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Kadena Air Base

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kadena Air Base
嘉手納飛行場
Kadena Hikōjō
Part of Pacific Air Forces (PACAF)
Located near: Kadena, Okinawa, Japan
44th Fighter Squadron F-15C Eagle takes off at Kadena Air Base.jpg
A 44th Fighter Squadron F-15C Eagle takes off at Kadena Air Base, Japan
Coordinates 26°21′06″N 127°46′10″E / 26.35167°N 127.76944°E / 26.35167; 127.76944 (Kadena AFB)
Site information
Controlled by  United States Air Force
Site history
Built 1945
In use 1945 – present
Garrison information
Garrison
USAF - 18th Wing.png

18th Wing (USAF)

Kadena Air Base (嘉手納飛行場, Kadena Hikōjō), (IATA: DNA, ICAO: RODN) is a United States Air Force base in the towns of Kadena and Chatan and the city of Okinawa, in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Kadena Air Base is home to the USAF's 18th Wing, the 353d Special Operations Group, reconnaissance units, 1st Battalion, 1st Air Defense Artillery, and a variety of associated units. Over 20,000 American servicemembers, family members, and Japanese employees live or work aboard Kadena Air Base.[1] It is the largest and most active US Air Force base in the Far East.[2]

Kadena Air Base
Summary
Operator USAF
Elevation AMSL 143 ft / 44 m
Coordinates 26°21′20″N 127°46′03″E / 26.35556°N 127.76750°E / 26.35556; 127.76750
Website www.kadena.af.mil
Map
RODN is located in Japan
RODN
RODN
Location in Japan
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
05R/23L 3,688 12,100 Asphalt concrete
05L/23R 3,688 12,100 Asphalt concrete
Source: Japanese AIP at AIS Japan[3]
Kadena Air Base
Kadena Air Base

History

Kadena Air Base's history dates back to just before the 1 April 1945, Battle of Okinawa, when a local construction firm completed a small airfield named Yara Hikojo near the island's village of Kadena. The airfield, used by Imperial Japanese warplanes, was one of the first targets of the Tenth United States Army 7th Infantry Division. The United States seized it from the Japanese during the battle.

World War II

View of Kadena Air Base
View of Kadena Air Base

What the Americans captured was a 4,600 feet (1,400 m) strip of badly-damaged coral runway. Army engineers from the 13th Combat Engineer Battalion, 7th U.S. Infantry Division quickly made repairs and, by nightfall the same day, the runway could accept emergency landings. Eight days later, and after some 6 inches (150 mm) of coral were added, the airfield was declared operational and put into immediate service by artillery spotting aircraft when the runway became serviceable on 6 April. Additional construction was performed by the 807th Engineering Aviation Battalion to improve the airfield for USAAF fighter and bomber use with fuel tank farms, a new 6,500 feet (2,000 m) bituminous runway, and a 7,500 feet (2,300 m) runway for bomber aircraft, by August.

Kadena airfield was initially under the control of Seventh Air Force, however on 16 July 1945, Headquarters Eighth Air Force was transferred, without personnel, equipment, or combat elements to the town of Sakugawa, near Kadena from RAF High Wycombe England. Upon reassignment, its headquarters element absorbed the command staff of the inactivated XX Bomber Command. Kadena was used by the headquarters staff for administrative flying requirements.

Upon its reassignment to the Pacific Theater, Eighth Air Force was assigned to the U.S. Army Strategic Air Forces with a mission to train new B-29 Superfortress bomber groups arriving from the United States for combat missions against Japan. In the planned invasion of Japan, the mission of Eighth Air Force would be to conduct strategic bombing raids from Okinawa. However, the atomic bombings of Japan led to the Japanese surrender before Eighth Air Force saw action in the Pacific theater.

The surrender of Japanese forces in the Ryukyu Islands came on 7 September. General Joseph Stilwell accepted the surrender in an area that would later become Kadena's Stearley Heights housing area.

Known World War II units assigned to Kadena were:

  • 319th Bombardment Group (Light) (July–November 1945) (A-26 Invader)
    Assigned to Seventh Air Force and flew missions to Japan and China, attacking airdromes, shipping, marshalling yards, industrial centers, and other objectives.
  • 317th Troop Carrier Group (August–September 1945) (C-46 Commando, C-47 Skytrain)
    Assigned to Seventh Air Force in the Philippines. Deployed aircraft to Kadena and flew courier and passenger routes to Japan, Guam, Korea, and the Philippines, and transported freight and personnel in the area.
  • 333d Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) (August 1945 – May 1946) (B-29)
    Assigned to Eighth Air Force for planned invasion of Japan. Operations terminated before the group could enter combat. For a time after the war the group ferried Allied prisoners of war from Japan to the Philippines. Inactivated May 1946.
  • 346th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) (August 1945 – June 1946) (B-29)
    Assigned to Eighth Air Force for planned invasion of Japan. Operations terminated before the group could enter combat. After the war the group participated in several show-of-force missions over Japan and for a time ferried Allied prisoners of war from Okinawa to the Philippines. Inactivated June 1946.
  • 316th Bombardment Wing (September 1945 – June 1948)
    Assigned to Eighth Air Force for planned invasion of Japan. Operations terminated before the group could enter combat. Reassigned to U.S. Far East Air Forces January 1946. Redesignated as 316th Composite Wing in January 1946, and 316th Bombardment Wing (Very Heavy) in May 1946. Inactivated June 1948.
  • 413th Fighter Group (November 1945 – October 1946) (P-47N)
    Assigned to Eighth Air Force and served as a part of the air defense and occupation force for the Ryukyu Islands after the war. Inactivated October 1946.

On 7 June 1946, Headquarters Eighth Air Force moved without personnel or equipment to MacDill AAF, Florida. It was replaced by the 1st Air Division which directed fighter reconnaissance, and bomber organizations and provided air defense for the Ryukyu Islands until December 1948.

Twentieth Air Force became the command and control organization for Kadena on 16 May 1949.

Postwar years and the Korean War

The Korean War emphasized the need for maintaining a naval presence on Okinawa. On 15 February 1951, the US Naval Facility, Naha, was activated and later became commissioned on 18 April. Commander Fleet Activities, Ryukyus was commissioned on 8 March 1957. On 15 May 1972, upon reversion of Okinawa to Japanese administration, the two organizations were combined to form Commander Fleet Activities, Okinawa. With the relocations of Commander Fleet Activities, Okinawa to Kadena Air Base on 7 May 1975, the title then became Commander Fleet Activities, Okinawa/US Naval Air Facility, Kadena.

Twentieth Air Force was inactivated in March 1955. Fifth Air Force became the command and control organization for Kadena. Known major postwar USAAF/USAF units assigned to Kadena have been:

  • 6th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) (June 1947 – October 1948) (B-29)
    Participated in show-of-force flights over Japan and dropped food and other relief supplies to newly freed Allied prisoners of war. Inactivated October 1948.
  • 71st Tactical Reconnaissance Wing (August 1948 – October 1948) (F-5, F-6, RF-51, RF-61)
    Equipped with reconnaissance aircraft, flew aerial photographing missions over Japan and southern Korea. Inactivated October 1948. The 71st Air Base Group provided base host unit support for organizations assigned to Kadena.
  • 32d Composite Wing (August 1948 – April 1949) (RB/SB-17G, C-46, RB/SB-29)
    Replaced 71st Tactical Reconnaissance Wing. Provided photographic reconnaissance and search and rescue support. The 32d Air Base Group provided base host unit support for organizations assigned to Kadena.
  • 6332d Air Base Group (April 1949 – January 1950) (redesignated 6332d Air Base Wing (January 1950 – May 1955), 6313th Air Base Wing (October 1957 – December 1964))
    Provided base host unit support for organizations assigned to Kadena.
  • 19th Bombardment Group (Medium) (July 1950 – May 1954) (B-29)
    Deployed from Andersen AFB, Guam. Flew combat missions over Korea. Reassigned May 1954 to Pinecastle AFB, Florida.
  • 22d Bombardment Group (Medium) (July 1950 – October 1950) (B-29)
    Deployed from March AFB, California. Flew combat missions over Korea
  • 307th Bombardment Group (Medium) (September 1950 – February 1951) (B-29)
    Deployed from MacDill AFB Florida to engage in combat operations during the Korean War. While on Okinawa, the 307th was awarded the Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation for its air strikes against enemy forces in Korea. It was also awarded the Distinguished Unit Citation and several campaign streamers. The 307th BG returned from deployment during February 1951, however elements of the group remained deployed on Okinawa on a semi-permanent basis until 1954.
  • 581st Air Resupply Group (September 1953 – September 1956) (B-29)
    reassigned from the inactivating 581st Air Resupply and Communications Wing at Clark AB, Philippines. Performed unconventional warfare and counterinsurgency psychological operations. Inactivated and mission transferred to U.S. Navy.

At the end of the Eisenhower presidency, around 1,700 nuclear weapons were deployed on shore in the Pacific, 800 of which were at Kadena Air Base.[4]

18th Wing

Since November 1954, the 18th Wing under various designations has been the main United States Air Force operational unit at Kadena. Over the past 50 years, the 18th has maintained assigned aircraft, crews, and supporting personnel in a high state of readiness for tactical air requirements of Fifth Air Force and the Pacific Air Forces.[5]

The 18th Fighter-Bomber Wing was reassigned to Kadena from Osan Air Base, South Korea on 1 November 1954, flying three squadrons of F-86 Sabres: the 12th, 44th and 67th Fighter Squadrons. Initially the wing supported tactical fighter operations on Okinawa, as well as in South Korea, Japan, Formosa, and the Philippines with frequent deployments. In 1957, the wing upgraded to the F-100 Super Sabre and the designation was changed to the 18th Tactical Fighter Wing. In 1960, a tactical reconnaissance mission was added to the wing with the arrival of the RF-101 Voodoo and the 15th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron.

Vietnam War era

Beginning in 1961, the 18th TFW was sending its tactical squadrons frequently to South Vietnam and Thailand, initially with its RF-101 reconnaissance jets,[6] and beginning in 1964 with its tactical fighter forces supporting USAF combat missions in the Vietnam War.[6]:257 In 1963, the F-105 Thunderchief replaced the Super Sabres. During the Temporary duty assignment (TDY) deployments to Southeast Asia, the 12th TFS lost four aircraft, the 44th TFS lost one F-105D, and the 67th TFS lost nine aircraft, including three on the first day of Operation Rolling Thunder. The deployments to Southeast Asia continued until the end of United States involvement in the conflict.

The RF-4C Phantom II replaced the RF-101 in the reconnaissance role in 1967. An electronic warfare capability was added to the wing in late 1968 with the attachment of the 19th Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron from Shaw AFB South Carolina flying the EB-66 Destroyer. The B-66s remained until 1970, flying daily over the skies of Southeast Asia.

During the 1968 Pueblo crisis, the 18th deployed between January and June to Osan AB, South Korea following the North Korean seizure of the vessel. Frequent deployments to South Korea have been performed ever since to maintain the air defense alert mission there.

In 1972, the 1st Special Operations Squadron was assigned, bringing their specialized C/MC-130 Hercules aircraft to the wing. The squadron was reassigned in 1978. The reconnaissance mission ended in 1989 with the retirement of the RF-4Cs, and the inactivation of the 15th TRS.

Post-Vietnam

The F/RF-4C Phantom II replaced the F-105s in 1971, and a further upgrade to the F-15 Eagle was made in 1979.

The designation of the wing changed on 1 October 1991 to the 18th Wing with the implementation of the Objective Wing concept. With the objective wing, the mission of the 18th expanded to the Composite Air Wing concept of multiple different wing missions with different aircraft. The mission of the 18th was expanded to include aerial refueling with KC-135 Stratotanker tanker aircraft; and surveillance, warning, command and control E-3 Sentry, and communications. Added airlift mission in June 1992 with the C-12 Huron, transporting mission critical personnel, high-priority cargo and distinguished visitors. In February 1993, the 18th Wing gained responsibility for coordinating rescue operations in the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean.

Arrival of Patriot unit

In November 2006, the U.S. Army's 1st Battalion, 1st Air Defense Artillery Regiment, a Patriot PAC-III unit, deployed to Kadena from Fort Bliss Texas.[7] They are assigned to the 94th AAMDC, USPACOM, they were assigned to 31st ADA Brigade at Fort Bliss. The move was part of the BRAC consolidation of U.S. Army bases and security agreements between the U.S. and Japan. The battalion's mission is to defend the base against tactical ballistic missiles from North Korea. The deployment was controversial on Okinawa, being greeted with protests.[8]

Other units

Other major units assigned to Kadena since 1954 have been:

  • 313th Air Division (March 1955 – October 1991)
    Assumed responsibility for air defense of the Ryukyu Islands and tactical operations in the Far East, maintaining assigned forces at the highest possible degree of combat readiness. In addition, it supported Fifth Air Force in the development, planning, and coordination of requirements for future Air Force operations in the Ryukyu Islands. The division also supported numerous exercises such as Cope Thunder, Cope Diamond, Team Spirit and Cope North. Provided base host unit support for organizations assigned to Kadena (May 1955 – October 1957, December 1964 – October 1974). The newly-considated 18th Wing replaced the 313th Air Division in 1991.
  • Kadena Task Force (Provisional) (SAC) (May 1955 – May 1958) (RB/ERB-47H)
    Performed Electronic Reconnaissance and Countermeasures activities.
  • 498th Tactical Missile Group (February 1961 – October 1969) (TM-76B/CGM-13B)
    Equipped with the TM-76B, renumbered in 1963 to CGM-13B Mace guided cruise missile, four hard site launch sites.
  • 4252d Strategic Wing (SAC) (January 1965 – April 1970)
    376th Strategic Wing (SAC) (April 1970 – August 1973) (B-52, KC-135, EC-135)
    Activated by SAC at Kadena. Replaced 4252nd Strategic Wing. Conducted B-52 combat operations in Southeast Asia from January 1965 to September 1970, when Arc Light Missions from the base were terminated.[9] The distance to targets in South Vietnam resulted in reduced payload and greater air-refueling demands for Kadena and Guam based B-52s and from April 1967 the USAF began basing B-52s at U-Tapao Royal Thai Navy Airfield, this together with Japanese opposition to the war led to reducing B-52 operations from Kadena.[10] Conducted KC-135 air refueling and RC-135 electronic reconnaissance from April 1970 to 1991. Conducted airborne radio relay operations, April–November 1970, February–June 1971 and March 1972 – August 1973. Until 1991, the wing controlled the 909th Air Refueling Squadron (KC-135A/Q/R) and supported rotational reconnaissance aircraft (TR-1, SR-71) after the inactivation of the 9th SRW in 1974. The Wing was inactivated at Kadena on 30 October 1991 with the drawdown of strategic forces. Its mission was absorbed by the 18th Wing.
  • 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing (SAC) (1968–1974) (A-12, SR-71)
    Deployed from Beale Air Force Base, California, Performed strategic reconnaissance over North Vietnam and Laos. The SR-71s averaged approximately one sortie a week for nearly two years. By 1970, the SR-71s were averaging two sorties per week. By 1972, the SR-71 was flying nearly one sortie every day. While deployed on Okinawa, the SR-71s and their aircrew members gained the nickname Habu (as did the A-12s preceding them) after a southeast Asian pit viper which the Okinawans thought the plane resembled.
  • 18th Combat Support Wing (1985-1991)
    The 18 CSW was originally the 18th Combat Support Group of the 18th Tactical Fighter Wing before being elevated to a Wing in 1985. It acted as the installation management command and controlled all the services requried to run the installation. With the consolidation of numerous missions into the 18th Wing in 1991, the 18 CSW was downgraded and redesignated the 18th Support Group. It was redesignated again as the 18th Mission Support Group in 2002.

Beacon

Name type Call sign Frequency Operating time
Kadena VOR KAD 112 MHz 24hour
TACAN - 1018 MHz
The USAF is responsible for maintenance.

Units

The 18th Wing is the host unit at Kadena AB. In addition, the base hosts associate units from five other Air Force major commands, the United States Navy, and other Department of Defense agencies and direct reporting units. Associate units operate more than 20 permanently assigned, forward-based or deployed aircraft from the base on a daily basis.

Associated units:

  • 353d Special Operations Group
    This is an element of the Air Force Special Operations Command, Hurlburt Field, Florida. The 750 Airmen of the group are organized into the 1st Special Operations Squadron, the 17th Special Operations Squadron, a maintenance squadron, the 320th Special Tactics Squadron, and an operations support squadron. The flying squadrons operate the MC-130J Commando II, MC-130H Combat Talon II.
  • 733d Air Mobility Squadron
    This squadron manage all passengers and cargo traveling by air in and out of Kadena. This Air Mobility Command unit supports about 650 aircraft arrivals and departures every month, moving more than 12,000 passengers and nearly 3,000 tons of cargo.
  • 82d Reconnaissance Squadron
    Air Combat Command's 82d Reconnaissance Squadron maintains aircraft; prepares combat-ready aircrews; and analyzes, processes, and disseminates intelligence data launch in support of RC-135V/W Rivet Joint, RC-135U Combat Sent and WC-135 Constant Phoenix missions flown in the Pacific Theater.
  • 390th Intelligence Squadron
    This Air Intelligence Agency squadron conducts information operations by providing tailored combat intelligence and assessing the security of friendly command, control, communication and computer systems to enhance warfighting survivability, situation awareness and targeting.
  • U.S. Army
    1st Battalion, 1st Air Defense Artillery Regiment, assigned to the 94th AAMDC is a Patriot PAC-3 battalion. It consists of four Patriot missile batteries (Alpha through Delta), a maintenance company (Echo) and a headquarters battery (HHB).
  • The Air Force Housing Management Office (HMO) manages Military Family Housing (MFH) for all service members assigned to Okinawa.[11] Kadena Air Base contains nearly 4,000 family housing units, in apartment, townhouse, and single family home styles.[12]

Other units:

Naval Communications Detachment Okinawa

The mission of NAVCOMM Det Okinawa is to provide communications support for the Seventh Fleet and supporting units, U.S. Naval Forces Japan, U.S. Naval Forces Korea, Defense Information Systems Agency and the Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force. The detachment has four work centers:

  1. TSCCOMM provides telecommunications support for Patrol Wing ONE Det Kadena, deployed patrol squadrons and Marine Wing Detachment
  2. CMS provides communications security (COMSEC) materials and cryptographic equipment to Patrol Squadrons and detachments, and to Commander Amphibious Group One/CTF76, located at White Beach
  3. Naval Radio Transmitter Facility (NRTF) Awase provides HF transmitter support to the fleet and area commanders and LF transmitter support for submarines operating in the Pacific and Indian Oceans
  4. SURTASS supports command and control functions to SURTASS ships operating in the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific.

Major commands to which assigned

Redesignated: Far East Air Force, 1 January 1947
Redesignated: Pacific Air Forces, 1 July 1957

Base facilities

  • Gate 5 Park
  • Kadena Passenger Terminal
  • Kadena BX
  • Schilling Community Center
  • Rocker Enlisted Club
  • Officers Club
  • Banyan Tree Golf Course
  • Jack's Place Restaurant (originally Skoshi KOOM – Kadena Officers Open Mess)[13]
  • Kadena High School
  • Kadena Middle School
  • Kadena Elementary School
  • Bob Hope Primary School
  • Ryukyu Middle School
  • Amelia Earhart Intermediate School
  • Stearley Heights Elementary School
  • The Asian Division of University of Maryland University College (UMUC)[14]
  • Kadena Commissary

Environmental concerns

In June 2013, the government of Japan discovered 22 barrels buried on former base property that tests showed had previously contained dioxins and herbicides. Tests on the surrounding soils found dioxin levels at 8.4 times and groundwater at 280 times the legal limit. The land in question is a soccer field bordering the base's Bob Hope Primary School and Amelia Earhart Intermediate School. Angry parents accused base officials, under base commanders Brigadier General Matt H. Molloy[15] and Brigadier General James B. Hecker, of failing to notify them of the toxins near the school and not investigating into the matter. The parents established a Facebook group on 10 January 2014 titled, "Bob Hope/AEIS - Protect Our Kids." After the issue was reported in the Japan Times and Stars and Stripes, USAF officials tested the soil and water at the schools and said that no excessive toxic substances were found.[16][17]

Soil on the base tested positive for very high levels of polychlorinated biphenylchemicals (PCBs), in the thousands of parts per million, much higher than most other contamination sites in the world, according to a report issued in 1987 after an investigation prompted by a small unrelated spill of transformer oil.[18]

Accidents and incidents

Notes

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

  1. ^ http://www.kadena.af.mil
  2. ^ https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/kadena.htm
  3. ^ AIS Japan Archived 17 May 2016 at the Portuguese Web Archive
  4. ^ Norris, Robert S.; Arkin, William M.; Burr, William (November 1999). "Where They Were". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 55 (6): 26–35. doi:10.2968/055006011. 
  5. ^ Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947-1977 (PDF). Office of Air Force History. p. 35. ISBN 0912799129. 
  6. ^ a b Futrell, Robert (1981). The United States Air Force in Southeast Asia: The Advisory Years to 1965 (PDF). Office of Air Force History. p. 229-30. ISBN 9789998843523. 
  7. ^ 1-1 ADA PAC-3 Battalion officially at Kadena Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. 18th Wing Public Affairs- U.S. Air Force 11 November 2006
  8. ^ U.S. missile defense under way on Okinawa Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Asahi Shimbun-27 October 2006
  9. ^ Nalty, Bernard (2000). The United States Air Force in Southeast Asia: The War in South Vietnam Air War over South Vietnam 1968–1975 (PDF). Air Force History and Museums Program. p. 242. ISBN 9781478118640. 
  10. ^ Schlight, John (1999). The United States Air Force in Southeast Asia: The War in South Vietnam The Years of the Offensive 1965–1968 (PDF). Office of Air Force History. p. 150-3. ISBN 9780912799513. 
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  12. ^ http://www.housing.af.mil/photos/slideshow.asp?id={6D4ED796-E876-4287-9693-82FFDE047917} Archived 24 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ Sr-71 Revealed: The Inside Story – Richard H. Graham – Google Books
  14. ^ http://www.asia.umuc.edu
  15. ^ "Kadena Air Base List of commanders". Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  16. ^ Mitchell, Jon, "Kadena moms demand truth", Japan Times, 22 January 2014
  17. ^ Tritten, Travis J., "Air Force: Kadena school area near where tainted drums found 'completely safe'", Stars and Stripes, 24 January 2014
  18. ^ U.S. military report suggests cover-up over toxic pollution in Okinawa Jon Mitchell, Japan Times, 17 March 2014
  19. ^ "Okinawa school marks 50th year since deadly U.S. fighter crash". Japan Times. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2009. 
  20. ^ LaGrone, Sam (28 May 2013). "Okinawa F-15 Crashes, Pilot Safe". news.usni.org. Retrieved 15 June 2018. 
  21. ^ Roth, Betty (28 May 2013). "US Air Force Pilot Survives F-15 Crash Off Okinawa". Retrieved 15 June 2018. 
  22. ^ "Officials release report on F-15 accident near Kadena AB". af.mil. January 22, 2014. Retrieved June 15, 2018. 
  23. ^ Tan, Michelle (11 June 2018). "Kadena Air Base F-15 crashes off Okinawa". Retrieved 11 June 2018. 
  24. ^ Rogoway, Tyler (10 June 2018). "A USAF F-15C Eagle Crashed Off Okinawa, Pilot Rescued Alive After Ejection". thedrive.com. The Drive. Retrieved 11 June 2018. 

Bibliography

  • Fletcher, Harry R. (1989) Air Force Bases Volume II, Active Air Force Bases outside the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-53-6
  • Martin, Patrick (1994). Tail Code: The Complete History of USAF Tactical Aircraft Tail Code Markings. Schiffer Military Aviation History. ISBN 0-88740-513-4.
  • Maurer, Maurer. Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office 1961 (republished 1983, Office of Air Force History, ISBN 0-912799-02-1).
  • Rogers, Brian (2005). United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978. Hinkley, England: Midland Publications. ISBN 1-85780-197-0.

External links

This page was last edited on 7 August 2018, at 10:48
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