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List of monarchs of Naples

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of rulers of the Kingdom of Naples, from its first separation from the Kingdom of Sicily to its merger with the same into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Kingdom of Naples (1282–1501)

House of Anjou

In 1382, the Kingdom of Naples was inherited by Charles III, King of Hungary, Great grandson of King Charles II of Naples. After this, the House of Anjou of Naples was renamed House of Anjou-Durazzo, when Charles III married his first cousin Margaret of Durazzo, member of a prominent Neapolitan noble family.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Charles IofAnjou.jpg
Arms of Jean dAnjou.svg
Charles I
(Carlo I)
30 March 1282 7 January 1285  • Son of Louis VIII of France King of Sicily, Naples and Albania
(Re di Sicilia, Napoli e Albania)
Charles 2 of Naples.jpg
Arms of Charles II dAnjou.svg
Charles II, the Lame
(Carlo II, lo Zoppo)
7 January 1285 5 May 1309  • Son of Charles I King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Robert of Naples (head).jpg
Arms of Charles II dAnjou.svg
Robert I, the Wise
(Roberto I, il Saggio)
5 May 1309 20 January 1343  • Son of Charles II King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Joan I of Naples (head).jpg
Arms of Charles II dAnjou.svg
Joanna I
(Giovanna I)
20 January 1343 12 May 1382  • Granddaughter of Robert I Queen of Naples
(Regina di Napoli)
Louis of Taranto.jpg
Arms of Charles II dAnjou.svg
Louis I
(Luigi I)
August 1348 26 May 1362  • Husband of Joanna I

 • Grandson of Charles II; member of the House of Anjou-Taranto
 • Potential claimant to the throne through the male line if Joanna died childless, but he himself and his line also died out.

Jure uxoris King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
After Joanna's death without legitimate issue, the heirs would technically be her nieces, only one (Margaret) of whom would leave issue (with Charles, a member of the Durazzo branch of the house of Anjou). The next ones in line would be the Durazzo branch itself (the Taranto branch, of which Louis I was part, had been extinguished), whose prominent figure, Charles, was Joanna's enemy.
Charles III of Naples (head).jpg
Arms of Andre of Hungary and Naples.svg
Charles III, the Short
(Carlo III, il Breve)
12 May 1382 24 February 1386  • Great-grandson of Charles II

 • Member of the House of Anjou-Durazzo

King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Ladislas of Naples (head).jpg
Arms of Andre of Hungary and Naples.svg
Ladislaus I, the Magnanimous
(Ladislao I, il Magnanimo)
24 February 1386 Early 1390  • Son of Charles III King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)

House of Valois-Anjou (disputed)

Joanna of Naples had refused to name her enemy Charles of Durazzo as heir to the Neapolitan throne despite him ending up succeeding her anyway. If Charles' line was ignored, the subsequent heirs would be the descendants of Margaret, Countess of Anjou, a daughter of Charles II of Naples; the line pointed to the kings of France of the House of Valois. Joanna chose this line, though she named as heir Louis of Valois-Anjou, a junior member of the dynasty, in order to avoid a personal union with France.

As Charles III had already seized the Neapolitan throne, initially the House of Valois-Anjou only had an empty claim. One of their members, Louis II, succeeded in ruling Naples for a time.

Time as claimant instead of actual rule will be shown in italic.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Loísd'Anjau.jpg
Arms of Louis dAnjou.svg
Louis I of Anjou
(Luigi I)
1382 1384  • Adopted son and heir of Joanna I
 • Could not establish himself in Naples before his death
King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Louis II of Anjou, King of Naples and Sicily after an ink and watercolor drawing in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris.jpg
Arms of Louis dAnjou.svg
Louis II
(Luigi II)
1384
1389
1417
1399
 • Son of Louis I (adopted son of Joanna I)
 • Crowned in 1389
 • Actually ruled in Naples only from 1390 until 1399
King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Louis3anjou.jpg
Arms of Louis dAnjou.svg
Louis III of Anjou
(Luigi III)
1417 1434  • Son of Louis II
 • He was recognised as Joanna II's heir in 1423.
King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)

House of Anjou (restored)

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Ladislas of Naples (head).jpg
Arms of Andre of Hungary and Naples.svg
Ladislaus I, the Magnanimous
(Ladislao I, il Magnanimo)
Late 1399 6 August 1414  • Son of Charles III King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Johanna II of Naples.jpg
Arms of Andre of Hungary and Naples.svg
Joanna II
(Giovanna II)
6 August 1414 2 February 1435  • Daughter of Charles III Queen of Naples
(Regina di Napoli)

House of Valois-Anjou (restored)

Joanna II recognised Louis III of Anjou as heir in 1423, however he died in 1434 before succeeding to the throne. His brother René of Anjou succeeded to the claim and became king upon Joanna's death in 1435.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Le musée d'Histoire de Marseille (14202563122).jpg
Arms of Rene dAnjou (2).svg
René I, the Good
(Renato I, il Buono)
2 February 1435 2 June 1442  • Son of Louis II King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)

House of Trastámara

Before Louis of Anjou, Joanna II's adopted heir had been Alfonso, King of Aragon. He refused to be disinherited and conquered Naples from René of Anjou in 1442.

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Alfonso-V-el-Magnanimo.jpg
Coat of Arms of Ferdinand I of Naples.svg
Alfonso I, the Magnanimous
(Alfonso I, il Magnanimo)
2 June 1442 27 June 1458  • Adopted son of Joanna II; conquered King of Aragon, Sicily and Naples
(Re di Aragona, Sicilia e Napoli)
Ferrante I of Naples.jpg
Coat of Arms of Ferdinand I of Naples.svg
Ferdinand I
(Ferdinando I)
27 June 1458 25 January 1494  • Illegitimate son of Alfonso I King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Alfonso II di Napoli.jpg
Coat of Arms of Ferdinand I of Naples.svg
Alfonso II
(Alfonso II)
25 January 1494 23 January 1495  • Son of Ferdinand I King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Ferrandino Naples.jpg
Coat of Arms of Ferdinand I of Naples.svg
Ferdinand II
(Ferdinando II)
23 January 1495 7 September 1496  • Son of Alfonso II King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)
Frederick IV of Naples.jpg
Coat of Arms of Ferdinand I of Naples.svg
Frederick I
(Federico I)
7 September 1496 1 August 1501  • Son of Ferdinand I King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)

Union with France (1501–1504)

Upon his death in 1480, René of Anjou transferred his claim to his nephew, Charles IV of Anjou. Charles died in 1481 and willed his claim to Louis XI of France. His son Charles VIII attempted to take Naples by force, but failed and died childless in 1498.

Charles VIII was succeeded by his distant cousin Louis XII. Louis had no claim to the Neapolitan throne, but as successor to Charles VIII in France he nevertheless wanted to succeed him in Naples as well.

Naples was conquered in 1501 and became part of a personal union with the Kingdom of France. The local government was ruled by a French viceroy.

House of Valois-Orléans

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Louis-xii-roi-de-france.jpg
BlasonIledeFrance.svg
Louis III
(Luigi III)
2 August 1501 31 January 1504  • Succeeded to Charles VIII on the French throne; conquered Naples

Union with Spain (1504–1647)

Naples was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Aragon, under Ferdinand II. Over time, Aragon and the Kingdom of Castile merged to form the Monarchy of Spain, known colloquially as the "Kingdom of Spain", though the constituent crowns retained their own institutions, and were ruled officially as separate states in personal union rather than as a unified state. The local government was ruled by a Spanish viceroy. The royal houses were:

House of Trastámara

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Michel Sittow 004.jpg
Coat of Arms of Ferdinand II of Aragon (1513-1516).svg
Ferdinand III
(Ferdinando III)
31 January 1504 23 January 1516  • Conquered Naples from Louis XII
Juan de Flandes 003.jpg
Ornamented Coat of Arms of Queen Joanna of Castile.svg
Joanna III
(Giovanna III)
23 January 1516 12 April 1555  • Daughter of Ferdinand III

House of Habsburg

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Carlos V rostro.JPG
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor (1530-1556).svg
Charles IV
(Carlo IV)
14 March 1516 25 July 1554  • Son of Joanna III
Portrait of Philip II of Spain by Sofonisba Anguissola - 002b.jpg
Coat of Arms of the King of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1580-1700).svg
Philip I
25 July 1554 13 September 1598  • Son of Charles IV
Rey Felipe III.jpg
Coat of Arms of the King of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1580-1700).svg
Philip II
13 September 1598 31 March 1621  • Son of Philip I
Philip IV of Spain - Velázquez 1644.jpg
Coat of Arms of the King of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1580-1700).svg
Philip III
31 March 1621 1647  • Son of Philip II

Neapolitan Republic (1647–1648)

House of Guise

Officially a Republic, Naples was governed for a short time by the Duke of Guise, under the title of "Doge of Naples".

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Anthonis van Dyck - Portrait of Henri II de Lorraine.jpg
Armoiries ducs de Guise.svg
Henry of Guise
(Enrico di Guisa)
22 October 1647 5 April 1648  • Claimed a lineage with the House of Valois-Anjou Doge of Naples
(Doge di Napoli)

Union with Spain (1648–1713)

Naples was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Spain, under Philip IV. The local government was ruled by a Spanish viceroy. The royal houses were:

House of Habsburg

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Philip IV of Spain - Velázquez 1644.jpg
Coat of Arms of the King of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1580-1700).svg
Philip III
1648 17 September 1665  • Son of Philip II
Rey Carlos II.jpg
Coat of Arms of the King of Spain as Monarch of Milan (1580-1700).svg
Charles V
17 September 1665 1 November 1700  • Son of Philip III

House of Bourbon

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Felipe V de España.jpg
Arms of Philip V of Spain as Monarch of Naples.svg
Philip IV 1 November 1700 11 April 1713  • Great-nephew of Charles V

Kingdom of Naples (1713–1799)

House of Habsburg

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Johann Gottfried Auerbach 002.JPG
Greater Coat of Arms of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor.svg
Charles VI 11 April 1713 1734/1735  • Great-grandson of Philip II

House of Bourbon

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Charles III of Spain high resolution.jpg
Coat of Arms of Infante Charles of Spain as King of Naples and Sicily.svg
Charles VII
(Carlo VII)
2 June 1734 6 October 1759  • Son of Philip IV;
confirmed King with a treaty (1738)
King of Spain, Naples and Sicily
(Re di Spagna, Napoli e Sicilia)
Mengs - Ferdinand IV of Naples, Royal Palace of Madrid.jpg
Greater Coat of Arms of Ferdinand IV of Naples.svg
Ferdinand IV
(Ferdinando IV)
6 October 1759 23 January 1799  • Son of Charles VII King of Naples and Sicily
(Re di Napoli e Sicilia)

Parthenopean Republic (1799)

Dictators

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Party Ref.
1
Général JEAN ETIENNE CHAMPIONNET.jpg
Jean Étienne Championnet
(1762–1800)
21 January 1799 24 February 1799 Military
Championnet was appointed to defend the Roman Republic, but despite the French Directory's directives, he also conquered Naples and created the Parthenopean Republic. After a short dictatorship, he was deposed and imprisoned by France itself.
2
MacDonald par Antoine Jean Gros.jpg
Jacques MacDonald
(1765–1840)
24 February 1799 3 June 1799 Military [1]
After Championnet's deposition, MacDonald ruled Naples for some months, before moving his forces in Northern Italy. Naples was then reconquered by the Bourbons' loyalists.

Kingdom of Naples (1799–1816)

House of Bourbon

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Mengs - Ferdinand IV of Naples, Royal Palace of Madrid.jpg
Greater Coat of Arms of Ferdinand IV of Naples.svg
Ferdinand IV
(Ferdinando IV)
13 June 1799 30 March 1806  • Son of Charles VII King of Naples and Sicily
(Re di Napoli e Sicilia)

House of Bonaparte

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Joseph Bonaparte (by Wicar).jpg
Small Coat of Arms of Joseph Bonaparte as King of Naples.svg
Joseph I
(Giuseppe I)
30 March 1806 8 July 1808  • Conquered the Kingdom; appointed by Napoleon Bonaparte King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)

House of Murat

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Joachim Murat (1767-1815) (A).jpg
Coat of Arms of Joachim Murat as King of Naples.svg
Joachim I, the Dandy King
(Gioacchino I, il Re Franconi)
1 August 1808 22 May 1815  • Brother-in-law of Joseph I King of Naples
(Re di Napoli)

House of Bourbon

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Mengs - Ferdinand IV of Naples, Royal Palace of Madrid.jpg
Greater Coat of Arms of Ferdinand IV of Naples.svg
Ferdinand IV
(Ferdinando IV)
22 May 1815 8 December 1816  • Son of Charles VII King of Naples and Sicily
(Re di Napoli e Sicilia)

See also

References

  1. ^ Acton, Harold (1957). The Bourbons of Naples (1731-1825) (2009 ed.). London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 9780571249015.
This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 08:39
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