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Kingdom of Holland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kingdom of Holland

  • Koningrijk Holland  (Dutch)
  • Royaume de Hollande  (French)
1806–1810
Location of Holland
StatusFrench client state
Capital
Common languagesDutch, French
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
King of Holland 
• 1806–1810
Louis the Good
• 1810
Louis II
Historical eraNapoleonic era
CurrencyDutch guilder
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Batavian Republic
First French Empire
Today part ofNetherlands, Germany

The Kingdom of Holland (Dutch: Koningrijk Holland, French: Royaume de Hollande) was set up by Napoléon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. The name of the leading province, Holland, was now taken for the whole country. In 1807, East Frisia and Jever were added to the kingdom.

In 1809, after the Walcheren Campaign, Holland had to surrender all territories south of the river Rhine to France. Also in 1809, Dutch forces fighting on the French side participated in defeating the anti-Bonapartist German rebellion led by Ferdinand von Schill, at the battle of Stralsund.

King Louis did not perform to Napoleon's expectations—he tried to serve Dutch interests instead of his brother's—and the kingdom was dissolved in 1810, after which the Netherlands were annexed by France until 1813. Holland covered the area of the present-day Netherlands, with the exception of Limburg, and parts of Zeeland, which were French territory, and with the addition of East Frisia. It was the first formal monarchy in the Netherlands since 1581.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Holland vs the Netherlands
  • ✪ A royal tour - 200 years Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • ✪ The Netherlands, Holland and The Low Countries - The Difference
  • ✪ The Netherlands vs. Holland - And Why Are They Dutch?
  • ✪ 7 Days HOLLAND

Transcription

Welcome to the Great nation of Holland: where the tulips grow, the windmills turn, the breakfast is chocolatey, the people industrious, and the sea tries to drown it all. Except, this country isn't Holland. It's time for: The Difference Between Holland, the Netherlands (and a whole lot more) The correct name for this tulip growing, windmill building hagelslag eating, container ship moving, ocean conquering nation is the Netherlands. But confusion is understandable -- the general region been renamed a lot over a thousand including as: The Dutch Republic, The United States of Belgium, and The Kingdom of Hollande But it's not just history that makes this country's name confusing because the Netherlands is divided into twelve provinces: * Groningen * Drenthe * Overijssel * Gelderland * Limburg * Brabant * Zeeland (Which, by the way, is the Zeeland that makes this Zeeland, new) * Friesland (With adorable little hearts on its flag) * Flevoland * Utrecht, and here's the confusion: * Noord (North) Holland and * Zuid (South) Holland These provinces make calling the Netherlands 'Holland' like calling the United States 'Dakota'. Though unlike the Dakotas, which are mostly empty, save for the occasional Jackalope, the two Hollands are the most populated provinces and have some of the biggest attractions like, Amsterdam and Keukenhof. Chances are if it's Dutch, and you've heard of it, it's in one of the Hollands. Even the government's travel website for the country is Holland.com -- officially because it sounds friendlier, but unofficially it's probably what people are actually searching for. Confusion continues because: People who live in the Hollands are called Hollanders, but all citizens of the Netherlands are called Dutch as is their language. But in Dutch they say: Nederlands sprekende Nederlanders in Nederland which sounds like they'd rather we call them Netherlanders speaking Netherlandish. Meanwhile, next door in Germany, they're Deutsche sprechen Deutsch in Deutschland. Which sounds like they'd rather be called Dutch. This linguistic confusion is why Americans call the Pennsylvania Dutch Dutch even though they're Germans. To review: this country is the Netherlands, its people are Dutch, they speak Dutch. There is no country called Holland, but there are provinces of North and South Holland. Got it? Great, because it's about to get more complicated. The Netherlands is part of a Kingdom with the same name: The Kingdom of the Netherlands -- which is headed by the Dutch Royal Family. The Kingdom of the Netherlands contains three more countries and to find them we must sail from the icy North Sea to the Caribbean and Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten. These are no territories, but self-governing countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands and as such they have their own governments, and their own currencies. Geography geek side note here: While Aruba and Curaçao are islands, Sint Maarten is just the Southern Half of a tiny island also named Saint Martin the other half of which is occupied by France and also named Saint Martin. So despite being separated by Belgium on the European map, The Kingdom of the Netherlands and the French Republic share a border on the other side of the world on an island so nice they named it thrice. But why does the Kingdom of the Netherlands reach to the Caribbean anyway? Because, Empire. In the 1600s the Dutch, always looking to expand business, laid their hands on every valuable port they could. For a time, America's East Coast was 'New Netherland' with its capital city of New Amsterdam. There was New Zealand, as mentioned previously, and nearby, the king of the islands, New Holland. Though the empire is gone, these three Caribbean nations remain. And while four countries in one kingdom, isn't unheard of, it doesn't stop there, because the country of the Netherlands, also extends its borders to the Caribbean and three more islands: Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba. These are not countries in a Kingdom, but are cities of the Country of the Netherlands and they look the part. Residents of these far-flung cities vote in elections for the Dutch government just as any Hollander would. Though, weirdly, they don't belong to any province and they don't use the Dutch currency of Euros, they use Dollars instead. It's kind of like if Hawaii wasn't a state, but technically part of the District of Columbia, all the while using the Yen. These cities of the Country of the Netherlands and these countries in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, are together are known as the Dutch Caribbean. And their citizens are Dutch citizens. Which, because the Kingdom of the Netherlands is a member of the European Union, means these Dutch Caribbeans are also Europeans. So in the end, there are 6 Caribbean islands, four countries, twelve provinces, two Hollands, two Netherlands and one kingdom, all Dutch.

Contents

Coat of arms

Napoléon's brother Louis Bonaparte was installed as King of Holland on 5 June 1806. Originally the arms of the new kingdom were to be like those of the Kingdom of Italy: an eagle bearing a shield, with the arms of the United Netherlands, the lion, now royally crowned. In December 1806, A. Renodi in Paris designed arms quartering the Napoléonic eagle with the lion of the United Netherlands. Around the shield was the French Order of the Grand Aigle. Behind the shield are crossed sceptres, typical for Napoleonic heraldry, and above the shield, Napoleon's star.

A few months later, on 20 May 1807, King Louis—now called "Lodewijk"—altered these arms, adding a helmet, leaving out his brother's star and replacing the Grand Aigle with his own Dutch Order of the Union and the old Dutch devise "Unity makes strength" around the shield. Exemplary for the innovation in Napoleon's heraldry are the two hands coming out of clouds from behind the shield holding swords, designating King Louis as Connétable de France.

History

Part of a series on the
History of the Netherlands
Leo Belgicus
Flag of the Netherlands.svg
Netherlands portal

Napoléon felt the Batavian Republic was becoming too independent for his liking. He thus forced the Dutch to accept his brother, Louis Bonaparte, as king. The alternative would have been outright annexation to France. Despite these circumstances, many citizens were very happy with his arrival. But there was also opposition, because many feared the new King would introduce the dreaded conscription. This Louis would not do, much to the dismay of Napoléon, who demanded that King Louis raise a large army to guard the North from British invasion, and to aid the French armies in Germany and Spain.

Apart from the lavishly uniformed Royal Guard, the army of the Kingdom of Holland would always be short of recruits, leading to units being disbanded or amalgamated. Acts to recruit more troops, for instance by raising a Jewish regiment or by adding all male orphans to the army as Velites, were of little effect, the latter leading to public riots and accusations of introducing the conscription.

Napoléon intended for Louis to be little more than the prefect of Holland. For example, the ministers were provided mostly by Napoléon. However, Louis had his own mind, and was determined to be as independent of his elder brother as possible. In addition to refusing to introduce conscription, he made a sincere effort to learn the Dutch language, even going as far as to adopt the Dutch spelling of his name, Lodewijk. He declared himself Dutch rather than French and demanded that his ministers renounce their French citizenships as well. He also required his ministers and court to only speak Dutch.

Due to the economic blockade enforced by Napoléon, the economy of the Kingdom of Holland was further ruined; the smuggling of British goods increased. Louis hesitated to oppose this, which led Napoléon to sending units of Douanes Imperiales to Holland.

After British troops invaded in the Walcheren Campaign of 1809, Napoléon lost patience with his hesitant brother and decided to make Holland an integral part of France. After annexing the southern provinces of Holland into the Empire, he forced King Louis to abdicate in 1810. Louis' son, Napoléon Louis Bonaparte, reigned for a week as Louis II before Napoléon annexed the rest of the kingdom into the French Empire. During that period Queen Hortense acted as Regent of the Kingdom.

While the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland was short-lived, in the aftermath of Napoléon's fall, the precedent of the Netherlands having been a Kingdom facilitated the House of Orange's successful efforts to upgrade themselves from the rank of stadhouder to being fully-fledged monarchs.

Footnotes

Bibliography

  • Kossmann, E. H. (1978). The Low Countries, 1780–1940.
  • Prak, M. (1997). "Burghers into Citizens: Urban and National Citizenship in the Netherlands during the Revolutionary Era". Theory and Society. 26: 403–420.
  • Schama, S. (1977). Patriots and Liberators: Revolution in the Netherlands, 1780–1813. London: Collins.
  • Van der Burg, M. (2010). "Transforming the Dutch Republic into the Kingdom of Holland: the Netherlands between Republicanism and Monarchy". European Review of History. 17 (2). pp. 151–170.
  • Van der Burg, M.; Lok, M. (2012). "The Netherlands under Napoleonic rule: A New Regime or a Revived Order?" in The Napoleonic Empire and the new European political culture.

External links

This page was last edited on 21 August 2019, at 09:52
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