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# Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

Formation JINR's main component site,NICA March 26, 1956; 65 years ago[1] Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia 18 countries English and Russian Victor A. Matveev www.jinr.ru

The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Russian: Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ), in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (110 km north of Moscow), Russia, is an international research center for nuclear sciences, with 5500 staff members, 1200 researchers including 1000 Ph.Ds from eighteen states (including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus and Kazakhstan), members of the institution. Most scientists, however, are eminent Russian scientists.

The institute has seven laboratories, each with its own specialisation: theoretical physics, high energy physics (particle physics), heavy ion physics, condensed matter physics, nuclear reactions, neutron physics, and information technology. The institute has a division to study radiation and radiobiological research and other ad hoc experimental physics experiments.

Principal research instruments include a nuclotron superconductive particle accelerator (particle energy: 7 GeV), three isochronic cyclotrons (120, 145, 650 MeV), a phasotron (680 MeV) and a synchrophasotron (4 GeV). The site has a neutron fast-pulse reactor (1500MW pulse) with nineteen associated instruments receiving neutron beams.

## Founding

The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research was established on the basis of an agreement signed on March 26, 1956, in Moscow by representatives of the governments of the eleven founding countries, with a view to combining their scientific and material potential. The USSR contributed 50 percent, the People's Republic of China 20 percent. On February 1, 1957, JINR was registered by the United Nations. The institute is located in Dubna, 120 km north of Moscow.

At the time of the creation of JINR, the Institute of Nuclear Problems (INP) of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR already existed at the site of the future Dubna since the late 1940s, and it launched a program of fundamental and applied research at the synchrocyclotron. The Electrophysics Laboratory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (EFLAN) was established, and under the guidance of Academician Vladimir Veksler, work began to create a new accelerator – a proton synchrophasotron – with a record energy of 10 GeV at that time.

By the mid-1950s, there was a worldwide consensus that nuclear science should be accessible and that only broad cooperation could ensure the progressive development of this research, as well as the peaceful use of atomic energy. Thus, in 1954, near Geneva, CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) was established. At about the same time, the countries that belonged to the socialist community decided to establish a Joint Institute for Nuclear Research on the basis of the INP and EFLAN.

The first director of the United Institute was Professor D. I. Blokhintsev, who just completed the creation of Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant the world's first nuclear power plant in Obninsk. The first vice-directors of JINR were professors Marian Danysz (Poland) and V. Votruba (Czechoslovakia).

The history of the formation of the JINR is associated with the names of prominent scientists and Professors. The following list provides some of the names of prominent Scientists.

## Cooperation

The JINR cooperates with many organizations. One of the main organizations with which JINR cooperates is UNESCO; its collaboration with JINR started in 1997 in order to develop basic sciences and try to achieve sustainable development. Joint activities include training programmes and grant mechanisms for researchers in the basic science. This international scientific cooperation and knowledge sharing in key scientific fields is one of the main 2030 UNESCO goals, the achievement of Sustainable Development.[4] The United Nations General Assembly and UNESCO General Conference named 2019 as The International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements (IYPTE 2019); this reinforced the cooperation between this two organization.[5] in addition, JINR is one of the observers of European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

The JINR members are 18 states:[6]

Associate members are:

Scientific collaboration with organizations including:

## Structure of research

The main fields of the institute's research are:

The JINR possess eight laboratories and University Centre.

JINR laboratories
Name realm of Physics facilities Notes
Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (BLTP) Theoretical physics
Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics(VBLHE) High Energy Physics Nuclotron,Synchrophasotron,NICA Nuclotron is the first superconductive synchrotron in World with particle energy up to 7 GeV. Synchrophasotron has particle energy of 4 GeV. NICA is associated with Nuclotron experiment
Laboratory of Particle Physics (LPP) Particle Physics
Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (DLNP) Nuclear physics Synchrocyclotron Synchrocyclotron with the energy 680 MeV and with the intensity of extracted beam 2.5mkA.[13] In addition it used for Radiation therapy
Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) Nuclear physics U400, U400M, IC100 Cyclotron and MT-25 microtron[14] It is the Laboratory of producing new elements.
Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) Nuclear physics IBR-2, IREN IBR-2 high-flux pulsed Fast-neutron reactor and together with IREN Facility are main Neutron source.[15]
Laboratory of Information Technologies (LIT) Theoretical physics HybriLIT provision with the network, computing and information resources as well as mathematical support of experimental and theoretical studies
University Centre (UC) Academic Environment

Superheavy Element Factory The Superheavy Element Factory (SHE factory) at the JINR, opened in 2019, is a new experimental complex dedicated to superheavy element research. Its facilities enable a tenfold increase in beam intensity; such an increase in sensitivity enables the study of reactions with lower cross sections that would otherwise be inaccessible. Sergey Dmitriev, director of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, believes that the SHE factory will enable closer examination of nuclei near the limits of stability, as well as experiments aimed at the synthesis of elements 119 and 120.[16][17]

## Scientific Achievements

More than 40 major achievements in particle physics have been made through experiments at JINR. Including

## Prizes and awards

JINR has instituted awards to honour and encourage high-level research in the fields of physics and mathematics since 1961.

The first award was dedicated to Wang Ganchang, deputy director from 1958 to 1960 and the Soviet Professor Vladimir Veksler for the discovery of antisigma-minus hyperon. The experimental group led by Professor Wang Ganchang, analysed more than 40,000 photographs which recorded tens of thousands of nuclear interactions taken in the propane bubble chamber, produced by the 10 GeV synchrophasotron used to bombard a target forming high energy mesons, was the first to discover the anti-sigma minus hyperon particles on March 9, 1959:[26]

${\displaystyle \pi ^{-}+C\to {\bar {\Sigma }}^{-}+K^{0}+{\bar {K}}^{0}+K^{-}+p^{+}+\pi ^{+}+\pi ^{-}+{\hbox{nucleus recoil}}}$
The discovery of this new unstable antiparticle which decays in (1.18±0.07)·10−10 s into an antineutron and a negative pion was announced in September of that year:[27]
${\displaystyle {\bar {\Sigma }}^{-}\to {\bar {n}}^{0}+\pi ^{-}}$
No-one doubted at the time that this particle was elementary, but a few years later, this hyperon, the proton, the neutron, the pion and other hadrons had lost their status of elementary particles as they turned out to be complex particles too consisting of quarks and antiquarks.

## Notes

1. ^ One of the founding states in 1956, however currently prevented from participating in jinr since 2015.[7]

## References

2. ^ Объединенный институт ядерных исследований (Дубна)
3. ^ "International Intergovernmental Organization Joint Institute for Nuclear Research" (PDF). Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. July 18, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 23, 2011. Retrieved August 12, 2008.
4. ^ https://en.unesco.org/news/unesco-and-joint-institute-nuclear-research-20-years-collaboration-support-basic-sciences-0
5. ^ https://en.unesco.org/news/unesco-and-joint-institute-nuclear-research-20-years-collaboration-support-basic-sciences-0
6. ^ http://www.jinr.ru/jinr_member_states-en/
7. ^ http://www.jinr.ru/posts/map_maps/democratic-people-s-republic-of-korea/
8. ^ https://indico.cern.ch/event/684125/contributions/2884172/attachments/1673521/2685684/MATVEEV__Physics_at_JINR__23_June_2018_Italy_SHORT.pdf
9. ^ https://indico.cern.ch/event/684125/contributions/2884172/attachments/1673521/2685684/MATVEEV__Physics_at_JINR__23_June_2018_Italy_SHORT.pdf
10. ^ https://www.disat.polito.it/research/research_groups/fundint/theory_of_fundamental_interactions
11. ^ https://indico.cern.ch/event/684125/contributions/2884172/attachments/1673521/2685684/MATVEEV__Physics_at_JINR__23_June_2018_Italy_SHORT.pdf
12. ^ https://www.eps.org/page/distinction_sitesDU
13. ^ https://accelconf.web.cern.ch/rupac2014/html/keyw0091.htm
14. ^ Kalagin, Igor and others(2018),Heavy Ion Cyclotrons of FLNR JINR - Status and Plans,26th Russian Particle Accelerator Conference doi =10.18429/JACoW-RuPAC2018-WEXMH02 }
15. ^ Valery, Shvetsov. (2017). Neutron Sources at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. Quantum Beam Science. 1. 6. 10.3390/qubs1010006.
16. ^ Dmitriev, S.; Itkis, M.; Oganessian, Y. (2016). "Status and perspectives of the Dubna superheavy element factory" (PDF). EPJ Web of Conferences. 131 (08001): 1–6. doi:10.1051/epjconf/201613108001.
17. ^ "Inauguration of the Factory of superheavy elements". Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. 26 March 2019. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
18. ^ Pontecorvo, B. (1957). "Inverse beta processes and nonconservation of lepton charge". Zhurnal Éksperimental'noĭ i Teoreticheskoĭ Fiziki. 34: 247. reproduced and translated in "[no title cited]". Soviet Physics JETP. 7: 172. 1958.
19. ^ https://www.britannica.com/science/bohrium#ref133868
20. ^ Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; et al. (1999). "Synthesis of Superheavy Nuclei in the 48Ca + 244Pu Reaction" (PDF). Physical Review Letters. 83 (16): 3154. Bibcode:1999PhRvL..83.3154O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.3154.
21. ^ Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Utyonkov; Lobanov; Abdullin; Polyakov; Shirokovsky; Tsyganov; Gulbekian; Bogomolov; Gikal; Mezentsev; Iliev; Subbotin; Sukhov; Ivanov; Buklanov; Subotic; Itkis; Moody; Wild; Stoyer; Stoyer; Lougheed; Laue; Karelin; Tatarinov (2000). "Observation of the decay of 292116". Physical Review C. 63 (1): 011301. Bibcode:2001PhRvC..63a1301O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.63.011301.
22. ^ https://msutoday.msu.edu/news/2018/oganesson-noble-but-not-a-gas/
23. ^ Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Utyonkov, V.; Lobanov, Yu.; Abdullin, F.; Polyakov, A.; Sagaidak, R.; Shirokovsky, I.; Tsyganov, Yu.; Voinov, A.; Gulbekian, Gulbekian; et al. (2007). "Synthesis of the isotope 282113 in the 237Np + 48Ca fusion reaction" (PDF). Physical Review C. 76 (1): 011601(R). Bibcode:2007PhRvC..76a1601O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.76.011601.
24. ^ Oganessian; et al. (2003). "Experiments on the synthesis of element 115 in the reaction 243Am(48Ca,xn)291−x115" (PDF). JINR Preprints.
25. ^ Glanz, James (April 6, 2010). "Scientists Discover Heavy New Element". The New York Times.
26. ^ "50thAnniversary of the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research" (PDF). Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. October 27, 2003. Retrieved August 11, 2008.
27. ^ "王淦昌的科学贡献". 电动力学网络教程. 2006-06-01. Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
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