To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

José Enrique Varela

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

José Enrique Varela
José Enrique Varela.jpg
Birth nameJosé Enrique Varela
Born(1891-04-17)17 April 1891
San Fernando, Cádiz, Kingdom of Spain
Died24 March 1951(1951-03-24) (aged 59)
Tangier, International Zone
AllegianceSpain Kingdom of Spain (1904–1931)
 Spanish Republic (1931–1936)
 Nationalist Spain (1936–1951)
Service/branch Spanish Army
Years of service1904–1951
Battles/warsRif War
Spanish Civil War
AwardsLaureate Cross of Saint Ferdinand
Firma de José Enrique Varela, ministro del Ejército.svg

José Enrique Varela Iglesias, 1st Marquis of San Fernando de Varela (17 April 1891 – 24 March 1951) was a Spanish military officer noted for his role as a Nationalist commander in the Spanish Civil War.

Early career

Varela started his military career as an enlisted man in the Spanish Marines for three years starting in 1909.[1] Varela initially enlisted as a recruit in the same regiment his father served as sergeant.[2] He rose from private to the rank of sergeant and then enrolled at infantry school in Spain and graduated as a lieutenant.

Returning to Morocco, he distinguished himself in action and King Alfonso XIII awarded him the Laureate Cross of Saint Ferdinand, Spain's highest military award, on two separate occasions, an unmatched honor for bravery in battle. He commanded native Moroccan troops of Regulares and rose to the rank of captain by merit and participated in several campaigns in the Morocco war, the principal one being the joint Franco-Spanish amphibious landing at Alhucemas in 1925. This landing altered the course of the Morocco War and hastened its end. Shortly thereafter he was promoted to lieutenant colonel and to colonel at the end of the war.

During the early 1930s, he was assigned as a member of a military mission that spent time in Germany, Switzerland, Belgium and France to broaden their military knowledge. With the coming of the Republic, he participated in the abortive José Sanjurjo uprising in 1932 for which he was imprisoned. He was released and joined the Carlists and organized the militia or the paramilitary units of the Carlists, the Requetés, into the formidable military organization that it became in the Spanish Civil War. Disguised as a priest, Uncle Pepe, he traveled along the Pyrenean villages organizing the people and readying them for war.[3] He actively participated in the planning for the rising that started the Spanish Civil War. In April 1936, the government found out about his plotting and imprisoned him.[4]

The Civil War

In jail in Cadiz when the rising started, he was released on 18 July and helped secure Cadiz for the insurrection.[5] He participated in many of the campaigns of the War including, Seville, Córdoba, Malaga, Extremadura, Tagus Valley, Alcázar, Madrid, Jarama, Brunete, Teruel and the Ebro.

In Francoist Spain

Ending the war with the rank of major general, he was appointed minister of war in Franco's August 1939 government and was considered a representative of the Carlist faction there.[6] During his ministry the Spanish army was purged of a small number of officers and NCOs who were considered politically unreliable.[7]

Following the fall of France in 1940 and Hitler's subsequent overtures to Franco, Varela was anti-national socialist and a leading opponent of Spanish entry into the war on the Axis side,[8] although he did endorse the Blue Division's participation on the Eastern Front fighting the Soviet Union.

As tensions between Carlists and Falangists within the government rose during 1942, Varela suggested to Franco that Carlists were underrepresented and proposed several schemes for a reorganization of the cabinet.[9] Violence between the factions broke out at the Basilica of Begoña on 16 August 1942, when Falangists attacked a Carlist crowd with grenades, causing many injuries and possibly several deaths. Varela, who was inside the church at the time, took the initiative against the Falangists and portrayed the Begoña Bombing as an attack on the army and a possible assassination attempt in telegrams to officials throughout the country, displeasing Franco.[10] In the following cabinet reshuffle in September, Varela was replaced as army minister by General Carlos Asensio Cabanillas.

In 1945 Franco appointed Varela as high commissioner of Spanish Morocco.[11] He was later made captain-general of Madrid. He died of leukemia in 1951.[12]

Franco subsequently granted Varela a posthumous marquisate title as Marquis of San Fernando de Varela.[13] After his death he was also granted the title of Captain General of the Army, passed from the also deceased former dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera in 1951 (until 1952, when the title was granted also posthumously to the General Juan Yagüe).[14] He is the only Spanish soldier to have risen from the rank of private to Captain General, the highest rank in the Army.[15]


  2. ^ Julio Martín Alarcón (18 July 2016). "Varela, el general íntimo de Franco que se enfrentó a la Falange". El Mundo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  3. ^ Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, (2001), p. 122
  4. ^ Hugh Thomas, (2001), p. 165.
  5. ^ Hugh Thomas, (2001), p. 212
  6. ^ Payne, S.G. The Franco Regime, 1936-1975. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1987. p 235.
  7. ^ Payne 1987, p. 244.
  8. ^ Payne 1987, p. 275.
  9. ^ Payne 1987, p. 303.
  10. ^ Payne 1987, p. 308.
  11. ^ Payne 1987, p. 347.
  12. ^ Payne 1987, p. 380.
  13. ^ Hugh Thomas, (2001), p. 921.
  14. ^ Guaita Martorell 1986, p. 43.
  15. ^ "Varela, la historia del general antifascista de Franco". 6 March 2012.


Government offices
New title Minister of the Army
9 August 1939 – 3 September 1942
Succeeded by
Preceded by
High Commissioner of the Spanish protectorate in Morocco
4 March 1945 – 24 March 1951
Succeeded by
Spanish nobility
New creation Marquis of San Fernando de Varela
Succeeded by
José Enrique Varela y Ampuero
This page was last edited on 12 October 2021, at 07:07
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.