To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Henry II of France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Henry II (French: Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559. The second son of Francis I, he became Dauphin of France upon the death of his elder brother Francis III, Duke of Brittany, in 1536. Henry was the tenth king from the House of Valois, the third from the Valois-Orléans branch, and the second from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch.

As a child, Henry and his elder brother spent over four years in captivity in Spain as hostages in exchange for their father. Henry pursued his father's policies in matter of arts, wars and religion. He persevered in the Italian Wars against the House of Habsburg and tried to suppress the Protestant Reformation, even as the Huguenot numbers were increasing drastically in France during his reign.

The Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559), which put an end to the Italian Wars, had mixed results: France renounced its claims to territories in Italy, but gained certain other territories, including the Pale of Calais and the Three Bishoprics. France failed to change the balance of power in Europe, as Spain remained the sole dominant power, but it did benefit from the division of the holdings of its ruler, Charles V, and from the weakening of the Holy Roman Empire, which Charles also ruled.

Henry suffered an untimely death in a jousting tournament held to celebrate the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis at the conclusion of the Eighth Italian War. The king's surgeon, Ambroise Paré, was unable to cure the infected wound inflicted by Gabriel de Montgomery, the captain of his Scottish Guard. He was succeeded in turn by three of his sons, whose ineffective reigns helped to spark the French Wars of Religion between Protestants and Catholics.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    53 681
    3 536
    3 200
    14 351
    1 063 897
  • Catherine de’ Medici (Ballet Comique de la Reine) - Château Chenonceau 4
  • History of France: Henry II (1547-1559), part 1
  • Catherine de' Medici Queen consort of France 1519–1589
  • Francis II of France
  • Britain's Bloodiest Dynasty: Betrayal - Part 1 of 4 (The Plantagenets Documentary) | Timeline

Transcription

At the age of fourteen, the Italian Catherine de’ Medici, member of one of the richest non-royal families in Europe, married same-aged Henri, Duke of Orleans, the future king Henri II. The wedding, a grand affair marked by extravagant display and gift-giving, took place in Marseille. On these wedding paintings Henri and Catherine seem to be of equal length. But the diminutive Catherine, had commissioned a cobbler to fashion her a pair of heels, both for fashion, and to increase her stature. It could be that she was one of the first women in Europe to wear high-heeled shoes. And she might have understood that high heels could function as an aphrodisiac. Unfortunately however, Catherine did not seem to have much of an aesthetic appeal. In any case Henri showed little interest in Catherine as a wife. As the future royal couple remained the first ten years of their marriage, childless, Diane the Poitiers, concerned by rumors of a possible repudiation of the queen, she had in control, made sure that Henri's visits to his wife’s bedroom would be frequent. And not unsuccessfully, Catherine eventually gave birth to no less than ten children. Her three oldest sons, François II, Charles IX, and Henri III, became king of France; two of her daughters married kings. However, Catherine outlived all her children except Henry III, who died seven months after her, and Marguerite, who inherited her robust health. None of her sons produced a successor for the throne. Chenonceau was used extensively by Catherine and other French Royalty for spectacular nighttime parties and hunts. Famous are the celebrations in 1560 marking the ascension to the throne of Catherine's son: François II, married with Mary Stewart, Queen of Scots. During the festivities the first ever fireworks display seen in France took place. In the late hours such parties became far from innocent. Catherine's patronage of the arts and theatre apparently stemmed from her Medici heritage. Famous are her court festivals, consisting of a series of lavish and spectacular entertainments, sometimes called "magnificences". These took place over several days, with a different entertainment each day. One of her court entertainments - staged in 1581 in Paris - is now considered to be the first ballet in Europe: the ‘Ballet Comique de la Reine’ (Royne), the narrative ballet of the queen. It was danced by Queen Louise, the wife of Catherine’s son, King Henri III, and the women of the court. The ballet was also known for its long length of over five hours and its elaborate and scattered stage design. The creator, Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx, sought to unite dramatic plot, song, dance, and spectacle in – what was called - the ‘antique manner’. The story developed through series of joyeuses entrées. Here the entrée of the two story high fountain chariot, with musicians and nude sirens below, and queen Louise, probably on the left with her ladies, above. The narrative of the ballet was based on the myth of Circe - in Greek mythology a Queen goddess - who turned men into beasts. This symbolized the state of civil war in France at the time. The production cost of the ballet was enormous: three million and six hundred thousand golden francs. Catherine’s hope was that her magnificences would conceal the fact that the French monarchy was in steep decline and on the verge of bankruptcy. Perhaps Catherine de’ Medicis’s great love among the arts was architecture. She was closely involved in the planning and supervising of all her building projects. Catherine also decided to enlarge Chenonceau and to embellish it in the architectural style at that time. In Catherine’s mind, Chenonceau was meant to become a king’s residence, just like Les Tuileries. She lavished vast sums on the castle and built in eight years a two story high gallery on the extension over the bridge. The architect was almost certainly Jean Bullant. The decorations show the fantasy of his late style. The floor of the magnificent ballroom is laid with enameled tiles of slate and chalk. Eighteen windows allow a beautiful view on the river. The upper gallery is now used for expositions. In 1577, during the feast given by Catherine in honor of her son, the new King, Henri III, the grand gallery was inaugurated (the painting is from later date) At the south side, the gallery ends rather abruptly. It is clear that the building is not finished, and at present the gallery leads to quiet, wooded gardens. Following the strict symmetrical principles of Renaissance architecture, probably the intended building would have looked somewhat like this. Inside the castle is a painting of Catherine de’ Medici as queen mother and in another room, named after her, stands her traveling bed, which could be easily moved to her other castles. On one of the mantelpieces you can find the initials of Henri and Catherine, on the left the "H" and on the right the double "C", together forming the famous royal monogram with the H and two C’s interlaced. Because the two C’s in the monogram can also be read as two D’s, it is at one time interpreted as a blatant homage to the king’s favorite, Diane de Poitiers. Indeed Diane’s initial, a double D, looks similar to the double C of Catherine de’ Medici. This makes that both monograms look the same. The similarity may have pleased Henri II, but it is none the less true that the royal monogram contained officially the initial of the king and that of the queen. It is often suggested that Catherine was very offended by this royal monogram, but the opposite possesses more reality. For the monogram can be seen in various other royal castles. Even 25 years after the death of her husband, on the so-called ‘Column of the Horoscope’, erected by Catherine in 1574, the monogram can be found, indicating that she was proud of it. This Doric column is possibly used for observation of the stars and is all that remains of here palace within the city walls of Paris: Hôtel de la Reine, designed by Jean Bullant, the man who probably also built the gallery of Chenonceau. Behind the column you can see the dome of the Produce Exchange of Paris. Like Diane de Poitiers, Catherine de’ Medici loved gardens and often conducted business in them. At Chenonceau, she laid out a garden next to the garden of Diane after a design of the potter Bernard Palissy. She also added waterfalls, menageries, aviaries, an artificial grotto, three parks, and planted lemon and orange trees, and thousand mulberry trees for silkworms. On 5 January 1589, Catherine died at the age of sixty-nine, probably from pleurisy. Little remains of the building projects she commissioned: the Tuileries Palace was destroyed in 1871 during the suppression of the Paris Commune, only one column is left of her palace: Hôtel de la Reine, also in Paris. Preserved is her garden and the gallery of Château Chenonceau – although this castle should have had much greater proportions.

Contents

Early years

Henry as a child
Henry as a child

Henry was born in the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, the son of King Francis I and Claude, Duchess of Brittany (daughter of Louis XII of France and Anne, Duchess of Brittany, and a second cousin of her husband).

His father was captured at the Battle of Pavia in 1525 by the forces of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and held prisoner in Spain.[1] To obtain his release, it was agreed that Henry and his older brother be sent to Spain in his place.[2] They remained in captivity for over four years.[3]

Henry married Catherine de' Medici, a member of the ruling family of Florence, on 28 October 1533, when they were both fourteen years old. At this time, his elder brother was alive and there was little prospect of Henry coming to the throne. The following year, he became romantically involved with a thirty-five-year-old widow, Diane de Poitiers. Henry and Diane had always been very close: the young lady had fondly embraced Henry on the day he, as a 7-year-old child, set off to captivity in Spain, and the bond had been renewed after his return to France.[4] In a tournament to honor his father's new bride, Eleanor, Henry and his older brother were dressed as chevaliers, in which Henry wore Diane's colors.[4]

Extremely confident, mature and intelligent, Diane left Catherine powerless to intervene.[5] She did, however, insist that Henry sleep with Catherine in order to produce heirs to the throne.[5]

When his elder brother Francis, the Dauphin and Duke of Brittany, died in 1536 after a game of tennis, Henry became heir apparent to the throne. He succeeded his father on his 28th birthday and was crowned King of France on 25 July 1547 at Reims Cathedral.[6]

Reign

Attitude towards Protestants

Henry's reign was marked by wars with Austria and the persecution of Protestants, mainly Calvinists known as Huguenots. Henry II severely punished them, particularly the ministers, for example by burning at the stake or cutting off their tongues for uttering heresies.

Henry II was made a Knight of the Garter, April 1515.[7]

The Edict of Châteaubriant (27 June 1551) called upon the civil and ecclesiastical courts to detect and punish all heretics and placed severe restrictions on Huguenots, including the loss of one-third of their property to informers, and confiscations. The Edict also strictly regulated publications by prohibiting the sale, importation or printing of any unapproved book. It was during the reign of Henry II that Huguenot attempts at establishing a colony in Brazil were made, with the short-lived formation of France Antarctique.[8]

Italian War of 1551–1559

Entrance of Henri II in Metz in 1552, after the signature of the Treaty of Chambord
Entrance of Henri II in Metz in 1552, after the signature of the Treaty of Chambord

The Eighth Italian War of 1551–1559, sometimes known as the Habsburg–Valois War, began when Henry declared war against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V with the intent of recapturing Italy and ensuring French, rather than Habsburg, domination of European affairs. Persecution of Protestants at home did not prevent Henry II from becoming allied with German Protestant princes at the Treaty of Chambord in 1552. Simultaneously, the continuation of his father's Franco-Ottoman alliance allowed Henry II to push for French conquests towards the Rhine while a Franco-Ottoman fleet defended southern France.[9] An early offensive into Lorraine was successful. Henry captured the three episcopal cities of Metz, Toul, and Verdun, and secured them by defeating the Habsburg army at the Battle of Renty in 1554.[10] However the attempted French invasion of Tuscany in 1553 was defeated at the Battle of Marciano.

Engraving of Henry II

After the abdication of Charles V in 1556, the Habsburg empire was split between Philip II of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I. The focus of Henry's conflict with the Habsburgs shifted to Flanders, where Phillip, in conjunction with Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin (1557). England's entry into the war later that year led to the French capture of Calais, and French armies plundered Spanish possessions in the Low Countries. Henry was nonetheless forced to accept the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis, in which he renounced any further claims to territories in Italy.[11]

The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis was signed between Henry and Elizabeth I of England on 2 April[12] and between Henry and Philip II of Spain on 3 April 1559 at Le Cateau-Cambrésis. Under its terms, France restored Piedmont and Savoy to the Duke of Savoy, but retained Saluzzo, Calais, and the bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun. Spain retained Franche-Comté. Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, married Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry, the sister of Henry II, and Philip II of Spain married Henry's daughter Elizabeth of Valois.[13]

Henry raised the young Mary, Queen of Scots, at his court, hoping to use her ultimately to establish a dynastic claim to Scotland. On 24 April 1558, Henry's fourteen-year-old son Francis was married to Mary in a union intended to give the future king of France not only the throne of Scotland, but also a claim to the throne of England. Henry had Mary sign secret documents, illegal in Scottish law, that would ensure Valois rule in Scotland even if she died without an heir.[14] Mary's claim to the English throne quickly became an issue when Mary I of England died later in 1558.

Patent innovation

Henry II
Henry II

Henry II introduced the concept of publishing the description of an invention in the form of a patent. The idea was to require an inventor to disclose his invention in exchange for monopoly rights to the patent. The description is called a patent "specification". The first patent specification was submitted by the inventor Abel Foullon for "Usaige & Description de l'holmetre" (a type of rangefinder). Publication was delayed until after the patent expired in 1561.[15]

Death

The fatal tournament between Henry II and Montgomery (Lord of "Lorges")
The fatal tournament between Henry II and Montgomery (Lord of "Lorges")

Henry II was an avid hunter and a participant in jousts and tournaments. On 30 June 1559, a tournament was held at the Place des Vosges to celebrate the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis with his longtime enemies, the Habsburgs of Austria, and to celebrate the marriage of his daughter Elisabeth of Valois to King Philip II of Spain. During a jousting match, King Henry, wearing the colors of his mistress Diane de Poitiers,[16] was wounded in the eye by a fragment of the splintered lance of Gabriel Montgomery, captain of the King's Scottish Guard.[17] Despite the efforts of royal surgeon Ambroise Paré, the king died of septicemia on 10 July 1559.[18] He was buried in a cadaver tomb in Saint Denis Basilica.

Tombs of Henry II of France and his wife Catherine de' Medici in Basilica of St Denis, Paris
Tombs of Henry II of France and his wife Catherine de' Medici in Basilica of St Denis, Paris

As Henry lay dying, Queen Catherine limited access to his bedside and denied his mistress Diane de Poitiers permission to see him, even though he repeatedly asked for her. Following his death, Catherine sent Diane into exile, where she lived in comfort on her own properties until her death.[16]

It was the practice to enclose the heart of the king in an urn. The Monument to the Heart of Henry II is in the collection of the Louvre, but was originally in the Chapel of Orleans beneath a pyramid. The original bronze urn holding the king's heart was destroyed during the French Revolution and a replica was made in the 19th century. The marble sculpture of the Three Graces holding the urn, executed from a single piece of marble by Germain Pilon, the sculptor to Catherine de' Medici, survives.[19]

Henry was succeeded by his sickly fifteen-year-old son, Francis II. Francis was married to sixteen-year-old Mary, Queen of Scots, who had been his childhood friend and fiancée since her arrival at the French court when she was five. Francis II died 18 months later in 1560, and Mary returned to Scotland the following summer. Francis II was succeeded by his ten-year-old brother Charles IX. His mother, Catherine de Medici, acted as Regent.

Ancestors and descendants

Catherine de' Medici bore 10 of Henry's children:[31] (See Children of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici)

Francis II, King of France, born 19 January 1544, married Mary Stuart Queen of Scots
Elizabeth of France, born 2 April 1545, married Philip II, King of Spain.
Claude of France, born 12 November 1547, married Charles III, Duke of Lorraine.
Louis, Duke of Orléans, born 3 February 1549, died 24 October 1549.
Charles IX, King of France, born 27 June 1550.
Henry III, King of France, born 19 September 1551, also briefly King of Poland.
Margaret of France, born 14 May 1553, married Henry IV, King of France.
Hercules, Duke of Anjou, born 18 March 1555, later known as Francis, Duke of Alençon and Anjou.
Victoria of France, born 24 June 1556, died 17 August 1556.
Joan of France, stillborn 24 June 1556.

Henry II also had three illegitimate children:

Diane, duchesse d'Angoulême (1538–1619). At the age of fourteen, the younger Diane married Orazio Farnese, Duke of Castro,[33] who died in battle in 1553. Her second marriage was to François, Duke of Montmorency.[34]
Henri d'Angoulême (1551 – June 1586).[36] He was legitimized and became governor of Provence.
Henri de Saint-Rémy (1557–1621).[37] He was given the title of Count of Saint-Rémy. One of his last descendants was Jeanne de Valois-Saint-Rémy, Countess de la Motte, famous for her role in the Affair of the Diamond Necklace at the court of Louis XVI.

Prophecy

Royal styles of
King Henry II
France moderne.svg
Reference style His Most Christian Majesty
Spoken style Your Most Christian Majesty
Alternative style Monsieur le Roi

Nostradamus (1503–1566), a French apothecary and astrological writer known for his prophecies, is said by most commentators to have become famous when one of his quatrains was construed as a prediction of the death of King Henry II:

CI, Q 35 The young lion shall overcome the older one,
on the field of combat in single battle,
He shall pierce his eyes in a golden cage,
Two forces one, then he shall die a cruel death.

But, in fact, the link was first proposed in print only in 1614,[38] fifty-five years after the event and forty-eight after Nostradamus' death; thus it qualifies as a postdiction, or vaticinium ex eventu. The Italian astrologer Luca Gaurico, a contemporary of Nostradamus, also later claimed to have foretold Henry II's death, though in fact he had predicted "a most happy and green old age" for the king.[39]

Portrayals

Henri or Henry has had three notable portrayals on the screen. He was played by a young Roger Moore in the 1956 film Diane, opposite Lana Turner in the title role and Marisa Pavan as Catherine de Medici.[40] In the 1998 film Ever After, the Prince Charming figure who is portrayed by Dougray Scott, shares his name with the historical monarch.[41] In the 2013 CW series Reign he is played by Alan van Sprang.[42]

Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ Tazón 2003, p. 16.
  2. ^ Knecht 1984, p. 189.
  3. ^ Watkins 2009, pp. 79–80.
  4. ^ a b Wellman 2013, p. 197.
  5. ^ a b Wellman 2013, p. 200.
  6. ^ Thevet 2010, pp. 24–25.
  7. ^ Jennifer Loach, Edward VI, Yale University Press, page 107.
  8. ^ Felix & Juall 2016, p. 2.
  9. ^ Inalcik 1995, p. 328.
  10. ^ Thevet 2010, p. 92.
  11. ^ Konnert 2006, p. 97.
  12. ^ Nolan 2006, p. 127.
  13. ^ Knecht 2000, p. 1.
  14. ^ Guy 2012, p. 91.
  15. ^ Frumkin 1945, p. 143.
  16. ^ a b Wellman 2013, p. 213.
  17. ^ Baumgartner 1988, p. 250.
  18. ^ Baumgartner 1988, p. 252.
  19. ^ Goldberg 1966, p. 206-218.
  20. ^ a b Knecht 1984, pp. 1–2.
  21. ^ a b Anselme 1726, p. 131.
  22. ^ a b c d e Adams, Tracy (2010). The Life and Afterlife of Isabeau of Bavaria. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 255. 
  23. ^ a b c Gicquel, Yvonig (1986). Alain IX de Rohan, 1382-1462: un grand seigneur de l'âge d'or de la Bretagne (in French). Éditions Jean Picollec. p. 480. ISBN 9782864770718. Retrieved 28 June 2018. 
  24. ^ a b Jackson-Laufer, Guida Myrl (1999). Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 231. 
  25. ^ a b c d Wilson, Katharina M. (1991). An Encyclopedia of Continental Women Writers. Taylor & Francis. p. 258. ISBN 9780824085476. Retrieved 28 June 2018. 
  26. ^ a b Robin, Diana Maury; Larsen, Anne R.; Levin, Carole (2007). Encyclopedia of Women in the Renaissance: Italy, France, and England. ABC-CLIO. p. 20. ISBN 978-1851097722. 
  27. ^ a b Palluel-Guillard, André. "La Maison de Savoie" (in French). Conseil Savoie Mont Blanc. Retrieved 28 June 2018. 
  28. ^ a b Leguai, André (2005). "Agnès de Bourgogne, duchesse de Bourbon (1405?-1476)". Les ducs de Bourbon, le Bourbonnais et le royaume de France à la fin du Moyen Age [The dukes of Bourbon, the Bourbonnais and the kingdom of France at the end of the Middle Ages] (in French). Yzeure: Société bourbonnaise des études locales. pp. 145–160. 
  29. ^ a b Anselme 1726, p. 207.
  30. ^ a b Desbois, François Alexandre Aubert de la Chenaye (1773). Dictionnaire de la noblesse (in French). 6 (2nd ed.). p. 452. Retrieved 28 June 2018. 
  31. ^ Anselme 1726, pp. 134–136.
  32. ^ Merrill 1935, p. 133.
  33. ^ Baumgartner 1988, p. 70.
  34. ^ Lanza 2007, p. 29.
  35. ^ Sealy 1981, p. 206.
  36. ^ Wellman 2013, p. 212.
  37. ^ Knecht 2014, p. 38.
  38. ^ Nostradamus 1614.
  39. ^ Thorndike 1941, p. 101.
  40. ^ Diane at the TCM Movie Database
  41. ^ Ever After at AllMovie
  42. ^ Wilford, Denette (October 16, 2013). "'Reign' Cast Gets Down And Dirty With Details on Royal TV Show". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 7, 2014. 

References

  • Anselme de Sainte-Marie, Père (1726). Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France [Genealogical and chronological history of the royal house of France] (in French). 1 (3rd ed.). Paris: La compagnie des libraires. pp. 134–136. 
  • Baumgartner, Frederic J (1988). Henry II, King of France, 1547-1559. Duke University Press. 
  • Inalcik, Halil (1995). "The Heyday and Decline of the Ottoman Empire". In Holt, P.M.; Lambton, Ann Katherine Swynford; Lewis, Bernard. The Cambridge History of Islam. Vol. 1A. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Felix, Regina R.; Juall, Scott D., eds. (2016). Cultural Exchanges Between Brazil and France. Purdue University Press. 
  • Frumkin, M. (1945). "The Origin of Patent". Journal of the Patent Office Society. XXVII (No. 3 March). 
  • Knecht, R.J. (1984). Francis I. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Knecht, R.J. (2000). The French Civil Wars, 1562–1598. Pearson Education Ltd. 
  • Knecht, R. J. (2014). Catherine De'Medici. Routledge. 
  • Konnert, Mark (2006). Early Modern Europe: The Age of Religious War, 1559–1715. University of Toronto Press. 
  • Goldberg, Victoria L. (1966). "Graces, Muses, and Arts: The Urns of Henry II and Francis I". Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 29. 
  • Guy, John (2012). My Heart is my Own: The Life of Mary Queen of Scots. Penguin Books Ltd. 
  • Lanza, Janine M (2007). From Wives to Widows in Early Modern Paris: Gender, Economy, and Law. Ashgate Publishing. 
  • Merrill, Robert V. (1935). "Considerations on "Les Amours de I. du Bellay"". Modern Philology. 33 (No. 2 Nov.). 
  • Nolan, Cathal J., ed. (2006). "Cateau-Cambresis". The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000–1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Vol. 1. Greenwood Press. 
  • Nostradamus, César (1614). Histoire et Chronique de Provence. Simon Rigaud. 
  • Sealy, Robert J. (1981). The Palace Academy of Henry III. Droz. 
  • Tazón, Juan E. (2003). The life and times of Thomas Stukeley (c.1525–78). Ashgate Publishing Ltd. 
  • Thevet, André (2010). Portraits from the French Renaissance and the Wars of Religion. Translated by Benson, Edward. Truman State University Press. 
  • Thorndike, Lynn (1941). History of Magic and Experimental Science. Volume 6. New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved 23 October 2017. 
  • Watkins, John (2009). "Marriage a la Mode, 1559:Elisabeth de Valois, Elizabeth I, and the Changing Practice of Dynastic Marriage". In Levin, Carole; Bucholz, R. O. Queens and Power in Medieval and Early Modern England. University of Nebraska Press. 
  • Wellman, Kathleen (2013). Queens and Mistresses of Renaissance France. Yale University Press. 

External links

Henry II of France
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 31 March 1519 Died: 10 July 1559
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Francis I
King of France
31 March 1547 – 10 July 1559
Succeeded by
Francis II
French nobility
Vacant
Title last held by
Louis II
Duke of Orléans
1519–1536
Succeeded by
Charles II
Preceded by
Francis III
Duke of Brittany
10 August 1536 – 31 March 1547
Merged in crown
French royalty
Preceded by
Francis
Dauphin of France
10 August 1536 – 31 March 1547
Succeeded by
Francis
This page was last edited on 9 September 2018, at 18:29
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.