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K Line (Los Angeles Metro)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

K Line
LACMTA Circle K Line.svg
Planes and (future) trains (38810759180).jpg
K Line tracks, under construction, as seen from a plane landing at LAX.
Other name(s)Crenshaw/LAX Line (development process)
LocaleCrenshaw, Inglewood, Westchester
TerminiExpo/Crenshaw (north)
Aviation/LAX (south, construction)
Norwalk (east, service)
WebsiteCrenshaw/LAX Transit Project
TypeLight rail
SystemLos Angeles Metro Rail
Operator(s) Metro (LACMTA)
Rolling stockKinki Sharyo P3010
Planned openingNovember 2022
Line length8.5 mi (13.7 km)[1]
CharacterAt-grade, underground sections and aerial sections
Track gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Electrification750 V DC overhead catenary (overhead rigid rail in tunnels)
Operating speed65 mph (105 km/h)
Route map

Parking E Line 
Martin Luther King Jr.
Leimert Park
Hyde Park
Fairview Heights
Downtown Inglewood
Parking (Inglewood Transit Connector 2027)
Aviation/96th Street
LAX Automated People Mover (2024)
Los Angeles International Airport (via link=LAX Shuttle)
Harbor Freeway
J Line 
Willowbrook/Rosa Parks
A Line C Line 
Long Beach Boulevard
Lakewood Boulevard
Proposed extension
Norwalk/Santa Fe Springs
Metrolink (California) (planned)
Detailed diagram
showing all crossings and current service plan
E Line  Parking Expo/Crenshaw
Martin Luther King Jr.
Leimert Park
Crenshaw Blvd
Hyde Park
Crenshaw Blvd
Hyde Park Tunnel
Brynhurst Avenue
West Boulevard
Parking Fairview Heights
High Street
Centinela Avenue
Parking Downtown Inglewood
La Brea Avenue
Ivy Avenue
Eucalyptus Avenue
Cedar Avenue
Oak Street
Hyde Park Boulevard
San Diego Freeway
La Cienega Avenue
Hindry Avenue
Manchester Avenue
Arbor Vitae Street
Division 16 OMSF
(2024) LAX Automated People Mover Aviation/96th Street
Los Angeles International Airport (via link=LAX Shuttle) Aviation/Century
Century Boulevard
LAX Runway North trench
LAX Runway Tunnel
LAX Runway South trench
111th Street
Imperial Highway
Century Freeway
C Line C Line
Aviation Boulevard
C Line 
C Line 
C Line 
C Line 
C Line J Line 
Harbor Freeway
Harbor Transitway
C Line 
A Line C Line 
Willowbrook/Rosa Parks
Long Beach Boulevard
Long Beach Freeway
Lakewood Boulevard
San Gabriel Freeway
Metrolink (California)
Norwalk/Santa Fe Springs
Handicapped/disabled access all stations accessible

The K Line[2] (known as the Crenshaw/LAX Line during planning) is an 8.5 miles (13.7 km)[1] light rail line under-construction that will run through southwest Los Angeles, in a generally north–south direction. It will connect the Crenshaw neighborhood and Leimert Park to the City of Inglewood and Los Angeles International Airport (LAX). When completed, the line will be a part of the Los Angeles County Metro Rail System, and operate in an L shaped pattern along the current C Line between Norwalk and Aviation/LAX, then on new infrastructure to Expo/Crenshaw.

The project is being built by Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro). The project has been given high priority by Metro in its long-range plan;[3] it has funding set aside in Measure R.[4] The Final EIR was certified on September 22, 2011.[5] The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) gave its approval to build the $1.766 billion[6] light rail line in January 2012.[7]

Metro began pre-construction in July 2012, and a Notice to Proceed was issued by Metro in September 2013.[8] An official ground-breaking ceremony for the project was held on January 21, 2014.[9] Heavy construction began in June 2014 and initial revenue service was projected to begin by mid-2020.[10] As of April 2021, the line is behind schedule but is 98% completed.[11] Revenue service is now expected in November 2022.[12][13]


Map of the K Line (solid pink) shown in the project study area (highlighted) shown with the potential Northern Extension as outlined in 2008.
Map of the K Line (solid pink) shown in the project study area (highlighted) shown with the potential Northern Extension as outlined in 2008.

The Metro Crenshaw/LAX Line project is an 8.5-mile light rail (LRT) route, starting at the Expo/Crenshaw station on the E Line and connecting at a wye to the existing C Line just to the west of Aviation/LAX station. The initial segment includes eight stations; an infill station, Aviation/96th Street station, will be built later to accommodate a planned people mover system at LAX.[14]

The northern half of the route follows Crenshaw Boulevard from Exposition Boulevard down to 67th Street. The southern half of the route utilizes the Harbor Subdivision Right-Of-Way (ROW) from Crenshaw Boulevard to the Green Line just west of Imperial/Aviation.

At its northern terminus, Metro has decided not to directly connect the Crenshaw Line track to the at-grade E Line track. Such a connection would have allowed the Crenshaw Line to interline with the E Line and terminate in Downtown Los Angeles. However, Metro argues that this is not operationally feasible (three lines would share tracks on Flower Street leading into Downtown, putting the tracks above their maximum capacity, leading to delays), and is therefore not worth the cost. Instead, its northern terminus will be an underground subway station at Expo/Crenshaw, built to enable a planned northern extension to the D Line and the Hollywood/Highland station on the B Line in Hollywood.

Station listing

The project will include nine new Metro stations, including an infill station that will not open until several years after the rest of the line:[15][9]

Station Planned opening City (Neighborhood) Major connections and notes
Expo/Crenshaw November 2022 Los Angeles (Jefferson Park)  E Line
Martin Luther King Jr. Los Angeles (Baldwin Hills/Leimert Park)
Leimert Park Los Angeles (Leimert Park)
Hyde Park Los Angeles (Hyde Park)
Fairview Heights
Downtown Inglewood July 2023[citation needed] Inglewood Future connection to Inglewood Transit Connector (2027)
Aviation/96th Street July 2024[16] Los Angeles (Westchester) Future connection to LAX Automated People Mover
Aviation/Century July 2023


Operating plan approved for the Crenshaw/LAX Line
Operating plan approved for the Crenshaw/LAX Line

The question of how the new segment would be integrated into the Metro Rail system was the subject of some controversy in 2018 as completion of the project seemed looming. Early proposals had suggested that a new line would operate between Expo/Crenshaw station in the north and Aviation/Century station in the south or possibly extend to Redondo Beach station once the stations west of Aviation/LAX station could accommodate 3-car trains, with the stretch southwest of the wye continuing to be served by the C Line as well.[17] An additional service would have connected Norwalk station to the new Aviation/Century station and planned LAX/Metro Transit Center, as well as the LAX Automated People Mover.[18]

The service plan would have required trains passing all three directions through the wye connecting the new and existing infrastructure, which Metro staff felt would unduly wear down the points. Instead, in 2018 Metro proposed a service plan that would see the newly opened segment connected to the bulk of the current C Line; the southwest segment of the C Line in the South Bay would operate as a separate shuttle between Redondo Beach and the new Aviation/Century station. The arrangement was meant to provide a seamless rail option for the many passengers who currently transfer between the C Line and north to south bus lines in the area, as well as operationally combine the Norwalk–LAX and Crenshaw/Expo–LAX legs, which have matching capacity needs, rather than combining either with the more sparsely used Redondo Beach leg.[19]

However, the new plan was met with resistance from some board members, particularly Supervisor Janice Hahn, because it would require South Bay passengers to make multiple transfers to complete trips then possible with only one transfer.[20] A faction of the Metro board led by Hahn proposed a one-year pilot of an alternative routing scheme under which one line would travel from Norwalk station to Expo/Crenshaw station and another from Redondo Beach station to Willowbrook/Rosa Parks station. The proposal, dubbed C-3, was approved by the Metro board on December 6, 2018.[21] This option will entail an additional $10 million annual operating cost over Metro's initial proposal, in large part because a substantial segment of the current C Line between Willowbrook and Aviation/LAX will see three-minute headways at peak hours. The adopted proposal will also limit the potential length of trains on the new segment to two cars due to power constraints; it will preclude a one-seat ride from the South Bay to LAX[22] but maintains the ability of South Bay passengers to transfer directly to the J and A Lines.

By 2021, delays in construction the line along with plans for construction of the Aviation/96th Street station and the LAX Automated People Mover led to a new initial service plan. In a presentation to the South Bay Cities Council of Governments, Metro proposed that only the northern portion of the K Line, between Expo/Crenshaw and Westchester/Veterans, would enter service in mid 2022, with a bus bridge connecting the line to the C Line. Through service to Aviation/Century and the present-day C Line would open 14 months later in July 2023, although Aviation/96th Street would not open until July 2024.[16] An independent consultant hired by Metro to assess the project and produce a more realistic schedule projected in a March 2021 report that revenue service would not begin until November 2022.[13]


Los Angeles Railway Line 5 yellow streetcars served Crenshaw and Florence Boulevards until 1955 when the service was replaced with buses.[23]

Extending the Green Line to LAX was an early goal of Los Angeles transit planners. Studies in 1984 and 1988 outlined a route from the junction near Aviation/Century and running to the northeast, similar to later plans for the second section of the Sepulveda Pass Transit Corridor.[24]

The line was planned following the Los Angeles riots of 1992 as a way to better serve transit-dependent residents in the corridor while at the same time providing stimulus for positive economic growth in the South Los Angeles region.[23] It was championed by State Senator Diane Watson and County Supervisor Yvonne Brathwaite Burke, both representing portions of the corridor.

In 1993 and 1994, a Major Investment Study (MIS) was initiated.[1] At that time, the project was referred to as the Crenshaw–Prairie Corridor. A route refinement study followed in 1999–2000 to improve the shelf life and to narrow down the number of alternatives. An architectural design and planning visioning was performed by the University of Southern California school of Architecture in 1996. A new Major Investment Study (MIS) was completed in 2003. From 2007 through 2009, Metro conducted a draft environmental review of the line, taking public input and analyzing the environmental impacts and benefits of various alternatives. In December 2009, the Metro Board approved the Draft Environmental Impact Report[25] and chose a "Locally Preferred Alternative".[26]

This alternative, which included the preferred mode and route, became the subject of a final environmental study, resulting in a Final Environmental Impact Report. This final study was completed in May 2011.[27] Local community leaders, neighborhood councils, Los Angeles County Supervisors Yvonne Burke and Mark Ridley-Thomas, as well as U.S. Representative Diane Watson continued to express enthusiastic support for the proposed light rail line. In a letter to Metro dated November 5, 2007, Watson wrote:

Having advocated strenuously for a light rail 'spur line' to carry passengers from the Wilshire Corridor down the Crenshaw Corridor and, ultimately, to LAX for 25 years now, I am delighted to offer continued encouragement, advocacy and feedback for a Metro study (to)…avoid aggravating (the) Leimert Park traffic bottleneck, Coliseum to Vernon;…Wilshire/La Brea station connection to Westside Corridor line, avoiding hydrogen sulfide;…fully consider (the) below-grade option. (Comment ID 116-125 in the cited link)[28]

The route was designated as the K Line by November 2019.[29] In April 2020, Metro announced that the completion date for the project would be pushed to no earlier than May 2021 due to construction issues. The support structures for bridges and tunnels had concrete plinths that were incorrectly installed, requiring extensive repairs to sections where tracks had already been installed.[10]

Environmental review process

The Draft Environmental Impact Report (DEIR) describes several alternatives, as well as "Design Options" (optional features with additional cost).[25] Many other alignments were considered previously, but eliminated due to lack of feasibility or benefit.

The following table summarizes key characteristics of each alternative:

Name Cost
Project Alternatives
No-Build $0 Nothing is built. (This is required for comparison to other alternatives.)
TSM $25 "Transportation Systems Management": expanded bus service.
BRT (Bus Rapid Transit) $554 High capacity buses, dedicated bus lanes, 12 bus stations along route between Imperial/Aviation and Wilshire/Western.
LRT (Light-Rail Transit) $1,306 Light-rail trains, double-track route, 7-8 stations along route between Imperial/Aviation and Exposition/Crenshaw.
Design Options (LRT only)
Design Option 1 $11 Adds aerial grade separation at Century/Aviation, station also aerial.
Design Option 2 $16 Adds aerial grade separation at Manchester/Aviation.
Design Option 3 $13 Adds cut-and-cover (below-grade) grade separation at ROW/Centinela.
Design Option 4 $29 Replaces aerial grade-separation between 60th Street and Victoria Avenue with cut-and-cover (below-grade).
Design Option 5 $155 Adds a below-grade station at Leimert Park (Vernon Avenue).
Design Option 6 $236 Adds below-grade grade separation between Exposition and 39th Street.

* in 2008 dollars.

Grade separations

The route had several segments under consideration for grade-separations. The LRT Baseline (DEIR) included a minimal set of grade separations: the design options specified additional grade separations. The locally preferred alternative (LPA) adopted by the Metro Board included the LRT Baseline plus some additional grade separations (e.g. Design Options 1, 2 and 4). Other grade separations were also still under consideration. All grade separations are subject to the Metro Grade Crossing Policy.[30]

The following table describes the Crenshaw Corridor's route, divided into segments with potential grade-separations:

Segment start Segment end Length (miles) Location LRT Baseline[25] Locally preferred alternative[26] Additional proposed Stations in segment
(northern terminus)
(north of King)
0.5 street median at-grade at-grade below-grade (DO6) Expo/Crenshaw
(north of King)
(south of Vernon)
1.1 street median below-grade below-grade Martin Luther King, Leimert Park
(south of Vernon)
(south of Slauson)
1.0 street median at-grade at-grade below-grade (PMH) Hyde Park
(south of Slauson)
(west of Crenshaw)
0.6 street median aerial below-grade (DO4)
(west of Crenshaw)
Florence east of Centinela 0.9 ROW at-grade at-grade Fairview Heights
Florence east of Centinela Florence/Locust
(betw. Centinela and La Brea)
0.4 ROW
crossing Centinela
at-grade at-grade below-grade (DO3)
(betw. Centinela and La Brea)
(west of La Brea)
0.6 ROW
crossing La Brea
aerial aerial Downtown Inglewood
(west of La Brea)
Florence/Hyde Park
(east of 405)
0.6 ROW at-grade at-grade
Florence/Hyde Park
(east of 405)
Florence west of La Cienega 0.3 ROW
crossing 405
and La Cienega
aerial aerial
Florence west of La Cienega Florence/Hindry
(north of Manchester)
0.3 ROW at-grade at-grade
(north of Manchester)
Aviation south of Manchester 0.2 ROW
crossing Manchester
at-grade aerial (DO2) Westchester/Veterans
Aviation south of Manchester Aviation north of Century 0.7 ROW at-grade at-grade
Aviation north of Century Aviation south of Century 0.4 ROW
crossing Century
at-grade aerial (DO1) Aviation/Century
Aviation south of Century Aviation north of Imperial 0.7 ROW below-grade below-grade
Aviation north of Imperial Aviation/Imperial
(southern terminus)
0.2 ROW
crossing Imperial
aerial aerial


  • DO1: Design Option 1, $11 million. Approved and in LPA.
  • DO2: Design Option 2, $16 million. Approved and in LPA.
  • DO3: Design Option 3, $13 million. Studied; ultimately not adopted.
  • DO4: Design Option 4, $29 million. Approved and in LPA.
  • DO6: Design Option 6, $236 million. Studied; added to project in 2013.
  • PMH: Study of grade-separating (underground) the line through Park Mesa Heights between 48th and 60th Streets, requested by County Supervisor Mark Ridley-Thomas. See section below.

Maintenance facility

Metro staff studied and ranked 16 potential sites for the required maintenance facility.[31] Through several rounds of screening, all but five were eliminated.

In March 2011, a Supplemental DEIS/R was released to the public, specifically related to the maintenance facility. This study was completed due to changes to capacity requirements of the Crenshaw Line. Three of the screened sites were carried forward into this study, and one new site was added.[32] The four site options studied in the Supplemental DEIS/R (from north to south) are:

Site # Name Location Size (acres) Operation
14 Arbor Vitae/Bellanca Westchester 17.6 standalone
15 Manchester/Aviation Inglewood 20.5 standalone
17 Marine/Redondo Beach Redondo Beach 14.2 satellite to Division 22
D22N Division 22 Expansion Hawthorne 3.5 satellite to Division 22

Following the public comment period in April 2011, staff recommended adoption of the Arbor Vitae/Bellanca site, since it had no public objections and all environmental impacts could be mitigated.[27]

Park Mesa Tunnel

In 2010, Supervisor Mark Ridley-Thomas requested study of a tunnel through Park Mesa Heights on Crenshaw Boulevard between 48th and 59th Streets. Metro staff studied the option and recommended against it. Staff concluded the option offers minimal benefit but high cost. The additional cost for the tunnel would be $219 million, or $167 million with Slauson station removed. Instead that section of the line will be at-grade level.[33][34]

Leimert Park and Hindry stations

In May 2011, Supervisor Ridley-Thomas asked the Metro Board to vote on a motion requiring construction of both the tunnel and the subway station in Leimert Park Plaza (Crenshaw/Vernon). The Board voted to include an underground station at Leimert Park and approved the station only under the condition that the entire project can be completed within its original budget.[35]

In May 2013, the Metro Board voted 10–1 to officially include an underground station at Leimert Park (Crenshaw/Vernon, at Crenshaw Blvd and 43rd Place), and another at-grade station at Hindry Ave (Florence/Hindry), in the Crenshaw/LAX Line project.[6]

Aviation/96th station

In 2014, Metro approved the planning and scoping of an infill station at 96th and Aviation, which would connect to the proposed LAX Train automated people mover system to the airport terminals.[36][37] The station would be less than half a mile north of the under construction Aviation/Century station, and would serve as Metro Rail's main gateway to the airport itself, while the Aviation/Century station would serve destinations along the busy Century Boulevard corridor. The proposed station would be served by Green Line trains as well as trains along the new Crenshaw/LAX Line.[38]

Route Selection: Alternative 6

In December 2009, the Metro Board selected a Locally Preferred Alternative (LPA), and in 2010 Metro conducted the Final Environmental Study for this alternative. This alternative included the LRT Baseline alignment, plus Design Options 1, 2 and 4. At this time, Metro also authorized further study of the remaining design options.

In selecting this alternative, Metro staff eliminated the BRT (bus rapid transit) alternative, stating that it was too slow to provide much benefit, and that it generally lacked public support.

Metro staff also concluded that the northernmost portion of the Crenshaw Corridor between Exposition and Wilshire was too expensive to include in the project if implemented as light-rail. Thus, study and implementation of that segment was deferred, to be considered separately in the future as a northern extension ("Phase 2") of the Crenshaw Line (see section below).

Metro estimated the light-rail line will initially have a daily ridership between 13,000 and 16,000, would cost $1.3 billion - $1.8 billion (in 2008 dollars), would take five years to complete construction, and would generate 7,800 construction jobs over this period.[25]

Measure R assumes a project cost of $1.470 billion (2008). Its sales tax revenues will provide up to $1.207 billion (82% of the budgeted cost). The remaining $263 million is expected to come from local funding. The Crenshaw Corridor project did not seek state or federal funding.[39] The LPA (including Design Options 1, 2 and 4) was estimated to cost $1.306 billion, which was within budget. If Metro were to include the remaining three design options, the cost would rise to $1.766 billion, exceeding the Measure R project cost by nearly $300 million, requiring cost deferments.

In October 2010, the Federal government of the United States awarded the Crenshaw Corridor a $546 million loan, to be paid back by Measure R tax revenue. The loan allowed pre-construction for the project to begin in summer 2012. The final Crenshaw/LAX Transit Corridor budget was $1.763 billion,[6] as it included most of the design options. At that time, project completion was expected in 2019.[1] Ultimately, the LPA, with the addition of Design Option 6 and the underground Leimert Park station, is budgeted at $1.766 billion.[6]

Northern extension to Hollywood

The original plans for the Crenshaw Corridor project connected Wilshire Blvd to LAX. However, during environmental review, Metro determined that if LRT were selected as the preferred mode, the cost for the entire route would exceed the project budget. In December 2009, the Metro Board selected LRT as the preferred mode; as a result, the part of the corridor north of Exposition Boulevard was deferred until funds become available. This segment can be considered a "Phase 2" extension of the original line. Any Phase 2 extension would be expected to connect to the portion of the D Line currently under construction as part of the Purple Line Extension project, as well as to the B Line.

In May 2009, Metro released a report on the feasibility of an extension north to Wilshire Boulevard.[40] It first screened two routes—one to Wilshire/La Brea, and another to Wilshire/Crenshaw. Through this screening, staff concluded that Wilshire/La Brea station would be more cost-effective and more compatible with land uses and plans along its route. Specifically, the report cited the following advantages of the La Brea route over the Crenshaw route:

  • Greater residential and job density,
  • Supportive land-uses for a high capacity subway,
  • Stronger regional potential to link this corridor northward towards Hollywood in the future,
  • Strong community support in the Hancock Park area and
  • Fewer geotechnical soil impacts compared to the Hydrogen sulfide soil along Crenshaw Blvd north of Pico Boulevard.

In October 2010, the Metro Board voted to eliminate the Wilshire/Crenshaw station from the Purple Line Subway Extension project, for similar reasons.[41]

The 3.5-mile Wilshire/La Brea route heads north on Crenshaw to Venice, west on Venice to San Vicente, continuing northwest on San Vicente to La Brea, and then north on La Brea to Wilshire. It has three possible stations: Crenshaw/Adams (optional), Pico/San Vicente, and Wilshire/La Brea.

The feasibility report also allowed for two possible branches/extensions along La Brea Ave, Fairfax Ave, La Cienega Blvd or San Vicente Blvd heading north of Wilshire into West Hollywood and/or Hollywood.

In November 2010, Metro staff produced an initial review of the feasibility of studying a new transit corridor to connect the Crenshaw Corridor to West Hollywood and/or Hollywood.[42]

In May 2014, the West Hollywood City Council considered a proposal by Councilmembers John Heilman and Jeffrey Prang to engage a lobbyist to promote the need for Metro rail services in West Hollywood. The Heilman/Prang proposal notes that “former Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa assured West Hollywood representatives that West Hollywood would be ‘next in line’.”[43] In 2015, the West Hollywood City Council launched the West Hollywood Advocates for Metro Rail (WHAM) as part of a campaign to win grassroots support for a Metro rail extension into the city.[44]

In September 2016, in a letter to West Hollywood City Councilmember Lindsey Horvath, Metro CEO Phil Washington outlined several steps Metro is taking to make the Crenshaw/LAX northern extension “shovel ready” should county voters approve Measure M, a countywide ballot measure adding new transit projects and expediting others previously approved under Measure R.[45]

Connection to the first phase

The final design of the first phase (the original project line south of Exposition Blvd to LAX) would determine how the Phase 2 project could or would connect to Phase 1. The original locally preferred alternative (LPA) for the Crenshaw/LAX Line from the draft environmental impact study (Draft EIS/EIR) specified an at-grade station at the Phase 1 Expo/Crenshaw terminus, with the Leimert Park tunnel ending several blocks south of that, near 39th Street. If Phase 1 had been built per the LPA, then Phase 2 would have require the building of a new tunnel with a connection near 39th Street. This would have required the north end of the Leimert Park tunnel to be outfitted with knockout panels to allow for the possible future extension north.[46]

Metro also studied "Design Option 6" for Phase 1, which would extend the Leimert Park tunnel north to the line's northern terminus at Exposition, with an underground station at Crenshaw/Exposition. This design option was selected so that Phase 2 can connect to Phase 1 directly at the Crenshaw/Exposition station's tunnels. This design option increased the cost of the original Phase 1 project by $236 million.[47]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e "Crenshaw/LAX Transit Corridor (project website)". Metro (LACMTA). June 27, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
  2. ^ @EstebanCortante (February 18, 2021). "One of these days" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  3. ^ "Long Range Transportation Plan" (PDF). Metro (LACMTA). Retrieved August 30, 2010.
  4. ^ "Measure R". Metro (LACMTA). Retrieved August 30, 2010.
  5. ^ "Recap/Draft Minutes, Regular Board Meeting, 22 September 2011" (PDF). Metro (LACMTA). September 22, 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  6. ^ a b c d "Metro Board votes to fully fund Leimert Park Village and Hindry stations for Crenshaw/LAX Line". The Source. Metro (LACMTA). May 23, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
  7. ^ "FTA approves L.A. Metro light rail project". Metro Magazine. January 5, 2012. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
  8. ^ "Metro issues Notice to Proceed for Crenshaw/LAX Line!". The Source. Metro (LACMTA). September 10, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
  9. ^ a b "And so it begins: ground is broken for 8.5-mile Crenshaw/LAX Line". The Source. Metro (LACMTA). January 21, 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2014.
  10. ^ a b Nelson, Laura J. (April 10, 2020). "Construction problems delay Metro's $2-billion Crenshaw Line opening until 2021". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
  11. ^ "Crenshaw/LAX Transit ProjectBudget/Schedule Presentation" (PDF). LACMTA. March 25, 2021. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  12. ^ Fine, Howard (June 7, 2021). "Opening Date Pushed Back Again for Metro's Crenshaw-LAX Line". Los Angeles Business Journal. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  13. ^ a b "Metro Rail Shorts: Crenshaw and Connector Delays, Sepulveda Video, and More". May 11, 2021. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
  14. ^ Ubaldo, Jose (August 7, 2015). "Construction update: Crenshaw/LAX Line". Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  15. ^ Hymon, Steve (July 23, 2015). "Actions taken today by Metro Board of Directors". The Source. Metro (LACMTA). Retrieved July 27, 2015. The Board adopted the official names for the stations along the Crenshaw/LAX Line that is currently under construction. The names, from north to south: Expo/Crenshaw, Martin Luther King, Jr., Leimert Park, Hyde Park, Fairview Heights, Downtown Inglewood, Westchester/Veterans and Aviation/Century.
  16. ^ a b "Airport Metro Connector Status Update" (PDF). April 2021.
  17. ^ Sumers, Brian (January 21, 2014). "Metro breaks ground on new $2 billion L.A. Crenshaw/LAX Line". Daily Breeze. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
  18. ^ "City Council approves long-awaited people mover to LAX". Los Angeles Times. April 11, 2018. Archived from the original on April 12, 2018. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  19. ^ "Crenshaw/LAX Line Operations Plan Being Debated, Will Affect Green Line". June 22, 2018. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  20. ^ Chiland, Elijah (July 3, 2018). "Will the Crenshaw Line strand South Bay riders?". Curbed LA. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  21. ^ StreetsblogLA (December 6, 2018). "Metro bd mtg: Barger votes yes. Hahn Crenshaw/Green C3 motion passes 7-4-2 (Ridley-Thomas, Kuehl abstained)". Retrieved December 6, 2018.
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