece by Yves Klein featuring IKB pigment on canvas and sponges
L'accord bleu (RE 10), 1960, mixed media piece by Yves Klein featuring IKB pigment on canvas and sponges

Although Klein had worked with blue extensively in his earlier career, it was not until 1958 that he used it as the central component of a piece (the color effectively becoming the art). Klein embarked on a series of monochromatic works using IKB as the central theme. These included performance art where Klein painted models' naked bodies and had them walk, roll and sprawl upon blank canvases as well as more conventional single-color canvases.[6] Six sculptures by Klein in the Musiktheater im Revier, Gelsenkirchen, Germany, are executed in IKB.

In culture



  • In 1993, the experimental film Blue, the final piece created by Derek Jarman, used the shade IKB 79[8] as the sole shot for the backdrop of the entire film. Used to represent the loss of his sight, and developing a blue tinge as a result of suffering from AIDS-related complications and side effects from medical treatment.




See also


  1. ^ a b Le medium Adam25, Adam Montmartre
  2. ^ a b "Restoring the Immaterial: Study and Treatment of Yves Klein's Blue Monochrome (IKB42)". Modern Paint Uncovered.[full citation needed]
  3. ^ Yves Klein: Les Monochromes de l'Époque Bleue (1955–1962). International Klein Blue
  4. ^ Denys Riout, Yves Klein: L'aventure monochrome (Paris: Gallimard, 2006), pp. 36–37.
  5. ^ Espacenet Patent search. FR1258418 (A) – Procédé de décoration ou d'intégration architecturale et produits obtenus par application dudit procédé (in French)
  6. ^ "The woman who painted her body for artist Yves Klein". BBC News Online. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  7. ^ "Eddie Redmayne from Les Misérables". W.
  8. ^ "Blue, Derek Jarman, 1993". Tate.
  9. ^ Kastan, David Scott; Farthing, Stephen (2018). On Color. New Haven: Yale University Books. p. 112. ISBN 9780300171877. OCLC 1005127035.
  10. ^ "International Klein Blue" by Kliché on YouTube
  11. ^ "Blue is the warmest color". Retrieved 2016-05-21.
  12. ^
  13. ^ "Melancholy Optimism: Manic Street Preachers Interviewed" by Patrick Clarke, The Quietus, 19 February 2018
  14. ^ Review: Mike Tyson Mysteries "Yves Klein Blues"

External links

This page was last edited on 10 September 2019, at 12:22
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.