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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Joseph Lister

Joseph Lister 1902.jpg
Lister in 1902
President of the Royal Society
In office
1895–1900
Preceded byThe Lord Kelvin
Succeeded bySir William Huggins
Personal details
Born(1827-04-05)5 April 1827
Upton House, West Ham, England
Died10 February 1912(1912-02-10) (aged 84)
Walmer, Kent, England
NationalityBritish
Spouse(s)Agnes Lister (nee Syme)
Signature
Alma materUniversity College, London
Known forSurgical sterile techniques
AwardsRoyal Medal (1880)
Albert Medal (1894)
Copley Medal (1902)
Scientific career
FieldsMedicine
InstitutionsKing's College London
University of Glasgow
University of Edinburgh
University College, London
Lister's carbolic steam spray apparatus, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow
Lister's carbolic steam spray apparatus, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow

Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister, OM, PC, PRS (5 April 1827 – 10 February 1912),[1] known between 1883 and 1897 as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.

Lister promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Lister successfully introduced carbolic acid (now known as phenol) to sterilise surgical instruments and to clean wounds.

Applying Louis Pasteur's advances in microbiology, Lister championed the use of carbolic acid as an antiseptic, so that it became the first widely used antiseptic in surgery. He first suspected it would prove an adequate disinfectant because it was used to ease the stench from fields irrigated with sewage waste. He presumed it was safe because fields treated with carbolic acid produced no apparent ill-effects on the livestock that later grazed upon them.

Lister's work led to a reduction in post-operative infections and made surgery safer for patients, distinguishing him as the "father of modern surgery".[2]

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  • ✪ 3 People Who Probably Saved Your Life
  • ✪ 12th August 1865: Joseph Lister carries out world's first antiseptic surgery
  • ✪ Prof. James Garden - Lister's Legacy: 100 years on
  • ✪ Joseph Lister Biography
  • ✪ Pasteur, Koch and Lister - Germs!

Transcription

Have you ever saved someone’s life? Maybe you’ve pulled a kid out of the street just in time, or fished a friend out of the river, or did the Heimlich maneuver on the guy sitting next to you at the deli. There’s a small group of people in history -- let’s just call them what they were … nerds … whose scientific contributions have saved -- not that it’s a contest -- like, hundreds of millions, if not billions, of people over time. Including you, probably. Now, this isn’t a comprehensive list or anything. Frankly, history is full of life-saving, world-changing scientists. We just picked three of them. And it’s important to remember that science is both collaborative and cumulative -- researchers work with a whole team of people, and build on the work of those who came before them. No scientist is an island. But these are people who spearheaded both simple and revolutionary discoveries, from proving that germs exist, to convincing doctors to start washing their hands, to creating vaccines to stop common diseases. First up, the guy whose name you’ll find on nearly every gallon of milk at the grocery store: Louis Pasteur, the founder of germ theory and the father of microbiology. Born in rural France in 1822, as a kid Pasteur was more interested in art than science, earning a Bachelor of Arts before turning his focus to chemistry and physics. He liked the idea of putting science to practical use in industry, and some of his early work focused on figuring out how to better manufacture wine. Hey, it was France. Of course, people had been making alcoholic beverages since practically forever, but it was Pasteur who gave us our modern understanding of the fermentation process -- he showed that it’s the action of living, multiplying microorganisms, specifically yeast, that turns sugar into booze. That might be common knowledge today, but back then, people didn’t know much -- if anything -- about microbes. There had been some speculation about what we now call germ theory -- the idea that microorganisms might cause some diseases and make food spoil. But the prevailing scientific theory of the time was something called spontaneous generation, the notion that some organisms just sort of appeared out of thin air, or came to life from decaying organic matter. I’m not kidding, for a long time people thought baby mice came out of decaying hay, and maggots were born from rotting meat. Even after those specific things were disproven, people still believed that spontaneous generation was a thing under certain circumstances. But not Louis. Building on the work of an 18th-century Italian physiologist named Lazzaro Spallanzani and others, Pasteur conducted what ended up being one of the most important experiments of all time. He boiled some broth in swan-necked flask, effectively sterilizing it -- so there were definitely no breeding bacteria or anything. The container allowed filtered air to enter the flask, but would catch any microbes in the bend of the neck. Then he waited, and nothing happened -- the broth never spoiled, meaning microbes weren’t just appearing out of thin air. But, if he tipped the glass so that the broth touched that filtering point in the neck that was catching all the microbes from the incoming air, the broth quickly began to go bad. That one simple experiment showed that life didn’t just spontaneously appear out of nothing, but there were microbes in the air all around us. Basically: he proved that germ theory was real. With his new-found understanding of microbes in hand, Pasteur hit the bottles again, experimenting with techniques to keep wine and milk from spoiling. Then, in 1862, he found that heating up wine without actually boiling it would still kill bacteria and keep it from spoiling. That’s the process we now call pasteurization, and it’s still used today to protect and preserve a number of foods, like milk and other dairy products. By this point, Pasteur was in his mid-forties, and he wasn’t doing too well, health-wise. He had a stroke and ended up partially paralyzed. Even so, he continued his experiments, and went on to invent the first laboratory-developed vaccine, for chicken cholera. He then went on to create vaccines for more diseases, like anthrax and rabies. The English doctor Edward Jenner, who died about a month after Pasteur was born, had already discovered the smallpox vaccine in the late 1790s. But it wasn’t until Pasteur proved germ theory that people really began to understand how viruses and bacteria worked -- and with it, the real science behind vaccination. You really can’t oversell the importance of getting the world on board with the idea that microbes can spread, causing infection and disease, so the next time you crack open a nice bottle of wine, don’t forget to raise a glass to Pasteur. In fact, Pasteur greatly influenced our next legendary lifesaver, the British surgeon who completely transformed surgical practices -- or, as I like to think of him, the guy who finally got doctors to wash their hands. Joseph Lister started life in Essex, England in 1827. He was born into a wealthy Quaker family, and his father was an amateur scientist who helped design microscope lenses in his spare time. Lister was interested in science from a young age, and by college knew he wanted to both work as a surgeon, and do research to help improve medical knowledge in general. Which, as it turns out, was desperately needed at the time. Let me paint a little picture for you: You’re living in Europe in the mid 1800s. You fall off a ladder and break your leg. Your friends throw you on a cart and wheel you to the hospital. The doctor says they have to operate, and you don’t get any anesthesia because it’s not really a thing yet. The surgeon walks in with dirty hands, unsterilized equipment, and an apron he likes to keep stained and bloodied for the street cred. You pass out from the pain, and when you wake up, your chances of surviving the coming infection are less than 50-50 on a good day, in a decent hospital. That’s the world Lister walked into after finishing his doctorate in the early 1850s. But don’t be too hard on the surgeons -- this was before Pasteur proved germ theory, and the common belief was that there wasn’t much they could do, since some wounds just spontaneously generated infections. But Lister wondered if there actually was a way to prevent those infections. He started noticing that patients with simple fractures -- where a broken bone didn’t pierce the skin -- were far more likely to recover than those with an open wound exposed to the air. This suggested that rather than springing from the wound itself, infection must somehow get in from the outside, and he started washing his hands and clothes before operating. Around that time, he became a professor of surgery in Glasgow and read about Pasteur’s groundbreaking work on germ theory. It made a lot of sense to Lister. He figured that if outside germs were infecting wounds, then killing those germs should -- in theory -- prevent infection. Now, Pasteur stopped wine and milk from spoiling by heating them up, but it’s a lot harder to do that to human flesh. So Lister knew he needed to find the right chemical disinfectant. He chose carbolic acid, otherwise known as phenol, which is a kind of acid that’s extracted from coal tar. At the time, it was being used to disinfect sewers. And in 1865, Lister began experimenting with a diluted form of phenol, using it to sterilize his hands, instruments, wounds, and bandages. He even sprayed it into the surrounding air. After collecting more than year’s worth of data, he published a paper explaining his new antiseptic technique -- one that had led to a dramatic drop in post-operative patient deaths. But, like so many discoveries, his new protocol was slow to gain traction -- some doctors thought it was too slow and expensive, or tried it but didn’t clean properly, so it didn’t work as well. Others still just didn’t believe in germs. But by 1880, after more than ten years of incredible results, his antiseptic principle was nearly universally accepted. Lister continued to improve surgical practices throughout his career -- for example, he introduced stitches made from sterilized catgut, which would dissolve instead of having to be pulled out. He went on to become Queen Victoria’s personal surgeon, and won a bushel of prestigious honors, including a lordship, for his many contributions. And maybe most prestigious of all...Listerine Mouthwash? That was named after him. That Pasteur-Lister one-two punch has probably saved billions of lives over the last 150 years. Which brings us to our next science hero, who took preventative life-saving to a whole new level with an arsenal of modern vaccines, starting with the shots you probably got as a baby. Maurice Hilleman was born the youngest of eight children on a Montana farm in 1919. His life got off to a rough start when his mother and twin sister died during his birth, and he was raised on his uncle’s farm, tending chickens and reading Charles Darwin. Then he went on to do some scientific research of his own. By his mid-twenties, Hilleman had already helped develop his first human vaccine, one designed to help protect overseas soldiers from encephalitis. We’ve talked about how vaccines work before -- but in a nutshell, they trigger your immune system to make antibodies against a particular disease, without actively making you ill with that disease. This creates a kind of memory for your immune system, so if you run into that disease in the airport or lunchroom or whatever, your immune system will be like, hey, I know you… and start cranking out antibodies to fight it. Generally, to make a vaccine, you first have to mass produce the virus or bacteria, by infecting cells grown in cultures, or sometimes chicken eggs. Then, once you’ve got a good working supply, you can work on weakening that pathogen to turn it into a vaccine. Basically you want to administer just enough virus or bacteria to get the antibodies flowing, without getting anyone too sick. Hilleman was like, the Superman of this process. Through his research on the influenza virus, he found that people did often develop an acquired immunity the the virus’s small -- but constantly evolving -- mutations. They did that on their own, without a vaccine. But every now and again, the virus made a major genetic leap -- one big enough to leave people with no resistance, and putting the population at risk for a wide-scale pandemic. For example, in 1957, Hilleman heard about a really bad influenza outbreak in Hong Kong, and suspected a new strain was spreading. Once he and his colleagues got their hands on a sample of the virus, they found that most people did, in fact, lack the necessary antibodies to protect themselves from it. So, fearing the worst, Hilleman got a bunch of manufacturers to immediately start cranking out a vaccine. Over the next two years, about two million people died worldwide from that Asian flu. But the total would have been far higher without Hilleman’s foresight and emergency vaccine. Around that time, Hilleman joined the Merck pharmaceutical company and started developing new vaccines against common childhood diseases. For example, an American virologist named John Enders had come up with a measles vaccine, but it proved too toxic to use. Hilleman developed an improved version by growing a weaker strain in chicken embryos -- and that vaccination alone is estimated to save over a million lives every year. Then, Hilleman developed a mumps vaccination by isolating the virus from a swab from his own daughter’s throat, and following the same protocol he’d used on measles. Later he combined the two with a third one for German measles, or rubella, creating the still popular MMR vaccine you probably, hopefully got as a toddler. His team went on to develop many more vaccines, including those for Hepatitis A and B, chickenpox, meningitis, pneumonia, and others. They also contributed to a bunch of other major scientific breakthroughs, including isolating a new family of viruses -- the adenovirus, a common cause of upper respiratory infections in children and adults. And, like the work of Lister and Pasteur, his research has since influenced generations of researchers, paving the way for more medical breakthroughs and saving more lives. Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow, which was brought to you by our patrons on Patreon. If you want to help support this show, just go to patreon.com/scishow. And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!

Contents

Early life and education

Lister with fellow Residents at the Old Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, c. 1855 (Lister is in the front row with his hands clasped)
Lister with fellow Residents at the Old Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, c. 1855 (Lister is in the front row with his hands clasped)
The widespread introduction of antiseptic surgical methods followed the publishing of Lister's Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery in 1867

Lister came from a prosperous Quaker home in West Ham, Essex, England, a son of wine merchant Joseph Jackson Lister, who was also a pioneer of achromatic object lenses for the compound microscope.[3]

At school, Lister became a fluent reader of French and German. A young Joseph Lister attended Benjamin Abbott's Isaac Brown Academy, a Quaker school in Hitchin in Hertfordshire (since converted into the "Lord Lister" public house).[4] As a teenager, Lister attended Grove House School in Tottenham, studying mathematics, natural science, and languages.

Lister attended University College, London,[5][6] one of only a few institutions which accepted Quakers at that time. He initially studied botany and obtained a bachelor of Arts degree in 1847.[7] He registered as a medical student and graduated with honours as Bachelor of Medicine, subsequently entering the Royal College of Surgeons at the age of 26. In 1854, Lister became both first assistant to and friend of surgeon James Syme at the University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh Royal Infirmary in Scotland. There he joined the Royal Medical Society and presented two dissertations, in 1855 and 1871, which are still in the possession of the Society today.[8]

Lister subsequently left the Quakers, joined the Scottish Episcopal Church, and eventually married Syme's daughter, Agnes.[9] On their honeymoon, they spent three months visiting leading medical institutes (hospitals and universities) in France and Germany. By this time, Agnes was enamored of medical research and was Lister's partner in the laboratory for the rest of her life.[10]

Career and work

Lister spraying phenol over patient
Lister spraying phenol over patient
Joseph Lister c. 1855
Joseph Lister c. 1855
Joseph Lister in his youth
Joseph Lister in his youth

Before Lister's studies of surgery, most people believed that chemical damage from exposure to bad air was responsible for infections in wounds. Hospital wards were occasionally out at midday as a precaution against the spread of infection via miasma, but facilities for washing hands or a patient's wounds were not available. A surgeon was not required to wash his hands before seeing a patient; in the absence of any theory of bacterial infection, such practices were not considered necessary. Despite the work of Ignaz Semmelweis and Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr., hospitals practised surgery under unsanitary conditions. Surgeons of the time referred to the "good old surgical stink" and took pride in the stains on their unwashed operating gowns as a display of their experience.[11]

While he was a professor of surgery at the University of Glasgow, Lister became aware of a paper published by the French chemist, Louis Pasteur, showing that food spoilage could occur under anaerobic conditions if micro-organisms were present. Pasteur suggested three methods to eliminate the micro-organisms responsible: filtration, exposure to heat, or exposure to solution/chemical solutions. Lister confirmed Pasteur's conclusions with his own experiments and decided to use his findings to develop antiseptic techniques for wounds.[12] As the first two methods suggested by Pasteur were unsuitable for the treatment of human tissue, Lister experimented with the third idea.

In 1834, Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge discovered phenol, also known as carbolic acid, which he derived in an impure form from coal tar. At that time, there was uncertainty between the substance of creosote – a chemical that had been used to treat wood used for railway ties and ships since it protected the wood from rotting – and carbolic acid.[13] Upon hearing that creosote had been used for treating sewage, Lister began to test the efficacy of carbolic acid when applied directly to wounds.[14]

Therefore, Lister tested the results of spraying instruments, the surgical incisions, and dressings with a solution of carbolic acid. Lister found that the solution swabbed on wounds remarkably reduced the incidence of gangrene.[15] In August 1865, Lister applied a piece of lint dipped in carbolic acid solution onto the wound of a seven-year-old boy at Glasgow Infirmary, who had sustained a compound fracture after a cart wheel had passed over his leg. After four days, he renewed the pad and discovered that no infection had developed, and after a total of six weeks he was amazed to discover that the boy's bones had fused back together, without suppuration. He subsequently published his results in The Lancet in a series of six articles, running from March through July 1867.[16][17][3]

He instructed surgeons under his responsibility to wear clean gloves and wash their hands before and after operations with 5% carbolic acid solutions. Instruments were also washed in the same solution and assistants sprayed the solution in the operating theatre. One of his additional suggestions was to stop using porous natural materials in manufacturing the handles of medical instruments.[18]

Lister left Glasgow University in 1869, being succeeded by Prof George Husband Baird MacLeod.[19] Lister then returned to Edinburgh as successor to Syme as Professor of Surgery at the University of Edinburgh and continued to develop improved methods of antisepsis and asepsis. Amongst those he worked with there, who helped him and his work, was the senior apothecary and later MD, Dr Alexander Gunn. Lister's fame had spread by then, and audiences of 400 often came to hear him lecture. As the germ theory of disease became more understood, it was realised that infection could be better avoided by preventing bacteria from getting into wounds in the first place. This led to the rise of aseptic surgery. On the hundredth anniversary of his death, in 2012, Lister was considered by most in the medical field as "The Father of Modern Surgery".[14]


Criticism

Although Lister was so roundly honored in later life, his ideas about the transmission of infection and the use of antiseptics were widely criticized in his early career.[3] In 1869, at the meetings of the British Association at Leeds, Lister's ideas were mocked; and again, in 1873, the medical journal The Lancet warned the entire medical profession against his progressive ideas.[20] However, Lister did have some supporters including Marcus Beck, a consultant surgeon at University College Hospital, who not only practiced Lister's antiseptic technique, but included it in the next edition of one of the main surgical textbooks of the time.[21][22]

Lister's use of carbolic acid proved problematic, and he eventually repudiated it for superior methods. The spray irritated eyes and respiratory tracts, and the soaked bandages were suspected of damaging tissue, so his teachings and methods were not always adopted in their entirety.[23] Because his ideas were based on germ theory, which was in its infancy, their adoption was slow.[24] General criticism of his methods was exacerbated by the fact that he found it hard to express himself adequately in writing, so they seemed complicated, unorganized, and impractical.[25]

Surgical technique

Lister moved from Scotland to King's College Hospital, in London. He was elected President of the Clinical Society of London.[26] He also developed a method of repairing kneecaps with metal wire and improved the technique of mastectomy. He was also known for being the first surgeon to use catgut ligatures, sutures, and rubber drains, and developing an aortic tourniquet.[27][28] He also introduced a diluted spray of carbolic acid combined with its surgical use, however he abandoned the carbolic acid sprays in the late 1890s after he saw it provided no beneficial change in the outcomes of the surgeries performed with the carbolic acid spray. The only reported reactions were minor symptoms that did not affect the surgical outcome as a whole, like coughing, irritation of the eye, and minor tissue damage among his patients who were exposed to the carbolic acid sprays during the surgery.[29][30]

Later life

Lister's wife had long helped him in research and after her death in Italy in 1893 (during one of the few holidays they allowed themselves) he retired from practice. Studying and writing lost appeal for him and he sank into religious melancholy. Despite suffering a stroke, he still came into the public light from time to time. He had for several years been a Surgeon Extraordinary to Queen Victoria, and from March 1900 was appointed the Serjeant Surgeon to the Queen,[31] thus becoming the senior surgeon in the Medical Household of the Royal Household of the sovereign. After her death the following year, he was re-appointed as such to her successor, King Edward VII.[32] On 24 August 1902, the King came down with appendicitis two days before his scheduled coronation. Like all internal surgery at the time, the appendectomy needed by the King still posed an extremely high risk of death by post-operational infection, and surgeons did not dare operate without consulting Britain's leading surgical authority. Lister obligingly advised them in the latest antiseptic surgical methods (which they followed to the letter), and the King survived, later telling Lister, "I know that if it had not been for you and your work, I wouldn't be sitting here today."[33]

Death

Lister died on 10 February 1912 at his country home (now known as Coast House[34][35]) in Walmer, Kent at the age of 84. After a funeral service at Westminster Abbey, he was buried at West Hampstead Cemetery, London in a plot to the south-east of central chapel.

Legacy and honours

"Without such freedom there would have been no Shakespeare, no Goethe, no Newton, no Faraday, no Pasteur and no Lister."

Albert Einstein's speech on intellectual freedom at the Royal Albert Hall, London after having fled Nazi Germany, 3 October 1933.[36]

Lister was president of the Royal Society between 1895 and 1900. Following his death, a memorial fund led to the founding of the Lister Medal, seen as the most prestigious prize that could be awarded to a surgeon.

Lister's discoveries were greatly praised and in 1883 Queen Victoria created him a Baronet, of Park Crescent in the Parish of St Marylebone in the County of Middlesex.[37] In 1897 he was further honoured when Her Majesty raised him to the peerage as Baron Lister, of Lyme Regis in the County of Dorset.[38][39] In the 1902 Coronation Honours list published on 26 June 1902 (the original day of King Edward VII´s coronation),[40] Lord Lister was appointed a Privy Counsellor and one of the original members of the new Order of Merit (OM). He received the order from the King on 8 August 1902,[41][42] and was sworn a member of the council at Buckingham Palace on 11 August 1902.[43]

Arms of Joseph Lister: Ermine, on a fess invected sable three mullets of six points argent in chief a Staff of Aesculapius erect proper with canton of a baronet, Red Hand of Ulster
Arms of Joseph Lister: Ermine, on a fess invected sable three mullets of six points argent in chief a Staff of Aesculapius erect proper with canton of a baronet, Red Hand of Ulster

Among foreign honours, he received the Pour le Mérite, one of Prussia's highest orders of merit. In 1889 he was elected as Foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Two postage stamps were issued in September 1965 to honour Lister for his pioneering work in antiseptic surgery.[44]

Lister is one of the two surgeons in the United Kingdom who have the honour of having a public monument in London. Lister's stands in Portland Place; the other surgeon is John Hunter. There is a statue of Lister in Kelvingrove Park, Glasgow, celebrating his links with the city. In 1903, the British Institute of Preventative Medicine was renamed Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine in honour of Lister.[45] The building, along with another adjacent building, forms what is now the Lister Hospital in Chelsea, which opened in 1985. In 2000, it became part of the HCA group of hospitals.

A building at Glasgow Royal Infirmary which houses cytopathology, microbiology and pathology departments was named in Lister's honour to recognise his work at the hospital. Lister Hospital in Stevenage, Hertfordshire is named after him. The Discovery Expedition of 1901–04 named the highest point in the Royal Society Range, Antarctica, Mount Lister.[46]

In 1879, Listerine antiseptic (developed as a surgical antiseptic but nowadays best known as a mouthwash) was named after Lister.[47] Microorganisms named in his honour include the pathogenic bacterial genus Listeria named by J. H. H. Pirie, typified by the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, as well as the slime mould genus Listerella, first described by Eduard Adolf Wilhelm Jahn in 1906.[48] Lister is depicted in the Academy Award winning 1936 film, The Story of Louis Pasteur, by Halliwell Hobbes. In the film, Lister is one of the beleaguered microbiologist's most noted supporters in the otherwise largely hostile medical community, and is the key speaker in the ceremony in his honour.

Lister's name is one of twenty-three names featured on the Frieze of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine[49] – although the committee which chose the names to include on the frieze did not provide documentation about why certain names were chosen and others were not.[50]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Cartwright, Frederick F. "Joseph Lister". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  2. ^ Pitt, Dennis; Aubin, Jean-Michel (1 October 2012). "Joseph Lister: father of modern surgery". Canadian Journal of Surgery. 55 (5): E8–E9. doi:10.1503/cjs.007112. ISSN 0008-428X. PMC 3468637. PMID 22992425.
  3. ^ a b c Barry, Rebecca Rego (2018). "From Barbers and Butchers to Modern Surgeons". Distillations. 4 (1): 40–43. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  4. ^ "History". The Lord Lister Hotel. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  5. ^ John Bankston (2004). Joseph Lister and the Story of Antiseptics (Uncharted, Unexplored, and Unexplained). Bear, Del: Mitchell Lane Publishers. ISBN 978-1-58415-262-0.
  6. ^ Lindsey Fitzharris (2017). The Butchering Art: Joseph Lister's Quest to Transform the Grisly World of Victorian Medicine. New York: Scientific American: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. ISBN 9780374117290.
  7. ^ "Sketch of Sir Joseph Lister". Popular Science Monthly. March 1898. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
  8. ^ "RMS notable members".
  9. ^ Ann Lamont (March 1992). "Joseph Lister: father of modern surgery". Creation. 14 (2): 48–51. Lister married Syme's daughter Agnes and became a member of the Episcopal church
  10. ^ Noble, Iris (1960). The Courage of Dr. Lister. New York: Julian Messner, Inc. p. 39.
  11. ^ Millard, Candice (2011). Destiny of the Republic : A Tale of Madness, Medicine and the Murder of a President. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 9780385526265.
  12. ^ Lister, Baron Joseph (1 August 2010). "The Classic: On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 468 (8): 2012–2016. doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1320-x. ISSN 0009-921X. PMC 2895849. PMID 20361283.
  13. ^ Schorlemmer, C. (30 March 1884). "The History of Creosote, Cedriret and Pittacal". Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry. 4: 152–157.
  14. ^ a b Pitt, Dennis; Aubain, Jean-Michel (October 2012). "Joseph Lister: father of modern surgery". Canadian Journal of Surgery. 55 (5): E8–E9. doi:10.1503/cjs.007112. PMC 3468637. PMID 22992425.
  15. ^ Lister, Joseph (18 July 1868). "An Address on the Antiseptic System of Treatment in Surgery". British Medical Journal. 2 (394): 53–56. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.394.53. PMC 2310876. PMID 20745202.
  16. ^ Lister, Joseph (21 September 1867). "On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery". The Lancet. 90 (2299): 353–356. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(02)51827-4. PMC 1841140. PMID 5336181.
  17. ^ Lister, Joseph (1 January 1870). "On the Effects of the Antiseptic System of Treatment Upon the Salubrity of a Surgical Hospital". The Lancet. 95 (2418): 2–4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)31273-X.
  18. ^ Metcalfe, Peter; Metcalfe, Roger (2006). Engineering Studies: Year 11. Glebe, N.S.W.: Pascal Press. p. 151. ISBN 9781741252491. Retrieved 7 July 2014.
  19. ^ Scotland (15 December 2016). "University of Glasgow :: Story :: Biography of Sir George Husband Baird MacLeod". Universitystory.gla.ac.uk. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  20. ^ Boreham, F. W. Nuggets of Romance, p. 53.
  21. ^ Sakula, Alex (1985). "Marcus Beck Library: Who Was Marcus Beck?". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 78 (12): 1047–1049. doi:10.1177/014107688507801214. PMC 1290062. PMID 3906125.
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Further reading

  • Fitzharris, Lindsey (2017). The Butchering Art: Joseph Lister's Quest to Transform the Grisly World of Victorian Medicine. New York: Scientific American/Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0374117290. OCLC 978250363.

External links

Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Lister
1897–1912
Extinct
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
New title Baronet
(of Park Crescent)
1883–1912
Extinct
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