To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kodachrome 200 - Film for colour slides
Kodachrome 200 - Film for colour slides

K-14 was the most recent version of the developing process for Kodak's Kodachrome transparency film before its discontinuation (the last revision having been designated Process K-14M.)[1] It superseded previous versions of the Kodachrome process used with older films (such as K-12 for Kodachrome II and Kodachrome-X).[2]

The K-14 process differed significantly from its contemporary, the E-6 process, in both complexity and length. Kodachrome film has no integral color couplers; dyes are produced during processing (each color in a separate step) by the reaction of the color couplers with the oxidised developer. Due to declining sales, Kodak discontinued production of all K-14 chemistry in 2009, concurrently with Kodachrome 64 film. Dwayne's Photo, which operated the last K-14 line in the world, discontinued sales on December 30, 2010; the last roll was processed on January 18, 2011. At least one group of photographers has been assessing the possibility of recreating a K-14 line using orphaned hardware and new chemicals.[citation needed] In 2012, photographer Steven Frizza had documented success in reproducing the K-14 process manually,[3] noting its difficulty and expense, as have other photographers since.[4][5]


The layers in the film are, top-to-bottom: blue sensitive (yellow), yellow filter, blue-green sensitive (magenta), blue-red sensitive (cyan), acetate base, rem-jet antihalation backing.

The processing cycle is as follows:[6]

  1. Backing removal: An alkaline bath softens the cellulose acetate phthalate binder. A spray wash and buffer removes the rem-jet anti-halation backing.
  2. First Developer: All exposed silver halide crystals are developed to metallic silver via a PQ developer. The yellow filter layer becomes opaque because it has a combination of Lippmann emulsion (very tiny grains) and Carey Lea silver (metallic silver particles that are small enough that they are yellow rather than gray.)
  3. Wash
  4. Red light re-exposure through the base: This makes the remaining undeveloped silver halide in the cyan layers developable.
  5. Cyan developer: The solution contains a color developer and a cyan coupler. These are colorless in solution. After the color developer develops the silver, the oxidized developer reacts with the cyan coupler to form cyan dye. The dye is much less soluble than either the developer or the coupler so it stays in the red layer of the film.
  6. Wash
  7. Blue light re-exposure from the top: This makes the remaining undeveloped grains in the blue sensitive layer (the yellow layer) developable. The now opaque yellow filter layers prevents the blue light from exposing the magenta layer (the green sensitive layer, which is also sensitive to blue light). It is important to avoid stray printing light exposing the film base of film.
  8. Yellow developer: Analogous to the cyan developer.
  9. Wash
  10. Magenta developer: This contains a chemical fogging agent that makes all of the remaining undeveloped silver developable. If everything has worked correctly, nearly all of this silver is in the magenta layers. The developer and magenta coupler work just like the cyan and yellow developers to produce magenta dye that is insoluble and stays in the film.
  11. Wash
  12. Conditioner: Prepares the metallic silver for the bleach step.
  13. Bleach: (ferric EDTA) Oxidises the metallic silver to silver halide. The bleach must be aerated. The former ferricyanide bleach did not require aeration and did not require a conditioner.
  14. Fix: Converts the silver halide to soluble compounds which are then dissolved and washed from the film
  15. Wash: Washes the fixer out of the film.
  16. Rinse: Contains a wetting agent to reduce water spots.
  17. Dry

The result is three different color records each with the appropriate dye, just like other color films. The original Kodachrome process in 1935 used dye bleaches and was a far more complex process. Although the formulae have changed over the years, the basic process steps have followed a similar pattern since the introduction of "selective re-exposure" Kodachrome in 1938.


  1. ^ "Processing Steps - Processing Kodachrome Film (PDF)" (PDF). Eastman Kodak Company. 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2003-04-20. Retrieved 1 March 2009.
  2. ^ "Reports of (Colour) Kodachrome Home Processing Emerge from Sydney". Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  3. ^ "Kodachrome 2017 - In COLOR!". Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  4. ^ "Kodachrome. Processed in Color. Seriously". Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  5. ^ "Process K-14 sequence with cross-sections" (pps). Retrieved 8 October 2016.

External links

This page was last edited on 14 July 2018, at 02:08
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.