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Kelteminar culture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Kelteminar culture (5500–3500 BCE)[1] was a Neolithic archaeological culture of sedentary fishermen occupying the semi-desert and desert areas of the Karakum and Kyzyl Kum deserts and the deltas of the Amu Darya and Zeravshan rivers[2] in the territories of ancient Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, dated to the 6th-3rd millennium BCE.[3]

The culture was discovered and first excavated in 1939 by the USSR Chorasmian Archaeological and Ethnographic Expedition under leadership of S.P. Tolstoy, who first described it. It is named after a site of the same name. The Kelteminar culture was replaced by the Tazabagyab culture.

The Kelteminar people practised a mobile hunting, gathering and fishing subsistence system. Over time, they adopted stockbreeding. With the Late Glacial warming, up to the Atlantic Phase of the Post-Glacial Optimum, Mesolithic groups moved north into this area from the Hissar (6000–4000 BCE). These groups brought with them the bow and arrow and the dog, elements of what Kent Flannery[4] has called the "broad-spectrum revolution".[5]

Scientists hold that Kelteminar culture is related to the Pit–Comb Ware culture and belongs to the Finno-Ugric peoples.[6][7]

The Kelteminar people lived in huge houses (size 24m x 17m and height 10m), which housed the whole tribal community of about 100-120 people. They adorned themselves with beads made of shells. They manufactured stone axes and miniature trapezoidal flint arrowheads. For cooking, they used clay vessels produced without the potter's wheel.

The Kelteminar economy was based on sedentary fishing and hunting.

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  • ✪ 1) İslamiyet Öncesi Türk Tarihi 1.Kısım, (Hunlar, Göktürkler, İskitler, Orta Asyadan Göç ) history

Transcription

Hi Warm Greetings from Turkey. We will study, whole Turkish History in this video series. My friends, Today we are studying Turkish history before Islam. We will study, very begining of Turkish History. We will talk about central asia, homeland of Turks. We will examine the reasons and results of migration from central asia. Before Christ We will study Asia Hun state, Europe Hun State, and Göktürk States. You can ask your questions at comment box, after that video lesson of Turkish history. I will try to anwer all questions. Ok Let’s begin Turkish History Before Islam I. STATEMENT OF TURKISH NAME • Different views have been put forward on the meaning of the Turkish word. These views can be listed as follows: * China resources - ► Helm * Iranian resources - ► Good people * In Arab sources - ► The man sitting on the seashore, abandoned * Uighur texts -> Power, force Age of Maturity in Divanü Lûgât-it Türk According to Gokalp, - »Prophetic, genitive, law, and conqueror * • According to Müller - ►The honor, the owner of the order According to Dorfer -> State-affiliated folk According to Vvamberey - ► To turn • The Turkish language is also common in China, Persia (Iran), Arab, Byzantine and Indian sources. This situation proves that Turks are interacting with these communities. • The Turkish name was first used as a state name in political life by Göktürks. • Byzantine sources for Anatolia were used as the geographical name of Turkey after the Battle of Malazgirt in 1071. • The knowledge of Turkish history was mostly learned from foreign sources, the Turks' writings were used late, and nomadic life and migrations were caused. • The main homeland of the Turks is Central Asia. Central Asia spans the Caspian Sea and the Itil in the west, the Kingan Mountains in the east, Siberia in the north, and the Hindikush and the Dark Mountains in the south. Within this region, the mainland of the Turks is generally regarded as the region between Ural-Altay Dağları and Aral Lake. The reason why the main house of the Turks can not be precisely identified is that the Turks must be spread over a wide range of nomadic lifestyles. • Many communities in Central Asia have been forced to leave their motherland and migrate to other regions over time. A. Nomadic Life and Characteristics • The fact that the way of life is difficult and moving causes military and / or warrior traits to develop. • No architectural development, artwork is shaped on stone-tangible material. • The economy is based on animal husbandry and commercialization. • Oral law has been developed and written law has not been developed. • The agricultural economy has not improved. • There are no social class differences and slavery. • There is social equality, justice and gender equality. • Common ownership has developed rather than private ownership. • Warcraft, independence and nationalism features have evolved. • Prison sentences have been short-lived. There are no long punishments. III. TURKISH MIGRATIONS • BC XVI. The migrations that started in the century continued in the later periods of Milat. A. MIGRATION TRAVEL Increase of drought due to climate change, reduction of pastures (Economic) * Independent feeling of living, the idea of going to places where freedom is to live under the sovereignty of another community (Political) Turkish bodily self-imposed control over each other (Political) 0 Increase of animal diseases and related economic troubles (Economic) Increase in population and accordingly negative influence of economy (Economic) * The pressure of external forces (China, Mongolian, Tunguz) (Political) . Desire to seize new places (Political-social) * Understanding of Jihan domination (Religious - Political) B. THE RESULTS OF MIGRATION * • Turks who migrated from Central Asia were settled in Anatolia, Suriye, Central Europe and Siberia. Turks have also carried their culture to the regions. Thus, Turkish culture spreads to different geographies. * Turks have established new states in places where they have migrated. The existence of Turks in a vast geography and the establishment of numerous states have made it difficult to study Turkish history as a whole. * Turks have set examples in terms of state administration and military organization. * Some Turkish peoples who migrated to regions far from the main territory lost their national selves. It is the most important element that facilitates the migration of Turkish communities. The Turks ensured that they were successful in war. The fact that the Turks possessed a warrior identity made it easier for them to establish sovereignty in the regions they emigrated to. The Turks, who have an organizational structure, have prepared an environment for the growth. And, survival of many Turkish states contemporary with each other in the same period as a result of immigrations. The concept of migration refers to individual, economic, social, political reasons, or to move communities from one country to another, from one settlement to another. Nomadic life means changing places with tents, animals and other means in a certain area depending on different conditions, not being localized. Turks migrated to Central Asia and other geographical regions for different reasons. This movement is suitable for immigration. The nomadic lifestyle is an example of the way the Turks live in Central Asia. Migrant and nomadic concepts should not be confused with questions that come to mind during examinations. FIRST CULTURAL CENTERS ON CENTRAL ASIA A. ANAV CULTURE (4500 - 1000 BC) • It is the oldest culture of Central Asia. Surveys reveal that people living around this culture have passed through settled conditions and have been living in brick houses. B. KELTEMINAR CULTURE (3000 BC) • Central Asian culture in the Amuderya Delta pouring into Lake Aral. Catches related to fishing and hunting were found. AFANESYEVO CULTURE (3000 - 1700 BC) This culture is the oldest culture of the Turks. Afanesian society is a hunter and a warrior. As a result, various copper objects, needles from the bone, arrowheads from the cigarette lighter were found. D. ANDRONOVA KULTURU (1700 - 1200 BC) • For the first time around this culture of Afanesyevo culturally developed as a developed form, there is a material made of bronze and gold. This culture is the Central Asian culture with the widest spread. Turkish History Before Islam E. KARASUK KULTURU (1200 - 700 BC) • In Central Asian cultures, iron was first processed in this culture. This cultural community has used trolley-covered four wheeled cars. F. TAGAR KULTURU (BC 700 - BC 100) • The cultures in the region are the most developed. They have sharp double daggers and items such as pins, bracelets, earrings. V. FIRST TURKISH STATES AND COMMUNITIES A. iSKiTLAR (CENTURY VIII. CENTURY - II. ) • It is the first Turkish community known in history. In this community, Persia and Saka gave the names of Scythians and Greeks. • They have advanced as far as the Danube River as a result of their migration to the West. • They fought with the Persians. • It is the first Turkish community considered to have domesticated the horse. They used horse carts. • They used horse harnesses. • The most famous rulers are Alpar Tunga. • These and Alpar Tunga epics are important literary works of the Scythians. • Alpr Tunga's name is "Shahname" in Afrasab. • The first examples of tombstones, called Balbal, belong to the Kingdom. • A term was ruled by a female ruler named "Tomris". • They are also known as "Steppe Jewelers" because they work well with the gold mine. • It is the first ballroom to introduce trousers and belt buckles to the world. Settled in Ötüken, which is accepted as a "happy nation". It is the first organized Turkish state in Central Asia. B. ASIA HUN STATE (BIG HUN STATE CENTURY FOURTH CENTURY – A.D. 216) I'm Mete Han I made the throne in 209 BC. I was the greatest heir to the throne, but my father sent me as a Yüe-cilere hostage under the guidance of a step mother. Then he attacked the Yüe-çile. The aim was to kill me. But I ran out of stealing one of them. I killed my father by moving into the hands of the united states and I became head of state. In the West, I have more than 26 peoples and I am a sister. All the tribes are joined together like a single family. The first ruler known is Teoman. There were intense struggles between the Chinese and the Mongolian Tungus in the Teoman period. Asia lies at the base of the struggle of the Huns against the Chinese, who wants to be the Silk Road. • The Chinese have begun to build the "Chinese Wall" to lighten the Hun pressure from the north. • The first information on the Asian Huns is in Chinese sources. This has been caused by the fact that the Asian Huns did not use the writing. In addition, the date of the founding foundation is not clearly known due to the written cultural passages. 1. Mete Han Period (209 BC - 174 BC) • His father struggled with Teoman and handed over the pound. • For the first time in Central Asia, Turkish political unity. During the Mete Han period, the Turkish tribe living in Central Asia was taken under control. • The Hun Empire survives the most advanced period. • Mete Han used the title "Tanhu" for the first time. • The congress (toy) which is effective in management has been established. • Three organizations have been implemented in the management. • Mete Han, who established the first orderly army of Turkish history, has created the Decade System which is also used in today's armies. The army has put on a uniform dress. • Whistling arrows are used. • China is under domination. Although Mete Han has taken China under the Aegean, it has not settled in this country and has only signed China with the agreement. The reason for this policy of Mete Han is not wanting to lose the self in crowded Chinese population. In addition, Mete Han, following a nationalist policy, expressed the love of the nation and motherland. According to the treaty with China, the Hun ruler would marry a Chinese prense. This treaty is known in history as a treaty through first kinship. Mete Han is the first ruler in the history of the Turk. Trade agreements with China have been made. 2. Period of Dissolution • After the death of Mete Han, Ki-ok succeeded in marrying a Chinese prince to go to kinship with China, which made it easier for the Chinese forces to wear off the Turkish state. • As a result of the Chinese intrigues during this period, the Chinese favors increased among the Huns. • Hohanyeh, the ruler at a time when Chinese repression increased, agreed to join China, his brother, Qi-chi, opposed it and declared that he did not recognize Hohanyeh's sovereignty. • Hohanyeh insisted on the idea that the Huns were divided into two, the Qi-Qi supporters seized the capital. • Hohanyeh and their descendants formed the South Huns. Çi-Çi supporters also brought the North Huns to the square. • The North Huns were destroyed by the Sienpians. • The Huns of the South were destroyed by the Chinese. After the collapse of the Asian Huns, Tabgaçlar, Avarlar, Şaşşan advances and Akhuns emerged. 3. Migrations of the tribes (375) • After the disintegration of the Asian Hun State, some Huns advance in the western direction under the leadership of Balamir, and the tribes (such as Ostrogot, Vizigot) who push forward during this progress are forced to move towards Europe. 4. Consequences of Tribal Migration * The ethnic structure of Av-rupa, the result of the fusion of tribes in Europe, has changed and has been laid on the foundations of present-day European states. * - First Age closed, Middle Age opened. * - The Roman Empire was divided into East and West Rome in 395. Thus, the event of the Roman Empire in Europe came to an end. (Western Rome was destroyed in 476). * The barbarian tribesmen who came to Europe have weakened the power of the central kingdoms. Thus, during the Middle Ages the power of feudalism, which will be the form of political administration of Europe, has been weakened. * Due to the lack of authority in Europe, the Catholic Church became stronger and the dogmatic system of thought (scholastic thought) became effective. * Christianity spread among the tribes coming to Europe. The foundations of today's European nations have been laid. The displacement of the tribes led to the change of the ethnic structure of Europe. * Balamir established the European Hun State. Feudalism The disputes among the kingdoms that were established after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire set the stage for the birth of feudalism. While the influences of the Tribe Migration continued, the people and large landowners went under the protection of the hard-line people. People who enter into the protection of the people are filtered, and patronized the patronage. So IX. A hierarchy has developed every century. The senators have begun to grant the right to process a land for rent. Feudalism (feudalism) has emerged in this way. One of the most important features of Feodaliten was the chats and beasts that the senators lived. Feudalism continued throughout the Middle Ages, ending with the introduction of firearms C. EUROPEAN HUN STATE (375 - 469) • They emigrated to Av-rupa from north of the Black Sea under the leadership of Balamir. In this period, the Turks reached the Danube (375). • After Balamir, he was Ulucus, head of the European Huns (378). A two-stage policy was adopted during this period: to suppress Eastern Rome and to establish good relations with Western Rome. • During the Uldız period, Turks set foot in Anatolia for the first time. • Following Uldiz, the Huns were accompanied by Karaton, Rua, and then Attila and Bleda. They ruled according to the fact that the nation is in a dual state. • The most brilliant period of the European Huns began with Attila. Attila was described by Christians in Europe as "The Whip of God". • Eastern Rome (Byzantine) and Margos (434) Treaty were signed in the Attila period. • According to this treaty, also known as Constantia Peace * The Huns captured by the Huns and the Huns who abandoned their countries in various ways will not be accepted into the Eastern Roman Empire. Roman refugees will pay ransom to the European Huns for each of the prisoners. * Trade will be done under equal conditions. Taxes from the Romans will be increased. • Attila has organized subsequent flights to the Balkans. During these campaigns he signed the Anatolian Peace with the Eastern Roman Empire (447). • According to this treaty, the amount of taxes paid by East Rome has been increased to three times. • Attila, who controlled the Byzantine Empire, turned to Western Rome. But no definitive result was obtained from the Gallic Expedition (451). Attila Rome, who entered Italy the following year, abandoned invading Rome as a result of the Pope's intervention. The reasons for this, * It is a sacred moment for Rome's Christian world, Believing that West Rome broke the power, * The Sasani Devle-ti, which he sees as a danger in the east, is a reluctance to go out of favor. After Attila's death (453), the children Ilek, Dengisik and Imek did not manage well and were dragged into devastating demolition. Latin and German languages were also mentioned in the Hun court. Huns who migrated to Europe were accused because they were not supported by new immigration from the center. D. GÖKTÜRK STATE 1. I. Göktürk State (552 - 659) • Established by Bumin Kagan in Ötüken. • Bumin Kagan has taken the title of "Province Kagan". • After the Huns, they ruled Central Asia, bringing the Avar, who ruled Central Asia, ineffective. The Göktürks, who provided Silk Road supervision, also chose China as a taxpayer. • They gathered the Turkish people who are living in scattered residence and founded Turkish political union. • Bumin Kagan has directed be-raber with his brother Istemi Yabgu. This type of management is called dual organization. • They lived their most powerful period with Mukan Kagan. • Mukan Kagan governed with his uncle, İstemi Yabgu. • In the Mukan Kagan period, the Avarlar was removed from the middle and the borders of the country expanded. During the same period, China was under pressure, and campaigns on Akhun were planned. • We want the control of the Istemi Yabgu Silk Yolu, who governs the western wing of the country, to be in the hands of the Turks. For this purpose, he established a business alliance with the Sassanid State established in Iran and provided the destruction of the Akhun State. As a result of the Sassanis' empowerment on the Silk Road, they also defeated the Sassanes by doing business with Byzantium. (It is the equilibrium policy of Yebgu.) • After the death of Mukan Kagan, Tapo passed the crown instead. Tapo Kagan has accepted Buddhism and this situation has caused him to be contrary to his people. In the “işbara Kağan” period which replaced Tapo Kağan, China tried to assimilate Turks. I'm In “işbara Kagan” The Chinese Emperor asked me not to give up the Turkish customs. I said to myself, "Our customs and traditions have been going on since ancient times, so I can not afford to change them." The Gokturk State was divided into 582 in 582, unable to bear more of China 's fragmented - ruling, politics. The East Gokturk State entered the Chinese sovereignty in 630 and the Western Gokturk State in 659. In 639, the Turks rebelled against the Chinese captivity under the leadership of Kursad. This rebellion, known as the Tarihe Kürşad Uprising (Revolution), is known as the first struggle of the Turks for independence. Although this revolt failed, it was an example of the struggles of the Turks for independence. This period when the Göktürks lost their independence is also referred to as Matem Period in some sources. 2. II. Göktürk (Kutluk) State (682 - 744) • It was founded by Kutluk Kagan in Ötüken. • II. The founding of the Göktürk State was carried out on the basis of the independence struggle initiated against Chinise . The “Kürşad” rebellion • Kutluk Kağan is known as İlteriş Kağan (compiled, collecting) because he united the scattered Turkish dynasties as a result of the rebellion. Çağ Khan said that “ I am the young son of Çağ Khan of East Göktürk Kağanı. In the tenth year of our bondage with our 39 soldiers, we acted to put an end to this struggle that the Turks could not accept. We did not know that one day our blood flowing in the struggle for the capture of the emperor as a prisoner of the Chinese palace would bring our people to freedom and turn them into the first Turkish independence movement centuries later! “ • During the Kutluk Kagan Period, campaigns were organized in China and the state's center was moved to Karakur. • When Kutluk Kagan dies the children are wise and the Kültigin is small, instead his brother Kapgan Kagan has passed. • The vizier “Tonyokuk” helped Kapgan Kagan. In this period, attempted to seize the region of Maveran River. The war with China continued. After the death of Kapgan Kagan, his son İnal passed by. However, the sages of Bilge and Kültigin opposed İnal's rule. With the help of Tonyokuk, Inal was replaced by the Wise, the ka. During the period of Bilge Kagan, he lived the brightest period of the country. In this period, the western of the country was directed by Kültigin, the brother of Bilge Kağan Bilge Kagan and Kültigin's most important deputies in the state affairs are Vizier Tonyukuk. The formation of the vizier's office shows that importance is attached to bureaucratic organization. In 720, Bilge Kagan defeated the Chinese army in the battle of the battlefield. Those who managed after Bilge Kagan's death did not succeed. II. Göktürk State, Uyghur, Karluk and Basmil communities were demolished in 744. Place and importance of Göktürk in Turkish history It is the first Turkish state to use the name "Turk". As a result of initiating the struggle for independence and ensuring unity between the two sides, the nation became conscious. Göktürk I, the first national alphabet of Turkish history, formed Orhun / Orhon alphabet. They wrote Orhun Abideleri (Göktürk Kitapları), the first national resource of Turks. Chinese, Byzantines and Sasaniler. Ergenekon and Bozkurt epic are the most important oral literary works of Göktürk. They used the Tötö Canal to grow vegetables and fruit. They used money. There is a woman figure in her money. The use of the Turkic name as the name of the state, the revolt for independence and the formation of a national alphabet are proofs of having a nationalist structure. In addition, the Göktürkler is the Turkish state that reaches the widest borders in Central Asia. Thank you. We will continue with Uygur Türk State at next video Thank you for watching, Have nice day. Let’s meet at next lesson.

References

  1. ^ Lamberg-Karlovsky, CC (1994), "The Bronze Age khanates of Central Asia" (ANTIQUITY-OXFORD)
  2. ^ Whitney Coolidge, Jennifer. 2005. Southern Turkmenistan in the Neolithic: A Petrographic Case Study. Oxbow Books.
  3. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20081005022344/http://www.history.pu.ru/educ/umm/programm/archeolo/01-13.htm. Archived from the original on October 5, 2008. Retrieved May 10, 2012. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ F Hole, KV Flannery, JA Neely (1969)"Prehistory and human ecology of the Deh Luran plain: an early village sequence from Khuzistan, Iran", (University of Michigan)
  5. ^ Weiss,E., W. Wetterstrom, D. Nadel, and O. Bar-Yosef, "The broad spectrum revisited: Evidence from plant remains" (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2004 101:9551-9555)
  6. ^ "Древние цивилизации Востока и степные племена в свете данных археологии". Kungrad.com. Retrieved 2014-03-10.
  7. ^ Yablonsky L.T. Kelteminar craniology. Intra-group analysis//Soviet Ethnography, Moscow, USSR Academy of Sciences, 1985, No 2. pp. 127-140

Literature

This page was last edited on 8 October 2019, at 19:09
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