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Kazakhs in China

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kazakhs in China
哈萨克族
Қытайда тұратын қазақтар
Total population
1,462,588
Regions with significant populations
Xinjiang (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Aksai Kazakh Autonomous County, Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County, Mori Kazakh Autonomous County)
Languages
Kazakh, Mandarin
Religion
Sunni Islam[1] · Atheism · Irreligion
Related ethnic groups
Kazakhs, Turkic peoples

Kazakhs are a Turkic ethnic group, called Hāsàkè Zú in Chinese (; literally "Kazakh ethnic group"), and are among 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.

During the fall of the Dzungar Khanate, the Manchus massacred the native Dzungar Oirat Mongols of Dzungaria in the Dzungar genocide and filled in the depopulated area with immigrants from many parts of their empire. Kazakhs from the Kazakh Khanates were among the peoples who moved into the depopulated Dzungaria. Dzungaria was subjected to mass Kazakh settlement after the defeat of the Dzungars.[2] In the 19th century, the advance of the Russian Empire troops pushed Kazakhs to neighboring countries. In China there is one Kazakh autonomous prefecture, the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, three Kazakh autonomous counties, Aksai Kazakh Autonomous County in Gansu, Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County and Mori Kazakh Autonomous County in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

Russians originally referred to Kazakhs as Kirghiz.

In the 19th century, Russian settlers on traditional Kirghiz land drove a lot of the Kirghiz over the border to China, causing their population to increase in China.[3] Compared to Russian controlled areas, more benefits were given to the Kirghiz on the Chinese controlled areas. Russian settlers fought against the nomadic Kirghiz, which led the Russians to believe that the Kirghiz would be a liability in any conflict against China. The Muslim Kirghiz were sure that in an upcoming war, that China would defeat Russia.[4]

To escape Russians slaughtering them in 1916, Kazakhs escaped to China.[5] Xinjiang became a sanctuary for fleeing Kazakhs escaping the Russians after the Muslims faced conscription by the Russian government.[6]

Soviet persecution of Kazakhs led to Kazakhs from Soviet Kazakhstan moving to Xinjiang.[7]

An estimate of 65,000 Kirghiz, 92,000 Hui, 326,000 Kazakh, 187,000 Han, and 2,984,000 Uyghur adding up to a total population of 3,730,000 in all of Xinjiang in 1941 was estimated by Toops, and 4,334,000 people lived in Xinjiang according to Hoppe in 1949.[8]

The Kazakhs had settled in the Dzungaria area of Xinjiang after the Dzungar genocide by the Manchus wiped out most of the native Dzungar Oirats and fleeing from Soviet engineered famines against the Kazakhs like the Kazakh famine of 1919–1922 and Kazakhstan famine of 1932-1933. The Kazakhs had defected to the Republic of China and fought against the Soviet Communist backed Uyghur Second East Turkestan Republic in the Ili Rebellion.

Kazakh exodus

In 1936, after Sheng Shicai expelled 30,000 Kazakhs from Xinjiang to Qinghai, Hui led by General Ma Bufang massacred their fellow Muslim Kazakhs, until there were 135 of them left.[9][10][11]

From Northern Xinjiang over 7,000 Kazakhs fled to the Tibetan-Qinghai plateau region via Gansu and were wreaking massive havoc so Ma Bufang solved the problem by relegating the Kazakhs into designated pastureland in Qinghai, but Hui, Tibetans, and Kazakhs in the region continued to clash against each other.[12]

Tibetans attacked and fought against the Kazakhs as they entered Tibet via Gansu and Qinghai.

In northern Tibet Kazakhs clashed with Tibetan soldiers and then the Kazakhs were sent to Ladakh.[13]

Tibetan troops robbed and killed Kazakhs 400 miles east of Lhasa at Chamdo when the Kazakhs were entering Tibet.[14][15]

In 1934, 1935, 1936-1938 from Qumil Eliqsan led the Kerey Kazakhs to migrate to Gansu and the amount was estimated at 18,000, and they entered Gansu and Qinghai.[16]

Distribution

By province

By county

County-level distribution of the Kazakh

(Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >1% of county population. 2000)

Сounty/City % Kazakh Kazakh pop Total pop
Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region 6.74 1,245,023 18,459,511
Aksay Kazakh autonomous county 30.5 2,712 8,891
Ürümqi city 2.34 48,772 2,081,834
Tianshan district 1.77 8,354 471,432
Saybag district 1.27 6,135 482,235
Xinshi district 1.06 4,005 379,220
Dongshan district 1.96 1,979 100,796
Ürümqi county 8.00 26,278 328,536
Karamay city 3.67 9,919 270,232
Dushanzi district 4.24 2,150 50,732
Karamay district 3.49 5,079 145,452
Baijiantan district 3.35 2,151 64,297
Urko district 5.53 539 9,751
Hami city 8.76 43,104 492,096
Yizhou district 2.71 10,546 388,714
Barkol Kazakh autonomous county 34.01 29,236 85,964
Yiwu county 19.07 3,322 17,418
Changji Hui autonomous prefecture 7.98 119,942 1,503,097
Changji city 4.37 16,919 387,169
Fukang city 7.83 11,984 152,965
Midong district 1.94 3,515 180,952
Hutubi county 10.03 21,118 210,643
Manas county 9.62 16,410 170,533
Qitai county 10.07 20,629 204,796
Jimsar county 8.06 9,501 117,867
Mori Kazakh autonomous county 25.41 19,866 78,172
Bortala Mongol autonomous prefecture 9.14 38,744 424,040
Bole city 7.10 15,955 224,869
Jinghe county 8.27 11,048 133,530
Wenquan county 17.89 11,741 65,641
Ili Kazakh autonomous prefecture 1.78 5,077 285,299
Kuytun city 1.78 5,077 285,299
Ili prefecture direct-controlled territories 22.55 469,634 2,082,577
Ghulja city 4.81 17,205 357,519
Ghukja county 10.30 39,745 385,829
Qapqal Xibe autonomous county 20.00 32,363 161,834
Huocheng county 7.96 26,519 333,013
Gongliu county 29.69 45,450 153,100
Xinyuan county 43.43 117,195 269842
Zhaosu county 48.43 70,242 145,027
Tekes county 42.25 56,571 133,900
Nilka county 45.15 64,344 142,513
Tacheng prefecture 24.21 216,020 892,397
Tacheng city 15.51 23,144 149,210
Usu city 9.93 18,907 190,359
Emin county 33.42 59,586 178,309
Shawan county 16.23 30,621 188,715
Toli county 68.98 55,102 79,882
Yumin county 32.42 15,609 48,147
Hoboksar Mongol autonomous county 22.59 13,051 57,775
Altay prefecture 51.38 288,612 561,667
Altay city 36.80 65,693 178,510
Burqin county 57.31 35,324 61,633
Koktokay county 69.68 56,433 80,986
Burultokay county 31.86 24,793 77,830
Kaba county 59.79 43,889 73,403
Qinggil county 75.61 40,709 53,843
Jiminay county 61.39 21,771 35,462

Notable Kazakh Chinese

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Kazakh Ethnic Group", China.org.cn, 2005-06-21, retrieved 2009-02-06
  2. ^ Smagulova, Anar. "XVIII - XIX CENTURIES. IN THE MANUSCRIPTS OF THE KAZAKHS OF CHINA". East Kazakhstan State University. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ Alexander Douglas Mitchell Carruthers; Jack Humphrey Miller (1914). Unknown Mongolia: A Record of Travel and Exploration in North-west Mongolia and Dzungaria. Hutchinson & Company. p. 345.
  4. ^ Alex Marshall (22 November 2006). The Russian General Staff and Asia, 1860-1917. Routledge. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-1-134-25379-1.
  5. ^ Sydykova, Zamira (20 January 2016). "Commemorating the 1916 Massacres in Kyrgyzstan? Russia Sees a Western Plot". The Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst.
  6. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (9 October 1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. CUP Archive. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-0-521-25514-1.
  7. ^ Genina, Anna (2015). Claiming Ancestral Homelandsː Mongolian Kazakh migration in Inner Asia (PDF) (A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Anthropology) in The University of Michigan). p. 113.
  8. ^ Ildikó Bellér-Hann (2008). Community Matters in Xinjiang, 1880-1949: Towards a Historical Anthropology of the Uyghur. BRILL. pp. 64–. ISBN 90-04-16675-0.
  9. ^ American Academy of Political and Social Science (1951). The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 277. American Academy of Political and Social Science. p. 152. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  10. ^ American Academy of Political and Social Science (1951). Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volumes 276–278. American Academy of Political and Social Science. p. 152. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  11. ^ American Academy of Political and Social Science (1951). The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 277. American Academy of Political and Social Science. p. 152. Retrieved 2012-09-29. A group of Kazakhs, originally numbering over 20000 people when expelled from Sinkiang by Sheng Shih-ts'ai in 1936, was reduced, after repeated massacres by their Chinese coreligionists under Ma Pu-fang, to a scattered 135 people.
  12. ^ Hsaio-ting Lin (1 January 2011). Tibet and Nationalist China's Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928-49. UBC Press. pp. 112–. ISBN 978-0-7748-5988-2.
  13. ^ Hsaio-ting Lin (1 January 2011). Tibet and Nationalist China's Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928-49. UBC Press. pp. 231–. ISBN 978-0-7748-5988-2.
  14. ^ Blackwood's Magazine. William Blackwood. 1948. p. 407.
  15. ^ DEVLET, NADİR (2004). "STUDIES IN THE POLITICS,HISTORY AND CULTURE OF TURKIC PEOPLES". Yeditepe University: 192. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. ^ Linda Benson (1988). The Kazaks of China: Essays on an Ethnic Minority. Ubsaliensis S. Academiae. p. 195. ISBN 978-91-554-2255-4.
  17. ^ "Jumabieke Tuerxun: From The Rural Edges of China to the UFC". Fightland. Retrieved 24 October 2014.

External links

This page was last edited on 17 November 2019, at 16:32
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