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Joseph Edgar Boehm

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Joseph Edgar Boehm
BoehmLouiseWiki.jpg
Boehm with Princess Louise, about 1885
Born
Josef Erasmus Bohm[1]

6 July 1834
Vienna
Died12 December 1890(1890-12-12) (aged 56)
London, England
Known forSculpture
Spouse(s)Louisa Frances Boteler

Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm, 1st Baronet, RA (6 July 1834 – 12 December 1890) was a medallist and sculptor, best known for the "Jubilee head" of Queen Victoria on coinage, and the statue of the Duke of Wellington at Hyde Park Corner. During his career Boehm maintained a large studio in London and produced a significant volume of public works and private commissions. A speciality of Boehm's was the portrait bust; there are many examples of these in the National Portrait Gallery. He was often commissioned by the Royal Family and members of the aristocracy to make sculptures for their parks and gardens. His works were many, and he exhibited 123 of them at the Royal Academy from 1862 to his death in 1890.

Biography

Boehm (originally "Böhm") was born in Vienna of Hungarian parentage. His father, Josef Daniel Böhm, was a court medal maker and the director of the imperial mint in Vienna.[2] From 1848 to 1851 Boehm studied in London at Leigh's academy of art, the forerunner of the Heatherley School of Fine Art.[2] He then returned to Vienna where he studied model making and medal design at the Academie der Bildenden Kunste before working in Italy and then, from 1859 to 1962 in Paris.[2] In 1856, in Vienna, he was presented with the First Imperial Prize for Sculpture.[3]

In 1862, Boehm settled in London, where he exhibited coins and medals at the 1862 International Exhibition, opened a studio and had his first work, a terracotta bust, shown at the Royal Academy.[2][4][3] Throughout the 1860s, Boehm, who became a British subject in 1865, devoted his time to the production of portrait busts plus equestrian statues and statuettes.[3][5] His portrait subjects included John Everett Millais, Stratford Canning and Charles Thomas Newton and Franz Liszt.[2][4] Boehm's statuette of William Makepiece Thackeray, although completed after the author's death, was considered such a good likeness that several copies were made including examples for the Garrick Club and for the Athenaeum.[6]

Boehm by J. P. Mayall from Artists at Home, published 1884
Boehm by J. P. Mayall from Artists at Home, published 1884

Boehm was often commissioned by members of the aristocracy to make equestrian and equine sculptures for the parks and gardens of their stately homes. His large sculpture of the stallion King Tom (1874) was commissioned by Baron Mayer Amschel de Rothschild for his new mansion, Mentmore Towers in 1873, and moved to Dalmeny House near Edinburgh in 1982.[7][8] His large animal works include The Young Bull and Herdsman (1871) located at The Royal Agricultural Society of Victoria, Melbourne. The Horse and His Master (1874), sometimes known as A Clydesdale Stallion Rearing, in Malvern and Brueton Park in Solihull was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1874 and at the 1878 Paris Universal Exposition.[9] The work was bought by the grandson of Alfred Bird, Captain Oliver Bird for £300 in April 1944 and gifted to Solihull Council to place in one of their parks.[10][11]

In 1869 Boehm's work came to the attention of Queen Victoria and he rapidly gained favour with the royal court.[5][2] In 1869 he executed a colossal statue of Victoria, in marble for Windsor Castle, which with the monument of the Prince Edward in St. George's Chapel in Windsor Castle, are considered his earliest great works.[5] In total, throughout his career, Boehm completed over forty royal commissions.[2][12] He won several commissions to create statues of Victoria to mark her Golden Jubilee, several of which were replica designs, which was a common and accepted practice at the time.[12] Victoria made clear her approvial of Boehm's work by unveiling his statues of her at Windsor and Balmoral which added to the appeal of his work to the local and colonial authorites who typically commissioned such works.[12]

During his career Boehm maintained a large studio in London and produced a significant volume of work, including at least fifty-seven public statues and monuments.[2] In total over 350 sculptures have been attributed to Boehm.[12] In 1874 Boehm completed a substantial statue of John Bunyan (1628–1688) which was unveiled on 10 June at St Peter's Green, Bedford, by Lady Augusta Stanley, before a crowd of 10,000. There are many statues by Boehm in London. His equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington at Hyde Park Corner, unveiled in 1888 was commissioned to compensate for the removal of the colossal sculpture of the Duke by Matthew Cotes Wyatt from the nearby Wellington Arch to Aldershot.[13][14]

Boehm's designs were used on a series of medals minted to mark events in the Queen's reign. These included the Golden Jubilee, her Diamond Jubilee and for the Visit to Ireland Medal 1900. In 1887, Boehm designed and executed the model for the dies for a series of coins, commemorating the 50th anniversary of Queen Victoria's reign. The coins are signed J.E.B. below the shoulder. This design was severely criticised by his peers as well as the public and was replaced in 1893.[15] The coins depicted the royal arms in the order of the garter on the reverse. As a result, the sixpences were frequently gilded and passed off as gold half sovereigns. Therefore, the sixpence reverted to its standard design.

Boehm's early portrait busts led, later in his career, to him undertaking a total of fifty-seven church monuments and memorial works, including several in British cathedrals.[2] For the memorial to General Charles George Gordon in St Paul's Cathedral, he carved an effigy of Gordon recumbent on a sarcophagus.[16] On the death of Dean Stanley, Boehm was commissioned to execute his sarcophagus in Westminster Abbey. The Abbey also houses Boehm's memorials to Lord Beaconsfield and to Viscount Canning, plus his marble statue of the Earl of Shaftesbury.[3][17] His monument to Archbishop Tait is in Canterbury Cathedral.[3]

Boehm became an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1878, was appointed sculptor-in-ordinary to the Queen in 1881 and was elected a full member of the Royal Academy in 1882.[2][12] In 1889 he was created a baronet, of Wetherby Gardens in the Parish of St Mary Abbots, Kensington, in the County of London.[18] Boehm encouraged and supported several younger artists and sculptors, most notably Édouard Lantéri, Alfred Gilbert and Alfred Drury.[17] Boehm was instrumental in Gilbert being awarded the commission for the Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain in Piccadilly Circus while both Lantéri and Drury worked in Boehm's studio for a time.[17] Boehm's most famous pupil was the Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, daughter of Queen Victoria. She was at his house, at 76 Fulham Road in London, when Boehm died suddenly on 12 December 1890, provoking press speculation about a sexual relationship between the two.[1] According to historian Lucinda Hawksley, the two had a long-lasting love affair.[19]

There is a memorial to him in the crypt at St Paul's Cathedral.[20]

Public works

1870–1879

Image Title / subject Location and
coordinates
Date Type Material Dimensions Designation Wikidata Notes
Statue of "Old Tom" - geograph.org.uk - 1117483.jpg

More images
King Tom Dalmeny House, near Edinburgh 1873 Equine statue on plinth Bronze Originally erected at Mentmore Towers, relocated to Dalmeny in 1982[7]
Statue of John Bunyan, St Peter's Street, Bedford.jpg

More images
Statue of John Bunyan St Peter's Street, Bedford 1874 Statue on pedestal with panels Bronze and granite Grade II Q18162531 [21][22]
Statue of a Horse and Horse Tamer in Malvern Park, Solihull - 2010.JPG

More images
The Horse and His Master Malvern and Brueton Park, Solihull 1874 Equestrian statue group on pedestal Bronze and stone Grade II Q26626782 [11]
Stables 1.jpg
Horse and Groom Stable Yard, Eaton Hall, Cheshire c. 1875 Equestrian statue group on pedestal Bronze and granite Grade II Q26429540 [23]
Statue of John Fox Burgoyne, London (8015192783).jpg

More images
John Fox Burgoyne Waterloo Place, London 1877 Statue on pedestal Bronze and stone Grade II Q26319140 [22][24][25]
PrinceOfWalesStatue.JPG

More images
Edward VII Jijamata Udyan, Mumbai 1878 Equestrian statue on pedestal Bronze Statue shows the then Prince of Wales in the uniform of a colonel of the 10th Royal Hussars[26]

1880–1884

Image Title / subject Location and
coordinates
Date Type Material Dimensions Designation Wikidata Notes
Royal Courts of Justice 20130414 056.JPG

More images
Queen Victoria Temple Bar, London 1880 Statue in niche Stone Grade II [22][27]
Statue of the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII), Temple Bar, London (4056362001).jpg

More images
Edward VII Temple Bar, London 1880 Statue in niche Stone Grade II [22][27]
Statue of Thomas Carlyle, Chelsea (02).jpg

More images
Thomas Carlyle Chelsea Embankment Gardens, London 1882 Seated statue on pedestal Bronze and red granite Grade II Q26355706 [22][24][28]
John Brown statue Balmoral.JPG
John Brown Balmoral Estate, Aberdeenshire 1883 Statue on pedestal Bronze Category A Q17574620 [29]
DrakeStatueTavistock.jpg

More images
Francis Drake Plymouth Road, Tavistock, Devon 1883 Statue on pedestal with panels Bronze and granite Grade II Q26611707 [22][30]
Statue of Drake, Plymouth Hoe.jpg

More images
Francis Drake Plymouth Hoe, Plymouth 1884 Statue on pedestal Bronze and granite Grade II* Q17554612 Replica of the 1883 Tavistock statue.[22][31]
William Tyndale statue, Victoria Embankment Gardens 20170803 113340 (49450065486).jpg

More images
William Tyndale Victoria Embankment Gardens, London 1884 Statue on pedestal Bronze and Portland stone 3.6m tall Grade II Q27084838 [24][32]

1885–1889

Image Title / subject Location and
coordinates
Date Type Material Dimensions Designation Wikidata Notes
Archibald Campbell Tait's tomb 10.JPG

More images
Archibald Campbell Tait Canterbury Cathedral 1885 Cenotaph effigy Marble [33][34]
Natural History Museum - Charles Darwin.jpg

More images
Charles Darwin Natural History Museum, London 1885 Seated statue Marble
Statue of MP M.T.Bass.jpg

More images
Michael Thomas Bass Wardwick, Derby 1885 Statue on pedestal with panel Bronze and stone Grade II Q26523638 [35]
Viceroy John Lawrence 03.JPG

More images
John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence Waterloo Place, London 1885 Statue on pedestal Bronze and granite 2.6m tall Grade II Q26319142 [22][24][36]
Memorial To Sir Herbert Stewart-Detail.jpg
Memorial Fountain to Herbert Stewart Hans Place, Knightsbridge, London 1886 Relief medallion on drinking fountain Bronze Fountain by Joseph Whitehead[37]
Queen Victoria Balmoral Estate, Aberdeenshire 1887 Statue on pedestal Bronze and granite Category A Q17574625 .[38][39]
Exeter - Statue of Lord Iddesleigh 20151024.jpg
Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh Northernhay Gardens, Exeter 1887 Statue on pedestal Stone and granite Grade II Q26557993 [40][41]
Statue of Queen Victoria at Windsor - geograph.org.uk - 1600094.jpg

More images
Queen Victoria Castle Hill, Windsor, Berkshire 1887 Statue on pedestal with panels Bronze and granite Grade II Q26570416 [22][12][42][43]
Prince Consorts statue (geograph 3523199).jpg

More images
Albert, Prince Consort Windsor Great Park, Berkshire 1887 Equestrian statue on pedestal Bronze and granite Grade II Q26609381 [44]
Statue of Queen Victoria by J.E. Boehm, Sydney 05.jpg

More images
Queen Victoria Queen's Square, Sydney, Australia 1888 Statue on pedestal [12][45]
St George Melbourne.jpg
St George and the Dragon Outside the State Library of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia 1888 Equestrian sculpture group on pedestal Bronze and stone [46][47]
Hyde Park Corner, Duke of Wellingtons Statue (geograph 2955415).jpg

More images
Statue of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington Hyde Park Corner, London 1888 Equestrian statue on pedestal with figures Bronze and stone Grade II Q18159875 [22][48]
Victoria statue.jpg

More images
Statue of Queen Victoria College Green, Bristol 1888 Statue on pedestal with panels Marble, granite and bronze Grade II Q7270543 [22][12][49][50]
Statue of John Elder, Elder Park, Glasgow (geograph 3583027).jpg

More images
John Elder Elder Park, Govan, Glasgow 1888 Statue on pedestal Bronze and granite Category B Q17811104 [51]
Edinburgh Duke of Buccleuch Statue 02.JPG

More images
Walter Montagu Douglas Scott, 5th Duke of Buccleuch West Parliament Square, Edinburgh 1888 Statue on pedestal and decorated tiers Bronze and stone Category A Q17570712 Architect: Sir Robert Rowand Anderson, decoration on pedestal and tiers by various sculptors [52]
London tomb Gordon of Khartoum 2006.jpg
General Gordon St Paul's Cathedral, London Chest tomb effigy Marble [16]

1890 and later

Image Title / subject Location and
coordinates
Date Type Material Dimensions Designation Wikidata Notes
Queen Victoria Langalibalele Street, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa 1890 Statue on pedestal Marble and stone [12][53][54]
Statue de Robert Napier Londres.jpg

More images
Robert Napier, 1st Baron Napier of Magdala Queen's Gate, Kensington, London 1891, relocated 1921 Equestrian statue on pedestal Bronze and granite Grade II Q26555957 [24][55][56]
Horse Sculpture at The Stables - geograph.org.uk - 904393.jpg
Equine statue Waddesdon Manor, Buckinghamshire 1890-91 Equine statue on pedestal Bronze and stone Grade II Q26453053 Modelled from an earlier version of Copenhagen  and recycled for Baron Ferdinand de Rothchild.[47][57]
Thomas Carlyle - geograph.org.uk - 387273.jpg
Thomas Carlyle Ecclefechan, Dumfries and Galloway 1929 Seated statue on pedestal Bronze and stone Category B Q17804310 Replica of Boehm's 1882 original cast by MacDonald & Creswick of Edinburgh[58]

References

  1. ^ a b Mark Stocker (September 2004). "(Joseph) Edgar Boehm". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online, January 2008 ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2762. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j University of Glasgow History of Art / HATII (2011). "Sir (Joseph) Edgar Boehm Bart, RA". Mapping the Practice and Profession of Sculpture in Britain & Ireland 1851–1951. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e Walter Armstrong (1901). "Boehm, Joseph Edgar" . Dictionary of National Biography (1st supplement). London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  4. ^ a b "Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm, Bt". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  5. ^ a b c Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Boehm, Sir Joseph Edgar" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^ Stephen, Leslie (1898). "Thackeray, William Makepiece" . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 56. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 103.
  7. ^ a b Historic Environment Scotland. "Dalmeny (GDL00130)". Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  8. ^ "Recording Field Visit". RCAHMS. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  9. ^ "Catalogue of British Fine Art Paris 1878". archive.org. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  10. ^ The Birmingham Daily Post. 16 March 1944. p. 1. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ a b Historic England. "Statue of The Horse and His Master in Malvern Park (1342851)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Martina Droth, Jason Edwards & Michael Hatt (2014). Sculpture Victorious: Art in the Age of Invention, 1837-1901. Yale Center for British Art, Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300208030.
  13. ^ Historic England. "Wellington Monument (1231514)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
  14. ^ "Hyde Park Corner". The Times. 21 July 1884. p. 10. (subscription needed)
  15. ^ Leonard Forrer (1904). Biographical dictionary of medallists: coin, gem, and seal-engravers, mint-masters, &c., ancient and modern, with references to their works B. C. 500-A. D. 1900. Spink & Son ltd., London.
  16. ^ a b Arthur Dimock (1900). The Cathedral Church of St. Paul An Account of the Old and New Buildings with a Short Historical Sketch. Bell's Cathedrals. London: George Bell and Sons.
  17. ^ a b c Susan Beattie (1983). The New Sculpture. Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art / Yale University Press. ISBN 0300033591.
  18. ^ "No. 25953". The London Gazette. 12 July 1889. p. 3779.
  19. ^ Lucinda Hawksley, Queen Victoria's Mysterious Daughter, Chapter 9 (St. Martin's Press, 2013)
  20. ^ "Memorials of St Paul's Cathedral" Sinclair, W. p. 469: London; Chapman & Hall, Ltd; 1909.
  21. ^ Historic England. "Bunyan Monument (1128992)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jo Darke (1991). The Monument Guide to England and Wales. Macdonald Illustrated. ISBN 0 356 17609 6.
  23. ^ Historic England. "Equestrian statue and plinth at centre of Stable Yard (1136244)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  24. ^ a b c d e John Blackwood (1989). London's Immortels. The Complete Outdoor Commemorative Statues. Savoy Press. ISBN 0951429604.
  25. ^ Historic England. "Statue of Sir John Fox Burgoyne (1066144)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  26. ^ Lee, Sidney (1912). "Edward VII" . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography (2nd supplement). 1. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 608.
  27. ^ a b Historic England. "Temple Bar Memorial in centre of road (1264445)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  28. ^ Historic England. "Statue of Thomas Carlyle, Embankment Gardens (1080715)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  29. ^ Historic Environment Scotland. "Balmoral Castle, Statue of John Brown (Category A Listed Building) (LB51493)". Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  30. ^ Historic England. "Statue of Sir Francis Drake (1326211)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  31. ^ Historic England. "Drake statue (1386462)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  32. ^ Historic England. "Statue of William Tyndale (1357350)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  33. ^ "Folded hands of Archibald Campbell Tait, Archbishop of Canterbury". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  34. ^ Geoff Downer (2019). "Memorial and Fittings stones, North East transept". Canterbury Historical and Archaeological Society. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  35. ^ Historic England. "Statue of MT Bass (1229897)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  36. ^ Historic England. "Statue of Lord Lawrence (1066146)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  37. ^ "Fountain: Herbert Stewart monument". London Remembers. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  38. ^ "Balmoral Estate, Statue of Queen Victoria". CANMORE. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
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  40. ^ Historic England. "Statue of Lord Iddesleigh (1267606)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
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  47. ^ a b Mark Stocker (1988). Royalist and Realist: The Life and Work of Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm. Garland. ISBN 0824000935.
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  49. ^ Historic England. "Queen Victoria Statue (1355171)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
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External links

Preceded by
Leonard Charles Wyon
Coins of the pound sterling
Obverse sculptor

1887
Succeeded by
Thomas Brock
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baronet
(of Wetherby Gardens)
1889–1890
Succeeded by
Edgar Collin Boehm-Boteler
This page was last edited on 17 August 2021, at 16:18
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