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Kartvelian languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kartvelian
ქართველური
Geographic
distribution
Western Trans-Caucasus, Northeast Anatolia
Linguistic classificationOne of the world's primary language families
Proto-languageProto-Kartvelian
Subdivisions
ISO 639-5ccs
Glottologkart1248
Kartvelian languages.svg

The Kartvelian languages (/kɑːrtˈvlən/; Georgian: ქართველური ენები, romanized: kartveluri enebi; also known as Ibero-Colchian,[1] or Kartvelic)[2][3][4] are a language family indigenous to the South Caucasus and spoken primarily in Georgia. There are approximately 5.2 million Kartvelian speakers worldwide, with large groups in Russia, Iran, the United States, Europe, Israel,[5] and northeastern Turkey.[6] The Kartvelian family has no known relation to any other language family, making it one of the world's primary language families.[7]

The most widely spoken of these languages is Georgian. The earliest literary source in any Kartvelian language is the Old Georgian Bir el Qutt inscriptions, written in ancient Georgian Asomtavruli script at the once-existing Georgian monastery near Bethlehem,[8] dated to c. 430 AD.[9] The Georgian script is used to write all Kartvelian languages.

Social and cultural status

Georgian is the official language of Georgia (spoken by 90% of the population) and the main language for literary and business use in Georgia. It is written with an original and distinctive alphabet, and the oldest surviving literary text dates from the 5th century AD. The old Georgian script seems to have been derived from the Greek script.[10]

Mingrelian has been written with the Georgian alphabet since 1864, especially in the period from 1930 to 1938, when the Mingrelians enjoyed some cultural autonomy, and after 1989.

The Laz language was written mainly between 1927 and 1937, and now again in Turkey using the Latin alphabet. Laz, however, is disappearing as its speakers are integrating into mainstream Turkish society.

Classification

The Kartvelian language family consists of four closely related languages:

  • Svan (ლუშნუ ნინ, lušnu nin), with approximately 35,000–40,000 native speakers in Georgia, mainly in the northwestern mountainous region of Svaneti and the Kodori Gorge in Abkhazia
  • Georgian-Zan (also called Karto-Zan)
    • Georgian (ქართული ენა, kartuli ena) with approximately 4 million native speakers, mainly in Georgia. There are Georgian-speaking communities in Russia, Turkey, Iran, Israel, and EU countries, but the current number and distribution of them are unknown.
      • Judaeo-Georgian (ყივრული ენა, kivruli ena) with some 85,000 speakers, is the only Kartvelian Jewish dialect, its status being the subject of debate among scholars.[11]
    • Zan (also called Colchian)
      • Mingrelian (მარგალური ნინა, margaluri nina), with some 500,000 native speakers in 1989, mainly in the western regions of Georgia, namely Samegrelo and Abkhazia (at present in Gali district only). The number of Mingrelian speakers in Abkhazia was very strongly affected by the war with Georgia in the 1990s which resulted in the expulsion and flight of the ethnic Georgian population, the majority of which were Mingrelians. Nevertheless, Georgians in Abkhazia (mostly Mingrelians) make up 18% of the population, in Gali district 91.5%.[12] The Mingrelians displaced from Abkhazia are scattered elsewhere in the Georgian government territory, with dense clusters in Tbilisi and Zugdidi.
      • Laz (ლაზური ნენა, lazuri nena), with 22,000 native speakers in 1980, mostly in the Black Sea littoral area of northeast Turkey, and with some 2,000 in Adjara, Georgia.[citation needed]

Genealogical tree


Proto-Kartvelian
Proto-Karto-Zan
Zan
SvanMingrelianLazGeorgian

The connection between these languages was first reported in linguistic literature by Johann Anton Güldenstädt in his 1773 classification of the languages of the Caucasus, and later proven by G. Rosen, Marie-Félicité Brosset, Franz Bopp and others during the 1840s. Zan is the branch that contains the Mingrelian and Laz languages.

On the basis of glottochronological analysis, Georgi Klimov dates the split of the Proto-Kartvelian into Svan and Proto-Karto-Zan to the 19th century BC,[13][14] and the further division into Georgian and Zan to the 8th century BC,[14] although with the reservation that such dating is very preliminary and substantial further study is required.[13]

Higher-level connections

No relationship with other languages, including the two North Caucasian language families, has been demonstrated so far.[10] Some linguists, such as Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze, have proposed that the Kartvelian family is part of a much larger Nostratic language family, but both the concept of a Nostratic family and Georgian's relation to it are not considered likely by other linguists.[15]

Certain grammatical similarities with Basque, especially in the case system, have often been pointed out. However, the hypothesis of a relationship, which also tends to link the Caucasian languages with other non-Indo-European and non-Semitic languages of the Near East of ancient times, is generally considered to lack conclusive evidence.[10] Any similarities to other linguistic phyla may be due to areal influences. Heavy borrowing in both directions (i.e. from North Caucasian to Kartvelian and vice versa) has been observed; therefore, it is likely that certain grammatical features have been influenced as well. If the Dené–Caucasian hypothesis, which attempts to link Basque, Burushaski, the North Caucasian families and other phyla, is correct, then the similarities to Basque may also be due to these influences, however indirect. Certain Kartvelian–Indo-European lexical links are revealed at the protolanguage level,[16] which are ascribed to the early contacts between Proto-Kartvelian and Proto-Indo-European populations.[17]

Comparative grammar

Regular correspondences

Vowels[18]
Proto-Kartv. Geo. Zan Svan
*ა (*a)
[ɑ]
a
[ɑ]
o
[ɔ]
a
[ɑ]
*ე (*e)
[ɛ]
e
[ɛ]
a
[ɑ]
e
[ɛ]
*ი (*i)
[i]
i
[i]
i
[i]
i
[i]
*ო (*o)
[ɔ]
o
[ɔ]
o
[ɔ]
o
[ɔ]
*უ (*u)
[u]
u
[u]
u
[u]
u
[u]
Consonants[19]
Proto-Kartv. Geo. Zan Svan
Voiced
stops
*ბ (*b)
[b]
b
[b]
b
[b]
b
[b]
*დ (*d)
[d]
d
[d]
d
[d]
d
[d]
*გ (*g)
[ɡ]
g
[ɡ]
g
[ɡ]
g / ǯ
[ɡ] / [d͡ʒ]
Voiced
affricates
*ძ (*ʒ)
[d͡z]
ʒ
[d͡z]
ʒ
[d͡z]
ʒ / z
[d͡z] / [z]
*ძ₁ (*ʒ₁)
[ɖʐ]
ǯ
[d͡ʒ]
ǯ / ž
[d͡ʒ] / [ʒ]
*ჯ (*ǯ)
[d͡ʒ]
ǯ
[d͡ʒ]
ǯg / ʒg
[d͡ʒɡ] / [d͡zɡ]
ǯg / sg
[d͡ʒɡ] / [sɡ]
Voiced
fricatives
*ზ (*z)
[z]
z
[z]
z
[z]
z
[z]
*ზ₁ (*z₁)
[ʐ]
ž
[ʒ]
ž
[ʒ]
*ღ (*ɣ)
[ɣ]
ɣ
[ɣ]
ɣ
[ɣ]
ɣ
[ɣ]
*უ̂ (*w)
[w]
v
[v]
v
[v]
w
[w]
Ejective
stops
*პ (*ṗ)
[pʼ]

[pʼ]

[pʼ]

[pʼ]
*ტ (*ṭ)
[tʼ]

[tʼ]

[tʼ]

[tʼ]
*კ (*ḳ)
[kʼ]

[kʼ]

[kʼ]
ḳ / č'
[kʼ] / [t͡ʃʼ]
*ყ (*qʼ)
[qʼ]

[qʼ]
qʼ / ʔ / ḳ
[qʼ] / [ʔ] / [kʼ]

[qʼ]
Ejective
affr.
*წ (*ċ)
[t͡sʼ]
ċ
[t͡sʼ]
ċ
[t͡sʼ]
ċ
[t͡sʼ]
*წ₁ (*ċ₁)
[ʈʂʼ]
čʼ
[t͡ʃʼ]
čʼ
[t͡ʃʼ]
*ლʼ (*ɬʼ)
[t͡ɬʼ]
h
[h]
*ჭ (*čʼ)
[t͡ʃʼ]
čʼ
[t͡ʃʼ]
čʼḳ / ċḳ
[t͡ʃʼkʼ] / [t͡sʼkʼ]
čʼḳ / šḳ
[t͡ʃʼkʼ] / [ʃkʼ]
Voiceless
stops
and affr.
*ფ (*p)
[p]
p
[p]
p
[p]
p
[p]
*თ (*t)
[t]
t
[t]
t
[t]
t
[t]
*ც (*c)
[t͡s]
c
[t͡s]
c
[t͡s]
c
[t͡s]
*ც₁ (*c₁)
[ʈʂ]
č
[t͡ʃ]
č
[t͡ʃ]
*ჩ (*č)
[t͡ʃ]
č
[t͡ʃ]
čk
[t͡ʃk]
čk / šg
[t͡ʃk] / [ʃɡ]
*ქ (*k)
[k]
k
[k]
k
[k]
k / č
[k] / [t͡ʃ]
*ჴ (*q)
[q]
x
[x]
x
[x]
q
[q]
Voiceless
fricatives
*ხ (*x)
[x]
x
[x]
*შ (*š)
[ʃ]
š
[ʃ]
šk / sk
[ʃk] / [sk]
šg / sg
[ʃɡ] / [sɡ]
*ს (*s)
[s]
s
[s]
s
[s]
s
[s]
*ს₁ (*s₁)
[ʂ]
š
[ʃ]
š
[ʃ]
*ლʿ (*lʿ)
[ɬ]
l
[l]
Liquids *ლ (*l)
[l]
l
[l]
l
[l]
*რ (*r)
[r]
r
[r]
r
[r]
r
[r]
Nasals *მ (*m)
[m]
m
[m]
m
[m]
m
[m]
*ნ (*n)
[n]
n
[n]
n
[n]
n
[n]

Noun classification

The Kartvelian languages classify objects as intelligent ("who"-class) and unintelligent ("what"-class) beings. Grammatical gender does not exist.

Noun classification scheme
Concrete Abstract
Animate Inanimate
Human and "human-like" beings (e.g. God, deities, angels) Animals Inanimate physical entities Abstract objects
Intelligent Unintelligent
"who"-class "what"-class

Declension

Grammatical case markers
Case Singular Plural
Mingrelian Laz Georgian Svan Mingrelian Laz Georgian Svan
Nominative -i -i/-e -i -i -ep-i -ep-e -eb-i -är
Ergative -k -k -ma -d -ep-k -epe-k -eb-ma -är-d
Dative -s -s -s -s -ep-s -epe-s -eb-s -är-s
Genitive - - -is - -ep-iš -epe-š(i) -eb-is -are-š
Lative -iša -iša N/A N/A -ep-iša -epe-ša N/A N/A
Ablative -iše -iše N/A N/A -ep-iše -epe-še(n) N/A N/A
Instrumental -it -ite -it -šw -ep-it -epe-te(n) -eb-it -är-šw
Adverbial -o(t)/-t -ot -ad/-d -d -ep-o(t) N/A -eb-ad -är-d
Finalis -išo(t) N/A -isad -išd -ep-išo(t) N/A -eb-isad -är-išd
Vocative N/A N/A -o (/-v) N/A N/A N/A -eb-o N/A
Example adjective declension
Stem: ǯveš- (Min.), mǯveš- (Laz), ʒvel- (Geo.), ǯwinel- (Svan) – "old"
Case Singular Plural
Mingrelian Laz Georgian Svan Mingrelian Laz Georgian Svan
Nominative ǯveš-i mǯveš-i ʒvel-i ǯwinel ǯveš-ep-i mǯveš-ep-e ʒvel-eb-i ǯwinel-är
Ergative ǯveš-k mǯveš-i-k ʒvel-ma ǯwinel-d ǯveš-ep-k mǯveš-epe-k ʒvel-eb-ma ǯwinel-är-d
Dative ǯveš-s mǯveš-i-s ʒvel-s ǯwinel-s ǯveš-ep-s mǯveš-i-epe-s ʒvel-eb-s ǯwinel-är-s
Genitive ǯveš- mǯveš- ʒvel-is ǯwinl- ǯveš-ep-iš mǯveš-epe-š ʒvel-eb-is ǯwinel-är-iš
Lative ǯveš-iša mǯveš-iša N/A N/A ǯveš-ep-iša mǯveš-epe-ša N/A N/A
Ablative ǯveš-iše mǯveš-iše N/A N/A ǯveš-ep-iše mǯveš-epe-še N/A N/A
Instrumental ǯveš-it mǯveš-ite ʒvel-it ǯwinel-šw ǯveš-ep-it mǯveš-epe-te ʒvel-eb-it ǯwinel-är-šw
Adverbial ǯveš-o mǯveš-ot ʒvel-ad ǯwinel-d ǯveš-ep-o N/A ʒvel-eb-ad ǯwinel-är-d
Finalis ǯveš-išo N/A ʒvel-isad ǯwinel-išd ǯveš-ep-išo N/A ʒvel-eb-isad ǯwinel-är-išd
Vocative N/A N/A ʒvel-o N/A N/A N/A ʒvel-eb-o N/A

Verb

Kartvelian verbs can indicate one, two, or three grammatical persons. A performer of an action is called the subject and affected persons are objects (direct or indirect). The person may be singular or plural. According to the number of persons, the verbs are classified as unipersonal, bipersonal or tripersonal.

  • Unipersonal verbs have only a subject and so are always intransitive.
  • Bipersonal verbs have a subject and one object, which can be direct or indirect. The verb is:
    • transitive when the object is direct;
    • intransitive if the object is indirect.
  • Tripersonal verbs have one subject and both direct and indirect objects and are ditransitive.
Verb personality table
Unipersonal Bipersonal Tripersonal
intransitive transitive intransitive ditransitive
Subject + + + +
Direct object + +
Indirect object + +

Subjects and objects are indicated with special affixes.

Personal markers
Subject set
Singular Plural
Old Geo. Mod. Geo. Ming./Laz Svan Old Geo. Mod. Geo. Ming./Laz Svan
S1 v- v- v- xw- v-...-t v-...-t v-...-t xw-...-(š)d (excl.)

l-...-(š)d (incl.)

S2 x/h- ∅,(h/s)- x-/∅ x/h-...-t ∅,(h/s)-...-t ∅-...-t x/∅-...-(š)d
S3 -s,-a/o,-n,-ed -s,-a/o -s,-u,-n (l)-...-s/(a) -an,-en,-es,-ed -en,-an,-es -an,-es (l)-...-x
Object set
O1 m- m- m- m- m- (excl.)

gv- (incl.)

gv- m-...-t,-an,-es n- (excl.)

gw- (incl.)

O2 g- g- g- ǯ- g- g-...-t g-...-t,-an,-es ǯ-...-x
O3 x/h,∅- ∅,s/h/∅- ∅,x- x/h,∅- ∅,s/h/∅-...-t ∅-...-t,-an,-es ∅,x-...-x

By means of special markers Kartvelian verbs can indicate four kinds of action intentionality ("version"):

  • subjective—shows that the action is intended for oneself,
  • objective—the action is intended for another person,
  • objective-passive—the action is intended for another person and at the same time indicating the passiveness of subject,
  • neutral—neutral with respect to intention.
Version markers
Version Mingrelian Laz Georgian Svan
Subjective -i- -i- -i- -i-
Objective -u- -u- -u- -o-
Objective-passive -a- -a- -e- -e-
Neutral -o-/-a- -o- -a- -a-

Examples from inherited lexicon

Cardinal Numbers
  Proto-Kartv.

form

Karto-Zan Svan
Proto-form Georgian Mingrelian Laz
1. one, 2. other *s₁xwa
[ʂxwɑ]
*s₁xwa
[ʂxwɑ]
sxva
[sxvɑ]
(other)
šxva
[ʃxva]
(other)
čkva / škva
[t͡ʃkvɑ] / [ʃkvɑ]
(other, one more)
e-šxu
[ɛ-ʃxu]
(one)
one n/a *erti
[ɛrti]
erti
[ɛrti]
arti
[ɑrti]
ar
[ɑr]
n/a
two *yori
[jɔri]
*yori
[jɔri]
ori
[ɔri]
žiri / žəri
[ʒiri] / [ʒəri]
žur / ǯur
[ʒur] / [d͡ʒur]
yori
[jɔri]
three *sami
[sɑmi]
*sami
[sɑmi]
sami
[sɑmi]
sumi
[sumi]
sum
[sum]
semi
[sɛmi]
four *o(s₁)txo
[ɔ(ʂ)txɔ]
*otxo
[ɔtxɔ]
otxi
[ɔtxi]
otxi
[ɔtxi]
otxo
[ɔtxɔ]
w-oštxw
[w-ɔʃtxw]
five *xu(s₁)ti
[khu(ʂ)ti]
*xuti
[xuti]
xuti
[xuti]
xuti
[xuti]
xut
[xut]
wo-xušd
[wɔ-xuʃd]
six *eks₁wi
[ɛkʂwi]
*eks₁wi
[ɛkʂwi]
ekvsi
[ɛkvsi]
amšvi
[ɑmʃwi]
aši
[ɑʃi]
usgwa
[usɡwɑ]
seven *šwidi
[ʃwidi]
*šwidi
[ʃwidi]
švidi
[ʃvidi]
škviti
[ʃkviti]
škvit
[ʃkvit]
i-šgwid
[i-ʃɡwid]
eight *arwa
[ɑrwɑ]
*arwa
[ɑrwɑ]
rva
[rvɑ]
ruo / bruo
[ruɔ] / [bruɔ]
ovro / orvo
[ɔvrɔ] / [ɔrvɔ]
ara
[ɑrɑ]
nine *ts₁xara
[t͡ʂxɑrɑ]
*ts₁xara
[t͡ʂxɑrɑ]
tsxra
[t͡sxrɑ]
čxoro
[t͡ʃxɔrɔ]
čxoro
[t͡ʃxɔrɔ]
čxara
[t͡ʃxɑrɑ]
ten *a(s₁)ti
[ɑ(ʂ)ti]
*ati
[ɑti]
ati
[ɑti]
viti
[viti]
vit
[vit]
ešd
[ɛʃd]
twenty n/a *ots₁i
[ɔt͡ʂi]
otsi
[ɔt͡si]
etsi
[ɛt͡ʃi]
etsi
[ɛt͡ʃi]
n/a
hundred *as₁i
[ɑʂi]
*as₁i
[ɑʂi]
asi
[ɑsi]
oši
[ɔʃi]
oši
[ɔʃi]
-ir
[ɑʃ-ir]
Pronouns
Personal Pronouns
  Proto-Kartv. Georgian Mingrelian Laz Svan
I *me
[mɛ]
me
[mɛ]
ma
[mɑ]
ma(n)
[mɑ]
mi
[mi]
You (sg.) *sen
[sɛn]
šen
[ʃɛn]
si
[si]
si(n)
[si]
si
[si]
That *e-
[ɛ-]
e-sa
[ɛ-sɑ]
e-na
[ɛ-nɑ]
(h)e-ya
[(h)ɛ-jɑ]
e-ǯa
[ɛ-d͡ʒɑ]
We *čwen
[t͡ʃwɛn]
čven
[t͡ʃvɛn]
čki(n) / čkə(n)
[t͡ʃki(n)] / [t͡ʃkə(n)]
čkin / čku / šku
[t͡ʃkin] / [t͡ʃku] / [ʃku]
näy

[næj]

You (pl.) *stkwen
[stkwɛn]
tkven
[tkvɛn]
tkva(n)
[tkvɑ(n)]
tkvan
[tkvɑn]
sgäy
[sɡæj]
Possessive Pronouns
  Proto-Kartv. Georgian Mingrelian Laz Svan
My *č(w)e-mi
[t͡ʃ(w)ɛ-mi]
če-mi
[t͡ʃɛ-mi]
čki-mi
[t͡ʃki-mi]
čki-mi / ški-mi
[t͡ʃki-mi] / [ʃki-mi]
mi-šgu
[mi-ʃɡu]
Your (sg.) *š(w)eni
[ʃ(w)ɛni]
šeni
[ʃɛni]
skani
[skɑni]
skani
[skɑni]
i-sgu
[i-sɡu]
His/her/its *m-is₁
[m-iʂ]
m-is-i
[m-is-i]
mu-š-i
[mu-ʃ-i]
(h)e-mu-š-i
[(h)ɛ-mu-ʃ-i]
m-ič-a
[m-it͡ʃ-ɑ]
Our *čweni
[t͡ʃwɛni]
čveni
[t͡ʃvɛni]
čkini / čkəni
[t͡ʃkini] / [t͡ʃkəni]
čkini / čkuni / škuni
[t͡ʃkini] / [t͡ʃkuni] / [ʃkuni]
gu-šgwey (excl.)
[ɡu-ʃɡwɛj]

ni-šgwey (incl.)
[ni-ʃɡwɛj]

Your (pl.) *stkweni
[stkwɛni]
tkveni
[tkvɛni]
tkvani
[tkvɑni]
tkvani
[tkvɑni]
i-sgwey
[i-sɡwɛj]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Caucasian languages Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. ^ MacLaury, Robert E.; Paramei, Galina V.; Dedrick, Don (November 21, 2007). Anthropology of Color: Interdisciplinary multilevel modeling. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 9789027291707 – via Google Books.
  3. ^ Kogan, Leonid Ye; Kogan, Leonid Efimovich (March 14, 2003). Studia Semitica. Russian State University for the Humanities. ISBN 9785728106906 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ Endangered Languages of the Caucasus and Beyond. BRILL. November 17, 2016. ISBN 9789004328693 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ "Israel". Ethnologue.
  6. ^ "Browse by Language Family". Ethnologue.
  7. ^ Dalby (2002), p. 38
  8. ^ Lang (1966), p. 154
  9. ^ Hewitt (1995), p. 4.
  10. ^ a b c Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition (1986): Macropedia, "Languages of the World", see section titled "Caucasian languages".
  11. ^ Judeo-Georgian at Glottolog
  12. ^ "Государственный комитет Республики Абхазия по статистике". ugsra.org.
  13. ^ a b Klimov (1998b), p. 14
  14. ^ a b Klimov (1994), p. 91
  15. ^ Allan R. Bomhard, John C. Kerns. (1994) The Nostratic Macrofamily: A Study in Distant Linguistic Relationship.
  16. ^ Gamkrelidze & Ivanov (1995), pp. 774–776
  17. ^ Gamkrelidze & Ivanov (1995), p. 768
  18. ^ Fähnrich (2002), p. 5
  19. ^ Fähnrich (2002), p. 5-6

References

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  • Boeder, W. (2005). "The South Caucasian languages", Lingua, vol. 115, iss. 1–2 (Jan.-Feb.), pp. 5–89
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  • Delshad, F. (2010). Georgica et Irano-Semitica (in German). Wiesbaden.
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  • Gamkrelidze, Th. (1966) "A Typology of Common Kartvelian", Language, vol. 42, no. 1 (Jan.–Mar.), pp. 69–83
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  • Klimov, G. (1964). Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages (in Russian). Moscow.
  • Klimov, G. (1994). Einführung in die kaukasische Sprachwissenschaft. Hamburg: Buske.
  • Klimov, G. (1998). Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Klimov, G. (1998). Languages of the World: Caucasian languages (in Russian). Moscow: Academia.
  • Lang, D.M. (1966). The Georgians. New York: Praeger.
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External links

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