To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

John T. Hoffman

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John T. Hoffman
John T Hoffman.png
23rd Governor of New York
In office
January 1, 1869 – December 31, 1872
LieutenantAllen C. Beach
Preceded byReuben E. Fenton
Succeeded byJohn Adams Dix
78th Mayor of New York City
In office
January 1, 1866 – November 30, 1868
Preceded byCharles Godfrey Gunther
Succeeded byThomas Coman
25th Recorder of New York City
In office
Preceded byGeorge G. Barnard
Succeeded byJohn K. Hackett
Personal details
John Thompson Hoffman

(1828-01-10)January 10, 1828
Ossining, New York
DiedMarch 24, 1888(1888-03-24) (aged 60)
Wiesbaden, Germany
Resting placeDale Cemetery, Ossining, New York
Political partyDemocratic

John Thompson Hoffman (January 10, 1828 – March 24, 1888) was the 23rd governor of New York (1869–72). He was also recorder of New York City (1861–65) and the 78th mayor of New York City (1866–68). Connections to the Tweed Ring ruined his political career, in spite of the absence of evidence to show personal involvement in corrupt activities. He is to date the last New York City mayor elected Governor of New York and the last elected to higher office.

Early life

Fund Stock of the Central Park Fund, issued 30. May 1868, signed by Mayor John T. Hoffman
Fund Stock of the Central Park Fund, issued 30. May 1868, signed by Mayor John T. Hoffman

He was born in Ossining in Westchester County, New York. He was the son of Jane Ann (Thompson) and Adrian Kissam Hoffman, a physician in Westchester County. His father's parents, Philip L. Hoffman and Helena Kissam, were "among the most valuable members of early society in New York, and the founders of many public charities and benevolent works," Harper's Weekly effused.[1]

He attended Union College starting in 1843 in the junior class, but had to leave for a time due to ill health, eventually graduating in 1846. He then studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1849 and practiced in Manhattan.[1]

Hoffman became active in the Tammany Hall faction of the Democratic Party. He was a member of the New York State Democratic Central Committee beginning in 1848, and served as New York City Recorder from 1861 to 1866. Hoffman served as mayor of New York City from 1866 to 1868. from 1866 to 1868 he was Grand Sachem, or leader, of the Tammany Hall organization.

High hopes of reformers

When he was elected mayor in 1865, reformers had high hopes for him. A front-page article in Harper's Weekly intoned:

It is many years since the city of New York has chosen for her Chief Magistrate a man of the position and reputation of John T. Hoffman. He is not only a gentleman of high social position, but a lawyer of distinction, a judge of eminent probity, a representative by descent of some of the oldest New York families, a citizen of unblemished reputation ...[1]

Guilt by association

Gubernatorial portrait of New York Governor John T. Hoffman
Gubernatorial portrait of New York Governor John T. Hoffman

Hoffman was elected governor in 1868, the last New York City mayor to accomplish this feat and the last New York City mayor elected to higher office. Hoffman's election was aided by Tammany Hall under the leadership of its boss William Tweed. Later on the fact that Hoffman had aid from Tweed, and his voter majority was so large for that time, would be recalled as proof that the governor was a member of the notorious Tweed Ring.

In actuality, while Tweed did frequently see Hoffman in Albany on various votes and projects, it was no more than any other major Democrat in New York State. But they worked harmoniously together, and Tweed aided Hoffman in getting re-elected in 1870. Shortly afterwards a new city charter was enacted which granted more local autonomy to New York City. Such reform had been discussed for decades, but Tweed with Hoffman brought it to fruition. But just at this point Tweed's corruption began being revealed in The New York Times and Harper's Weekly, and the new charter was discredited as being planned for more municipal corruption. At this time Hoffman was also considering seriously to run for the presidency in 1872, and Tweed was to be his manager. Tweed, in actuality, had little interest in national affairs (he had been a congressman for a single term in the 1850s), and while he might have considered the possible corruption pickings greater he also was aware of the bad publicity such scandals had brought on the Grant administration. Whoever ran for president in 1872 would face Grant running for re-election. As it turned out, the Tweed scandals wrecked Hoffman's chances, and the nomination eventually was split between those Democrats supporting liberal Republican Horace Greeley and those supporting the "pure" Democrat, New York attorney Charles O'Conor. Hoffman, his reputation ruined by the connections with Tweed, did not seek further political offices.


Hoffman died at age 60 in Wiesbaden, Germany on March 24, 1888, while traveling in Europe with family members, as he did each winter.[2] He was buried at Dale Cemetery in Ossining.



  1. ^ a b c "John T. Hoffman, Mayor-Elect of New York City". Harper's Weekly. December 23, 1865. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
  2. ^ "Death Of Ex-Gov. Hoffman. Stricken By Heart Disease In A Foreign Land. Sketch Of His Life. How He Became Prominent In Politics And Suddenly Sank Into Oblivion". The New York Times. March 25, 1888. p. 5. Retrieved April 22, 2022 – via Ex-Gov. John T. Hoffman died suddenly of heart disease yesterday morning at Wiesbaden, Germany. His death was announced to Edward R. Johnes of the law firm of Johnes, Willcox Purdy, with which the ex-Governor had been connected for the past year or two, by ...

Further reading

  • Kenneth D. Ackerman, Boss Tweed: The Rise and Fall of the Corrupt Pol Who Conceived the Soul of Modern New York. New York: Carroll & Graf, Publishers, 2005, 2006. ISBN 0-7867-1686-X.
  • Leo Hershkovitz, Tweed's New York: Another Look. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1977. ISBN 0-385-07656-8.
  • David Quigley, Second Founding: New York City, Reconstruction, and the Making of American Democracy. New York: Hill & Wang/ Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004. ISBN 0-8090-8514-3. This meaty little book discusses the conflicts between the political parties in New York State regarding constitutional changes in the 1860s and 1870s. Hoffman is discussed on pages 9, 60-61, 63-65, 78, 87, and 94.

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by Democratic nominee for Governor of New York
1866, 1868, 1870
Succeeded by
Legal offices
Preceded by Recorder of New York City
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by Mayor of New York City
Succeeded by
Preceded by Governor of New York
Succeeded by
This page was last edited on 20 December 2022, at 12:03
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.