To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Kōhei Uchimura

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kōhei Uchimura
Kohei Uchimura (2011).jpg
Uchimura in 2011
Personal information
Nickname(s)King Kohei
Supermura
Superman
Country represented Japan
Born (1989-01-03) January 3, 1989 (age 32)
Kitakyushu, Fukuoka Japan
HometownIsahaya, Nagasaki, Japan
Height162 cm (5 ft 4 in)[1][2]
Weight52 kg (115 lb)[1]
DisciplineMen's artistic gymnastics
ClubRinger Hut
Head coach(es)Hiroyuki Kato
Assistant coach(es)Yoshiaki Hatakeda, Koji Gushiken
Former coach(es)Naoya Tsukahara
Medal record
Event 1st 2nd 3rd
Olympic Games 3 4 0
World Championships 10 6 5
World Cup Final 0 1 0
Summer Universiade 2 0 1
Total 15 11 6
Men's artistic gymnastics
Representing  Japan
Olympic Games
Gold medal – first place 2012 London All-Around
Gold medal – first place 2016 Rio de Janeiro Team
Gold medal – first place 2016 Rio de Janeiro All-Around
Silver medal – second place 2008 Beijing Team
Silver medal – second place 2008 Beijing All-Around
Silver medal – second place 2012 London Team
Silver medal – second place 2012 London Floor Exercise
World Championships
Gold medal – first place 2009 London All-Around
Gold medal – first place 2010 Rotterdam All-Around
Gold medal – first place 2011 Tokyo All-Around
Gold medal – first place 2011 Tokyo Floor Exercise
Gold medal – first place 2013 Antwerp All-Around
Gold medal – first place 2013 Antwerp Parallel Bars
Gold medal – first place 2014 Nanning All-Around
Gold medal – first place 2015 Glasgow Team
Gold medal – first place 2015 Glasgow All-Around
Gold medal – first place 2015 Glasgow Horizontal bar
Silver medal – second place 2010 Rotterdam Team
Silver medal – second place 2010 Rotterdam Floor Exercise
Silver medal – second place 2011 Tokyo Team
Silver medal – second place 2014 Nanning Team
Silver medal – second place 2014 Nanning Horizontal Bar
Silver medal – second place 2018 Doha Horizontal Bar
Bronze medal – third place 2010 Rotterdam Parallel Bars
Bronze medal – third place 2011 Tokyo Horizontal Bar
Bronze medal – third place 2013 Antwerp Floor Exercise
Bronze medal – third place 2013 Antwerp Horizontal Bar
Bronze medal – third place 2018 Doha Team
World Cup Final
Silver medal – second place 2008 Madrid Floor Exercise
Summer Universiade
Gold medal – first place 2007 Bangkok Team
Gold medal – first place 2007 Bangkok Floor Exercise
Bronze medal – third place 2007 Bangkok Vault

Kōhei Uchimura (内村 航平, Uchimura Kōhei, born January 3, 1989) is a Japanese artistic gymnast. He is a seven-time Olympic medalist (all-around, team and floor exercise), winning three golds and four silvers, and a twenty-one-time World medalist (all-around, team, floor exercise, horizontal bar, and parallel bars).

Uchimura was already considered by many in the sport to be the greatest gymnast of all time after his success at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, but he subsequently solidified his position even further by following up that performance there with additional and uninterrupted victories at every major competition throughout the next Olympic cycle leading up to his individual all-around gold-medal victory at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro.[3][4][5] He is known for being the first gymnast (male or female) to win every major all-around title in an entire single Olympic cycle, accomplishing this feat twice by winning six world (2009–2011 and 2013–2015)[4] and two Olympic (2012 London Olympics, and 2016 Rio Olympics) individual all-around titles. Uchimura is also the individual all-around silver medalist at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. He is known for delivering difficult and accurately executed routines. The International Gymnast Magazine had praised his skills as a "combination of tremendous difficulty, supreme consistency and extraordinary elegance of performance."[6]

Early life and career

Uchimura was born in Kitakyushu, Fukuoka Prefecture, and began gymnastics at age 3 at his parents' sports club in Nagasaki Prefecture. His parents, Kazuhisa and Shuko Uchimura, were both competitive gymnasts.[4][7] At age 15, he moved to Tokyo to train with Athens gold medalist Naoya Tsukahara.[4][6][8] His younger sister Haruhi Uchimura is also a gymnast.[9] Kōhei Uchimura stated of his beliefs, "I don’t believe in God. I never had lucky charms. All I believe in is practice."[10] In his first international competition, the 2005 International Junior Competition in Japan,[11] he competed outside the official competition.[12]

Senior career

2007

Uchimura joined Japan's national team in 2007.[11] He made his senior debut at the 2007 Paris World Cup in March, a major international event. Here he won bronze on vault and placed ninth on floor.[13] In August, he won team gold[14] and 1st on floor and 3rd on vault[15] at the 2007 Summer Universiade in Bangkok. At Japan's national championships in October, he placed 7th in the all around.[16] A month later, at the international "Good Luck Beijing" event, he won silver with the Japanese team and placed 7th on floor exercise.[17]

2008

Uchimura started the 2008 season by winning gold on floor at the World Cup in Tianjin in May.[18]

Later that summer, he was selected to represent Japan at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing as a member of the national team. At the Olympics, he contributed to the team silver by competing on floor, vault, parallel bars, and high bar.[19] He qualified for the all-around final, where he won the silver medal. His 2nd place win behind China's Yang Wei gave Japan its first Olympic medal in the event in 24 years.[20] He obtained the highest mark of that meet on the floor 15.825 (double Arabian piked half out, triple twist dismount) and had a spectacular high bar routine (Kolman, piked Kovacs).[21] He also qualified through to the floor final, where he placed fifth.[19]

At the Japanese national championships that year, the 19-year-old Uchimura racked up the highest scores on floor exercise and pommel horse en route to winning his first national all around title. He was the first teenager in 12 years to win the Japanese men's national title.[22]

2009

In October 2009, Uchimura competed at the 2009 World Championships. Here, he dominated both the qualifications and the all around final. He won the all around title by a margin of 2.575 points ahead of Daniel Keatings, marking top scores for floor, rings, vault, and horizontal bar.[23][24] Uchimura placed fourth on floor and sixth on high bar as well.[23]

He appeared on the cover of the December 2009 number of the International Gymnastics Magazine which was entitled "Uchimura rules".[24]

2010

Philipp Boy (left), Uchimura (center) and Jonathan Horton (right) in 2010
Philipp Boy (left), Uchimura (center) and Jonathan Horton (right) in 2010

In October 2010, Uchimura headed to the 2010 World Championships again as a member of the Japanese national team. As in the previous year, he dominated the qualifications and the all around final, winning his second consecutive all around title by a margin of 2.251 points ahead of Philipp Boy. During the all around final he had the highest score of the day on floor and the highest execution mark (9.666) for a Yurchenko 2½ twists on vault.[6] He also contributed to Japan's team silver medal by competing the team final on all events except still rings. He qualified for two event finals, winning silver on floor and bronze on parallel bars.[25]

2011

Kōhei Uchimura (on the right) and Rick McCharles at the All Japan Gymnastics Championships 2011
Kōhei Uchimura (on the right) and Rick McCharles at the All Japan Gymnastics Championships 2011

On October 14, 2011, Uchimura won the all-around final for the 3rd time at the 2011 World Championships in Tokyo, Japan. With a score of 93.631 points, Uchimura won by a margin of 3.101 points, roughly the same margin that separated 2nd and 14th place. Not only is he the first male gymnast to win three all-around titles, but he is also the first gymnast, male or female, to win three consecutive all-around titles.

During the all-around final, Uchimura recorded the highest score on four of the six events: floor exercise, still rings, parallel bars, and pommel horse (he tied for the highest score on pommel horse). Uchimura also qualified for five of the six individual apparatus finals, all except vault. He won his first World Championship gold medal on floor exercise, as well as a bronze medal on high bar and the silver medal with the Japanese team.[26]

At the 2011 Worlds, Uchimura also won the Longines Prize for Elegance along with Romania's Ana Porgras. The prize is given at each World Championships to the male and female gymnasts who demonstrate "the most remarkable elegance". The winners were unanimously declared by a panel of judges, where both Uchimura and Porgras were each awarded a trophy, a Longines watch, and US$5,000.[27] Uchimura was especially pleased to win this award, since he collects watches.[28]

In November 2011, Uchimura won 4 gold medals at the 65th Japanese Championships. Besides the all-around title, he also picked up titles on half of the apparatuses: floor exercise, pommel horse, and high bar.[29]

2012

Uchimura competed in the London 2012 Olympics in London and fell several times in qualifications, which put him in ninth place among the group of qualifiers for the individual all-around final. In the men's team gymnastics final, Uchimura fell from the pommel horse during his dismount. The Japanese coaches appealed the scoring on this performance as he still landed on his feet and felt it should have counted as a full dismount, albeit with a large penalty. Before the appeal, Great Britain were to get the silver and Ukraine the bronze, but the appeal pushed Japan's points total up to secure the silver, which pushed Great Britain down to the bronze.

In the men's all around final, Uchimura dominated the competition and won the gold medal with a score of 92.690.[30] He also won the silver medal in the men's floor exercise event final with a score of 15.800, thanks to the tie-breaking procedure. It was automatically triggered due to his second highest combined score in the final tying the one by Denis Ablyazin of Russia, who did have the highest difficulty score, 7.1, among all finalists. Unfortunately when there is a tie, the gymnast instead with the higher execution score will place ahead, which was Uchimura who posted the highest execution score of 9.100 in the final.

2013

During qualifications Uchimura dominated, garnering an all-around total of 91.924, which was 2.392 points ahead of the closest competitor. He qualified for the floor exercise finals in third place with a 15.333, first for the parallel bars final with 15.400 and third in the horizontal bar final with a 15.658. He qualified as a reserve for the pommel horse final with a 15.133.

Uchimura won a record fourth consecutive all-around gold medal at the 2013 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships in Antwerp. Uchimura finished with 91.990 points, almost two points ahead of the next nearest competitor.[31] Uchimura also won bronze medals on floor exercise (15.500) behind Japan's 17-year-old newcomer Kenzō Shirai (16.000) and Jacob Dalton of the United States (15.600), and the horizontal bar (15.633) behind Epke Zonderland of the Netherlands (16.000) and Fabian Hambüchen of Germany (15.933), as well as a gold medal for parallel bars (15.666). His total of four individual medals is the highest number of medals Uchimura has earned at a single World Championships.

2014

On October 9, 2014, Uchimura once again made history, winning a record fifth consecutive all around world championship at Nanning. He totaled 91.965 points, 1.492 points above Great Britain's Max Whitlock to capture the title.[32]

He also won silver on horizontal bar separating Epke Zonderland(Netherlands) who won the gold and Marijo Možnik(Croatia) who took the bronze.[33]

2015

On October 30, 2015, Uchimura won his record sixth world gymnastics championship title. Uchimura posted a total of 92.332, more than 1.6 points ahead of Cuban teenager Manrique Larduet and Deng Shudi of China.[34]

Uchimura started off on the floor with 15.733, to lead Deng by 0.600 after the first rotation. Then, on the pommel horse he scored 15.100. He added 14.933 on rings, 15.633 on the vault, scored 15.833 on the parallel bars and finished off on the high bar with 15.100,[35] an apparatus he had taken a fall on just a few days before in the team competition.

He also went on to win the horizontal bar final with a score of 15.833 ahead of Danell Leyva and Manrique Larduet.[36]

But what was even more significant, Uchimura led Japan to victory in the team event where they won over Great Britain and China.[37] This was their first team gold since the 1978. Championships in Strasbourgh[38][circular reference][39][circular reference]

2016

Uchimura at the 2016 Rio Olympics
Uchimura at the 2016 Rio Olympics

Uchimura competed in the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro. In the men's team all-around final, team captain Uchimura anchored the Japanese men to win the team gold medal with a total score of 274.094, reclaiming the title for Japan and the first time since the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.[40]

Two days after the team event final, Uchimura defended his individual all-around (IAA) gold medal with a total score of 92.365, becoming the first gymnast in 44 years to win back-to-back individual all-around golds at the Olympics.[41] With his individual all-around silver medal from the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, he also became only the second man in history after countryman Sawao Kato, who also won two golds and one silver in the individual all-around competition across the 1968 Mexico City, 1972 Munich and 1976 Montreal Olympics, to medal on the men's individual all-around event at three Olympic Games. His winning margin over silver medallist Oleg Vernyayev of Ukraine was extremely slim at just 0.099, less than a small step deduction on landing in terms of gymnastics scoring.

2017

At the 2017 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships in Montreal, his world all-around champion streak that began in 2009 came to an end when he injured his ankle on his vault landing in qualification, forcing him to withdraw.[42]

This led to his long win-streak at worlds and Olympics being unexpectedly broken for the only time since he started by winning the first of his six World Championships all-around title to begin that quad in 2009 and continued over two complete Olympic cycles (approximately 8 years) ending with him winning his second Olympic all-around title in 2016. This was also the first time in 9 years since before 2008 that he had not medalled, namely silver and/or gold medals, at one of the FIG's major competitions—the Olympics or World Championships.

2018

Between October 25 and November 3, 2018, Uchimura competed at the 2018 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships in Doha but on a reduced schedule. During the team event final, he had helped team Japan secure the bronze medal behind team champion China and runner-up Russia by contributing scores to four apparatuses: pommel horse (14.133), rings (14.200), parallel bars (14.500) and high bar (14.400). Uchimura also qualified for the individual event final on the horizontal bar, winning the silver medal with a score of 14.800 behind 2012 Olympic high bar champion, Epke Zonderland of the Netherlands, who scored a 15.100.

2020/2021

At the age of 32, Uchimura qualified for the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan, his fourth and home Olympic Games, as an apparatus specialist on the horizontal bar after a tiebreak in the selection process worked in his favour. He has expressed earlier that he could still contribute positively to the Japanese team but perhaps not with the kind of gruelling physical requirements that are necessary for an all-arounder anymore.

At the Olympics, Uchimura failed to qualify for the horizontal bar final as he was ranked 20th after a mistake in the qualification round, and skipped the parallel bars event.[43] The eventual gold medalist in the individual all-around and horizontal bar finals (appearing to be Uchimura's heir apparent) was Daiki Hashimoto, also of Japan, who at 19 became Japan's second youngest gold medal gymnast (lost by just a few days to Kenzō Shirai), and youngest individual all-around gold medal gymnast in Olympic history.

Competitive history

Uchimura has won at least one medal in every world championships and Olympic Games since 2008 except in 2017 where he injured his left ankle after only finishing 3 out of 6 routines in the individual all-around qualifier at the 2017 World Championships, which abruptly ended his 8-year win streak in a two-full-Olympic-cycle reign as world and Olympic champion, and "withdrew" (WD) from the event. In his 2018 return, Uchimura had yet to fully regain his previous top form and winning ways in terms of fitness level and preparation. Also, his results at the 2018 World Championships reflected that as he competed a reduced schedule, and in only one individual event final, he did however contribute several routines to team Japan’s final score, which won him bronze in team and silver in individual horizontal bar event finals. However, Uchimura’s Olympic winning streak was similarly uncertain due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which caused postponement of the Games for a year.

Year Competition(s) All-Around Individual Apparatuses Notes
Team Individual (IAA) FX

Gymnastique au sol.svg

PH

Cheval d'arçon.svg

SR

Gymnastique aux anneaux.svg

VT

Saut de cheval.svg

PB

Barres parallèles.svg

HB

Barre fixe.svg

2007 Summer Universiade in Bangkok, Thailand 1st place, gold medalist(s) 1st place, gold medalist(s) 3rd place, bronze medalist(s)
2008 World Cup Final in Madrid, Spain N/A 2nd place, silver medalist(s)
Olympic Games in Beijing, China 2nd place, silver medalist(s)
2009
World Championships in London, England N/A 1st place, gold medalist(s) 4 6
2010
World Championships in Rotterdam, The Netherlands 2nd place, silver medalist(s) 2nd place, silver medalist(s) 3rd place, bronze medalist(s)
2011
World Championships in Tokyo, Japan 1st place, gold medalist(s) 5 6 4 3rd place, bronze medalist(s)
2012
Olympic Games in London, England 2nd place, silver medalist(s) 1st place, gold medalist(s) 2nd place, silver medalist(s) DNCF
2013
World Championships in Antwerp, Belgium N/A 1st place, gold medalist(s) 3rd place, bronze medalist(s) 1st place, gold medalist(s) 3rd place, bronze medalist(s)
2014
World Championships in Nanjing, China 2nd place, silver medalist(s) 2nd place, silver medalist(s)
2015
World Championships in Glasgow, Scotland 1st place, gold medalist(s) 1st place, gold medalist(s)
2016
Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 1st place, gold medalist(s) 5 R1 Won IAA by just 0.099
2017
World Championships in Montreal, Canada N/A WD Injured at Worlds
2018
World Championships in Doha, Qatar 3rd place, bronze medalist(s) 2nd place, silver medalist(s) Reduced schedule
2019
World Championships in Stuttgart, Germany did not compete More injuries
2020
Olympic Games in Tokyo, Japan did not compete COVID-19 pandemic
2021
N/A DNCQ 20 As HB specialist
World Championships in Kitakyushu, Japan N/A 2021‘s 2nd major

At the 2012 Olympics in London, Uchimura's score should have qualified him for the individual parallel bars event finals in fifth place, but he "did not compete in finals" (DNCF) due to the strict “two per country” rule for individual event finals. Ahead of him in the final were the top two qualifiers—Japanese siblings, the Tanaka brothers. At the 2016 Rio Olympics, Uchimura's qualification score made him first reserve (R1) alternate in the individual parallel bars finals too, but he ended up not competing. At the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Uchimura decided that he "did not compete in qualifications" (DNCQ) on the individual parallel bars event after falling in the individual horizontal bar qualifications, even though he had the option to do so.

Personal life

Uchimura married in autumn of 2012 and has two daughters, born in 2013 and 2015. Asked if he would teach them gymnastics, he replied, "If they were boys I think I probably would... but I don't understand women's gymnastics, and I think it's much more severe."[44] He eats just one meal a day[45] and rather dislikes vegetables.[46]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b http://fig-gymnastics.com/publicdir/athletes/bio_detail.php?id=22581
  2. ^ CNN Japan 2015.10.23
  3. ^ Sarkar, Pritha (August 4, 2012). "Gymnsatics: Uchimura the GOAT? No says Comaneci". Reuters. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
  4. ^ a b c d Emma John (July 13, 2012). "London 2012: Kohei Uchimura can bring perfection back to gymnastics". The Guardian. Retrieved July 13, 2012.
  5. ^ Hendricks, Maggie (August 1, 2012). "Kohei Uchimura wins all-around gold, proves he's pretty much the best gymnast ever". Yahoo Sports. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
  6. ^ a b c Christian Ivanov (2010). "Superman". International Gymnast Magazine (December): 52.
  7. ^ Goldsea Asian American News Kohei Uchimura seen as the most dominant athlete at London
  8. ^ 100 Olympic Athletes To Watch, TIME 100 Olympic Athletes to Watch, July 24, 2008
  9. ^ Normile, Dwight (October 14, 2011). "From the IG Vault: The Kohei Uchimura Story". International Gymnast Magazine. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
  10. ^ "Imagine a better Olympics for Japan". September 3, 2012.
  11. ^ a b International Gymnastics Federation Archived October 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Athletes Profiles: Kohei Uchimura
  12. ^ Japan Gymnastics Association Results, 2005 International Junior Competition. jpn-gym.or.jp
  13. ^ Gymnastics Results Archived November 5, 2014, at the Wayback Machine 16th Internationaux de France, Paris-Bercy 2007
  14. ^ International Gymnast Japanese Men Take Universiade Team Title
  15. ^ International Gymnast Ukraine Biggest Winner In Universiade Event Finals
  16. ^ Gymnastics Results Archived September 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine 61st Japanese National Championships, Tokyo, October 2007
  17. ^ Gymnastics Results Archived September 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Good Luck Beijing, Beijing 2007
  18. ^ Gymnastics Results Archived September 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine FIG 2008 Artistic Gymnastics World Cup, Tianjin
  19. ^ a b European Union of Artistic Gymnastics[permanent dead link] Statistics 29th Olympic Games Beijing 2008
  20. ^ The Japan Times Online Uchimura earns silver in all-around
  21. ^ International Gymnast Magazine, "Yang's Way" Christian Ivanov, page 30-31, October 2008
  22. ^ International Gymnast Magazine Uchimura wins Japanese title, Ayako Murao, November 2008
  23. ^ a b European Union of Artistic Gymnastics[permanent dead link] 41stArtistic Gymnastics World Championships, London 2009
  24. ^ a b International Gymnast Magazine, "Untouchable", by Dwight Normile, page 36-38, December 2009
  25. ^ European Union of Gymnastics[permanent dead link] 42nd World Artistic Gymnastics Championships, Rotterdam 2010
  26. ^ "GB's Purvis narrowly misses medal". BBC News.
  27. ^ 43rd Artistic Gymnastics World Championships (Tokyo, Japan). longines.com (October 7–16, 2011)
  28. ^ Armour, Nancy (October 14, 2011). "Uchimura runs away with 3rd world gym title in row". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on June 6, 2012.
  29. ^ International Gymnast Magazine Online – Uchimura Unstoppable at Japanese Championships. Intlgymnast.com (November 7, 2011). Retrieved on 2016-08-11.
  30. ^ "Kohei Uchimura wins all-around". ESPN. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
  31. ^ "World Gymnastics: Japan's Kohei Uchimura wins fourth world title". BBC Sport. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
  32. ^ Johnson, Raphielle. (October 9, 2014) Kohei Uchimura, greatest ever after 5th World Championship? – OlympicTalk. Olympictalk.nbcsports.com. Retrieved on 2016-08-11.
  33. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9XUGR-VlTg&t=11849s
  34. ^ Zaccardi, Nick (October 30, 2015). "Kohei Uchimura rolls to sixth straight World all-around title over surprise runner-up". NBC Sports. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
  35. ^ "Artistic – Men's Individual All-Around Final". 2015 World Gymnastic Championships. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
  36. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5lE58De1Ilk
  37. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqxmTxsc0b0
  38. ^ 1978 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships
  39. ^ World Artistic Gymnastics Championships – Men's team all-around
  40. ^ Fincher, Julia (August 8, 2016). "Kohei Uchimura and Japanese men claim gold in gymnastics team final". NBC Olympics. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  41. ^ Fincher, Julia (August 10, 2016). ""King Kohei" Uchimura wins second consecutive all-around title". NBC Olympics. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  42. ^ Zaccardi, Nick (October 3, 2017). "Kohei Uchimura pulls out of world all-around, record streak ends". OlympicTalk. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  43. ^ Japan's Kohei Uchimura out of Olympics after horizontal bars flop. Japan Times. July 24, 2021.
  44. ^ "For Uchimura, it's all about the performance". Reuters via Asahi Shinbun. July 22, 2016. Archived from the original on July 23, 2016.
  45. ^ Kohei Uchimuras Secret - One meal a day - English subtitles. YouTube. 2017.
  46. ^ "Uchimura's run of gold has most competitors quite green with envy". si.com. July 31, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2019.

External links

This page was last edited on 21 October 2021, at 13:48
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.