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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Kimek or Kimäk (Arabic: Kīmāk‎) was a Turkic or Tungusic tribe known from Arab and Persian medieval geographers as one of the seven tribes in the Kimek confederation in the period of 850-1050 AD. The other six constituent tribes, according to Abu Said Gardizi (d. 1061), were the Kipchaks, Tatars, Bayandur, Lanikaz, and Ajlad.

Ethnonym

According to Marquart, the name Kīmāk (pronounced Kimäk) is derived from Iki-Imäk, "the two Imäk", probably referring to the first two clans of the federation.[1] However, Golden (1992) stated that the /k/ > ∅, resulting in Kimek > İmek, was indeed attested in several Medieval Kipchak dialects.

On the other hand, Pritsak attempted to connect the Kimek with the Proto-Mongolic Kumo of the Kumo Xi confederation (庫莫奚; Middle Chinese: kʰuoH-mɑk̚-ɦei; *qu(o)mâġ-ġay, from *quo "yellowish" plus denominal suffix *-mAk); Golden judges Pritsak's reconstruction "highly problematic", as Pritsak did not explain how Quomâġ might have produced Kimek; still, Golden considers the connection with the Proto-Mongolic world seriously.[2]

Mahmud al-Kashgari does not mention any Kimek, but Yamāk.[1] Kashgari further remarked that Kara-Khanids like him considered Yemeks to be "a tribe of the Kipchaks", though contemporary Kipchaks considered themselves a different party.[3] The ethnonyms Yemäk might have been transcribed already in the mid 7th century by Chinese authors as 鹽莫 Yánmò < Middle Chinese *jiäm-mâk,[4][5] referring a Tiele group who initially inhabited northwestern Mongolia before migrating to north of Altay Mountains and Irtysh zone. Though many scholars, including Golden, identified Kimeks with Yemeks, Tishin pointed out that the Medieval Kipchak dialectal sound-change /k/ > ∅ had not happened in the mid-7th century Old Turkic.

History

A part of the Chuyue tribe intermixed with the Göktürks and formed a tribe called Shatuo, which lived in southern Dzungaria, to the west of Lake Barkol.[6] In the Western Turkic Khaganate the Chuy tribes occupied a privileged position of being voting members of the confederation. The Shatuo separated from the Chuyue in the middle of the 7th century, and presently are a well known ethnic group, listed in censuses taken in Tzarist Russia and in the 20th century.

After the disintegration in 743 AD of the Western Turkic Kaganate, a part of the Chuy tribes remained in its successor, the Uyghur Kaganate (740-840), and another part retained their independence.[7] During the Uyghur period, the Chuy tribes consolidated into the nucleus of the tribes known as Kimaks in the Arab and Persian sources.[8] Lev Gumilyov identified one Duolu Chuy tribe, Chumukun 处木昆 (< *čomuqun "immersed in water, drowned")[9] with the Kimeks as both coincidentally occupied the same territory, and that Chumukun were known only to Chinese and Kimek only to Persians & Arabs.[10]. The head of the Kimek confederation was titled Shad Tutuk, i.e. "Prince Governing, or Ruling”.[11] By the middle of the eighth century, the Kimeks occupied territory between the Ural River and Emba River, and from the Aral sea and Caspian steppes, to the Zhetysu area.

Kimek Khanate

After the 840 AD breakup of the Uyghur Kaganate, the Kimeks headed a new political tribal union, creating a new Kimek state. Abu Said Gardizi (d. 1061) wrote that the Kimak federation consisted of seven tribes: Kimeks (Imak, Yimaek), Eymür, Tatars, Bayandur, Kipchak, Lanikaz and Ajlad. Later, an expanded Kimek Kaganate partially controlled the territories of the Oguz, Kangly, and Bagjanak tribes, and in the west bordered the Khazar and Bulgar territories. The Kimaks led a semi-settled life, while the Kipchaks were predominantly nomadic herders.

In the beginning of the eleventh century the Kipchak Khanlyk moved west, occupying lands that had earlier belonged to the Oguz. After seizing the Oguz lands, the Kipchaks grew considerably stronger, and the Kimeks became dependents of the Kipchaks. The fall of the Kimek Kaganate in the middle of the 11th century was caused by the migration of Central Asian Mongolian-speaking nomads, displaced by the Mongolian-speaking Khitan state of Liao, which formed in 916 AD in Northern China. The Khitan nomads occupied the Kimek and Kipchak lands west of the Irtysh. In the eleventh to twelfth centuries a Mongol-speaking Naiman tribe displaced the Kimeks and Kipchaks from the Mongolian Altai and Upper Irtysh as it moved west.

Between the ninth and thirteenth centuries Kimek tribes were nomadizing in the steppes of the modern Astrakhan Oblast of Russia. A portion of the Kimeks that left the Ob-Irtysh interfluvial region joined the Kipchak confederation that survived until the Mongol invasion, and later united with the Nogai confederation of the Kipchak descendants. The last organized tribes of the Nogai in Russian sources were dispersed with the Russian construction of zaseka bulwarks in the Don and Volga regions in the 17th-18th centuries, which separated the cattle breeding populations from their summer pastures. Another part of the Nogai were deported from the Budjak steppes after Russian conquest of Western Ukraine and Moldova in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century.

Ethnolinguistic belonging

According to C. E. Bosworth (2007)[12] and R. Turaeva (2015) the Kimek tribe was Turkic.[13]

According to R. Preucel and S. Mrozowki (2010)[14] and S. Divitçioğlu (2010),[15] the Kimek tribe was Tungusic.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b E.J.W. Gibb memorial series. 1937. Our source seems to suggest that there were eleven divisions of the tribe.1 The name Kimak (to be pronounced Kimak), according to Marquart, is an abbreviation of Ikt-Imdk "the two Imak" (probably with reference to the first two clans ..
  2. ^ Peter B. Golden (1992). An Introduction to the History of the Turkic People. O. Harrassowitz. p. 202.
  3. ^ Golden, Peter B. "Qıpčaq" in Turcology and Linguistics Hacettepe University, Ankara (2014). p. 188
  4. ^ Tishin, V.V (2018). ["Kimäk and Chù-mù-kūn (处木昆): Notes on an Identification" https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2018.46.3.107-113]. p. 110
  5. ^ Golden, Peter B. (2017) "Qıpčak" in Turcology and Linguistics. p. 187
  6. ^ Gumilev, L.N. "Ancient Turks", Moscow, Science, 1967, Ch.20 http://gumilevica.kulichki.net/OT/ot20.htm
  7. ^ Faizrakhmanov, G. "Ancient Turks in Siberia and Central Asia"
  8. ^ S.A. Pletneva, "Kipchaks", p.26
  9. ^ Tishin, V.V (2018). ["Kimäk and Chù-mù-kūn (处木昆): Notes on an Identification" https://doi.org/10.17746/1563-0110.2018.46.3.107-113]. p. 107-113
  10. ^ Gumilev L.N. Ancient Turks, Moscow, 'Science', 1967, Ch.27 http://gumilevica.kulichki.net/OT/ot27.htm
  11. ^ Faizrakhmanov, G. "Ancient Turks in Sibiria and Central Asia"
  12. ^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth (2007). The Turks in the Early Islamic World. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-86078-719-8. Kimak - well-known Turkic tribe
  13. ^ Rano Turaeva (19 November 2015). Migration and Identity in Central Asia: The Uzbek Experience. Routledge. pp. 37–. ISBN 978-1-317-43007-0.
  14. ^ Preucel, Robert; Mrozowski, Stephen (May 10, 2010). Contemporary Archaeology in Theory: The New Pragmatism (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 296. ISBN 1405158328.
  15. ^ Divitçioğlu, Sencer (2010). Sekiz Türk Boyu Üzerine Gözlemler. Topkapı/İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası - Kultur Yayinlari. pp. 87–88. ISBN 978-605-360-098-5.

References

External links

This page was last edited on 2 April 2020, at 14:04
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