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Constitutional Cabinet of Louis XVI

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kingdom of France
Royaume de France
1791–1792
Motto: La Nation, la Loi, le Roi
"The Nation, the Law, the King"
Anthem: Marche Henri IV (1590–1830)
"March of Henry IV"
Kingdom of France, September 1791 – September 1792
Kingdom of France, September 1791 – September 1792
CapitalParis
Common languagesFrench
Religion
Roman Catholicism
(state religion)
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
King of the French 
• 1791–1792
Louis XVI
LegislatureLegislative Assembly
History 
20–21 June 1791
3 September 1791
10 August 1792
21 September 1792
CurrencyAssignat
ISO 3166 codeFR
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of France
French First Republic
Constitutional Cabinet of Louis XVI
Flag of France (1790-1794).svg

Cabinet of Kingdom of France
Antoine-François Callet - Luís XVI.jpg
Date formed3 September 1791 (1791-09-03)
Date dissolved21 September 1792 (1792-09-21)
People and organisations
Head of stateKing Louis XVI
Head of governmentKing Louis XVI
No. of ministers5
Total no. of members24
Member partyIndependents, Feuillants, Moderate Jacobins (1792)
Status in legislatureLegislative Assembly
Opposition partyJacobins
Opposition leaderGeorges Couthon, Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud and others
History
Election(s)1791
Legislature term(s)6 September 1791 – 2 September 1792
SuccessorGovernment of the National Convention

The Kingdom of France (the remnant of the preceding absolutist Kingdom of France) was a constitutional monarchy that governed France from 3 September 1791 until 21 September 1792, when this constitutional monarchy was succeeded by the First Republic.

On 3 September 1791, the National Constituent Assembly forced king Louis XVI to accept the French Constitution of 1791, thus turning the absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy.

After the 10 August 1792 Storming of the Tuileries Palace, the Legislative Assembly on 11 August 1792 suspended this constitutional monarchy.[1] The freshly elected National Convention abolished the monarchy on 21 September 1792, ending 203 years of consecutive Bourbon rule over France.

Background

France had been undergoing a revolution in its government and social orders. A National Assembly declared itself into being and promulgated their intention to provide France with a fair and liberal constitution.[2] Louis XVI moved to Paris in October of that year but grew to detest Paris and organised an escape plot in 1791. The escape plot known as the Flight to Varennes ultimately failed to materialise and destroyed any positive public opinion for the monarchy.[3] Louis XVI's brothers-in-exile in Coblenz rallied for an invasion of France. Austria and Prussia responded to the royal brothers' cries and released the Declaration of Pillnitz in August. The declaration stated that Prussia and Austria wished to restore Louis XVI to absolute power but would only attempt to do so with the assistance of the other European powers.[4]

Constitution

Louis XVI was forced to submit the Constitution of 1791 by the National Assembly in the aftermath of his Flight to Varennes in the Austrian Netherlands.[5] The Constitution of 1791, which established the Kingdom of the French, was revolutionary in its content. It abolished the nobility of France and created all men equal before the law. Louis XVI had the ability to veto legislation that he did not approve of, as the legislation still needed Royal Assent to come into force.[6]

Republic

Louis XVI reluctantly declared war on Austria on 20 April 1792 bowing to the assembly's wishes. Prussia allied with Austria and therefore France was at war with Prussia as well.[7] The Brunswick Manifesto of August 1792 issued by the Duke of Brunswick, Commander of the Austrian and Prussian military brought about the Storming of the Tuileries on 10 August 1792. The manifesto explicitly threatened the people of Paris with dire repercussions if they in any way harmed Louis XVI or his family.[8] The Legislative Assembly was inundated with requests for the monarchy's demise. The President of the National Assembly responded by suspending the monarchy on 11 August pending the outcome of elections for another assembly.[1] The newly elected National Convention elected under universal male suffrage abolished the monarchy on 21 September 1792. The convention proclaimed a republic.[9] Louis was executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793.

Portfolio Minister Took office Left office Party
King of the French6 September 17912 September 1792 N/A
Minister of Finances
Louis Hardouin Tarbé
29 May 179124 March 1792 Feuillant
24 March 179213 June 1792 Girondins
13 June 179218 June 1792 Girondins
Jules de Beaulieu
18 June 179229 July 1792 Independent
René Delaville-Leroulx
29 July 179210 August 1792 Independent
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs29 November 179115 March 1792 Feuillant
15 March 179213 June 1792 Girondins
13 June 179218 June 1792 Independent
18 June 179223 July 1792 Girondins
23 July 17921 August 1792 Feuillant
Secretary of State for War7 December 17919 March 1792 Feuillant
9 March 17929 May 1792 Feuillant
9 May 179213 June 1792 Girondins
13 June 179218 June 1792 Girondins
18 June 179223 July 1792 Feuillant
23 July 179210 August 1792 Feuillant
Secretary of State of the Navy18 September 17917 October 1791 Feuillant
7 October 179116 March 1792 Feuillant
16 March 179221 July 1792 Independent
21 July 179210 August 1792 Feuillant
Keeper of the Seals
François Duport-Dutertre
21 November 179023 March 1792 Feuillant
16 March 179214 April 1792 Girondins
14 April 17924 July 1792 Girondins
4 July 179210 August 1792 Feuillant

See also

Citations

  1. ^ a b Fraser, 454
  2. ^ Hibbert, 63
  3. ^ Hibbert, 130
  4. ^ Hibbert, 143
  5. ^ Jones, 426
  6. ^ The Constitution of 1791 Archived 17 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Hibbert, 145
  8. ^ Jones, 459
  9. ^ Jones, 462

References

  • Fraser, Antonia: "Marie Antoinette: the Journey", Orion Books, London, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7538-1305-8
  • Hibbert, Christopher: "The French Revolution", Penguin Books, Great Britain, 1982, ISBN 978-0-14-004945-9
  • Jones, Colin: "The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon", Columbia University Press, New York, 2002, ISBN 0-231-12882-7

This page was last edited on 30 July 2022, at 23:01
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