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John Francis Kinney

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

His Excellency, The Most Reverend
John Francis Kinney
Bishop Emeritus of Saint Cloud
Archdiocese Saint Paul and Minneapolis
Diocese Saint Cloud
Appointed May 9, 1995
Installed July 6, 1995
Term ended September 20, 2013
Predecessor Jerome Hanus
Successor Donald Joseph Kettler
Orders
Ordination February 2, 1963
by Leo Binz
Consecration January 25, 1977
by John Robert Roach, Leo Binz, and James Richard Ham
Personal details
Born (1937-06-11) June 11, 1937 (age 81)
Oelwein, Iowa
Previous post Auxiliary Bishop of Saint Paul and Minneapolis
Bishop of Bismarck
Motto Caritas Christi urget nos
Styles of
John Francis Kinney
Mitre (plain).svg
Reference style
Spoken style Your Excellency
Religious style Bishop

John Francis Kinney (born June 11, 1937) is an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He was the fifth Bishop of Bismarck from 1982 to 1995 and the ninth Bishop of St. Cloud from 1995 to 2013.

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Transcription

Most famous scientists picked a thing. But a few polymaths, like Aristotle and Ibn Sina, picked everything. Francis Galton, one of the most important thinkers in the generation after Darwin, fell into column B. Hardcore. Galton was a co-founder of a range of scientific disciplines, including meteorology, psychology, forensics, and above all statistics. He was an active member of the influential British Association for the Advancement of Science. He made the first weather map. Mostly, though, he is remembered for something that we don’t even count as science today: Galton was the father of eugenics, the idea that the gene pool of the human species could somehow be improved, if certain people with different abilities didn’t have kids. Where did Galton come up with such a terrible idea? Partly, from the work of his half-cousin. Charles Darwin. [INTRO MUSIC PLAYS] When Darwin and Wallace proposed their theory of evolution by natural selection, it was based on observing differences produced by thousands of years of gradual changes. But we, as short-lived humans, can’t observe thousands of years of evolutionary change first-hand. So it was hard to know what to do with natural selection. In the late 1800s, no one really understood how heredity worked. But many biologists, most notably Herbert Spencer, argued that “survival of the fittest” applied to humans, just like other species. So they figured there must be a technical way to use that knowledge… Spencer, for example, argued against all laws that limited class conflict, which he saw as tests of fitness—including basic child labor laws. Spencer’s idea, called social Darwinism, influenced a lot of people in the late 1800s. And one of them was Darwin’s younger cousin, Francis Galton. Born in 1822 to a prominent Quaker family, Galton was a child prodigy. Like Darwin, Galton was largely self-taught—a “gentleman of science.” Also, like Darwin, he never did well in school, suffered from nervous breakdowns, and traveled widely. Unlike Darwin, Galton was not a shy scholar. He was obsessed with the idea of genius—whether it was a product of good hereditary luck or learning. For Galton, as for most Victorians, nature held all of the cards. He got this idea from his cousin’s hit book. On the Origin of Species blew Galton’s mind. After 1859, Galton focused on the social implications of Darwin’s work. He argued that an organism’s most important characteristics must be biological, rather than shaped by the environment or experience. And, like Darwin, he sought evidence for his theory. The first step was to pick some trait to track over time. He selected “eminence,” which today you might think of as basically awesomeness. Galton thought that, if human traits can be inherited, then tracking the descendants of obviously eminent men—and of course they were men—should show a decreasing level of eminence over time, as intermarriage with non-eminent people diluted this trait. So he gathered all of the historical evidence he could on eminent British men and their descendants, and indeed found that eminence seemed to decrease over time. The resulting book, Hereditary Genius, published in 1869, contains the first use of the phrase “nature versus nurture.” The book also, by the way, includes a chapter on eminent “Wrestlers of the North Country.” !!! Hereditary Genius popularized the practice of historiometry, or studying human traits by tracking ancestry information. But Galton knew that he was barely scratching the surface of heredity. He needed more evidence. So he did what his cousin would have done: he turned to a model from nature. This time, twins and peas instead of pigeons and barnacles. In 1875, in the paper, “The history of twins,” he proposed studying twins, which he saw as a natural experiment. By the mid 1900s, twin studies became the foundation of behavioral genetics, or how heredity affects behavior. Galton realized that twins presented a “natural experiment”: if nature is more powerful than nurture, then twins should be more similar than not, even if they’re raised apart. But if nurture is more powerful, then twins should behave differently when raised apart. Galton didn’t conduct his own twin studies, but he outlined what future research should look like. Galton also developed statistical methods to research inheritance, and in doing so, he created the quantitative science of human behavior. ThoughtBubble, show us how: Galton also started breeding sweet peas, comparing the sizes of the offspring of different seeds. Galton’s work with peas led him to conclude that traits tend toward a statistical average. Galton couldn’t figure out why, but he could use statistics to model the general pattern of how traits were distributed over time—in this case, in a “normal” distribution, a bell curve. In 1884, Galton took his pea model to the International Health Exhibition in London. Visitors to his “Anthropometric Lab” paid to have Galton measure their bodies, minds, and senses in various ways. He produced many new instruments in order to measure, for example, eyesight. Visitors received the results, and Galton also kept a copy to add to his library of research on variation in humans. This practice, known as anthropometry—or literally, measuring humans—became common across many disciplines. Galton also pioneered the use of fingerprinting in forensics. He classified the features that we still look for: loops, whorls, and arches. Thanks ThoughtBubble. So Galton built on Darwin’s work to invent a statistical science of life. But now it gets weird. And, frankly, difficult. Because Galton decided that, based on his investigations of inheritance, good traits such as genius and morality were diluted down to some norm over time. In 1883, one year after Cousin Chuck passed away, Galton published Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development, in which he coined the term “eugenics”—the discipline of “good breeding,” or literally making “good families,” in humans. Galton was not the first to suggest that smart people should have kids with each other, or that cousins should avoid marrying. What Galton did was argue—based on what he saw as scientific evidence—for the public to do something about these ideas. He wanted “families of merit” to grow, and he thought the government should incentivize this growth. This was called “positive eugenics.” Galton pointed out that many well-born Victorians married late and had few kids, compared to the lower classes. If this fear of the weakening of supposedly “good stock” by new, poor, or different people sounds familiar, that’s partly because Galton’s so-called “science” of eugenics quickly gained traction. The First International Congress of Eugenics was held in 1912, the year after Galton died. And it was around this time that nations began passing “eugenical” laws. Particularly the United States. Driven by a fear that births of supposedly inferior people would lead to weak or criminally “degenerate” adults, some states introduced forcible sterilization laws starting in 1907. These were mostly used to justify the sterilization of already incarcerated groups and those with different abilities. This was “negative eugenics,” which was not something Galton had explicitly argued for. The metaphor used by eugenicists was drawn from Darwin, but modified: a family or nation was a tree, and its branches sometimes needed “pruning.” A famous example of this thinking in the United States was psychologist Henry Goddard’s 1912 book about a family from New Jersey called the “Kallikaks.” This was a made-up name for a real family whose genealogy Goddard studied to understand what he called “feeblemindedness,” or intellectual disability. In the book, Goddard compared the branch of the Kallikak family that was descended from its founding father’s legitimate marriage, and the branch descended from that founder’s affair with a “nameless feeble-minded girl.” Goddard concluded that feeblemindedness was strongly heritable and a danger to democracy. Although he later admitted this was a flawed study, it was a hit, and his terms for different levels of intelligence became common: “moron,” “imbecile,” “idiot.” Goddard’s attempts to quantify intelligence weren’t at the fringes of science. His ideas are creepily still with us in the form of intelligence quotient or IQ tests. Goddard, who was a big-time fan of Galtonian eugenics, translated the work of three major French psychologists in 1910. This translation was picked up by Lewis Terman at Stanford University, who adapted the work of the French to create the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales in 1916. Goddard and Terman then worked with Robert Yerkes to develop an IQ test for the US Army in 1917. The US Army introduced aptitude tests to place soldiers in different roles. But the tests were highly discriminatory, privileging white candidates from educated backgrounds. The trial of the test showed very low results for non-Northern European whites and non-whites. Goddard spent much of the rest of his life publicizing these results—even though they were contested in his own day as shoddy science. There were sooo many other serious, Galton-inspired scientists who did creepy research on human difference and argued for terrible policies, we could do a whole creepy spin-off show. Instead, let’s just talk about some of the worst. A lawyer and zoologist named Madison Grant wrote a book called The Passing of the Great Race in 1916, citing Galton. Grant subdivided Caucasians into three types, claiming that the great “Nordics” were being rapidly outbred in the United States by inferior types of whites. Meanwhile, Charles Davenport, a very influential zoologist, founded the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in 1910. He collected data to help people check whether a potential marriage was suitable. And, maybe unsurprisingly, Davenport was a fan of the Nazis. But probably the eugenicist most well known to us today was the nurse who coined the term “birth control” and opened the first US birth control clinic in 1916: Margaret Sanger. Sanger founded the American Birth Control League to educate people about safe abortion procedures and contraceptives. She gave lectures on birth control to many groups, including the KKK in 1926. In the 1920s and ‘30s, Sanger thought that eugenics would give her movement legitimacy. Eugenics became a dominant theme at her birth control conferences, and she spoke publicly of the need to put an end to breeding by the unfit. By the late 1920s, eugenics had been recognized as bad science by most practicing biologists. But as a source of policy for many lawmakers in the United States, Germany, and elsewhere, eugenics was still very much alive. In the 1800s, science had become much more important for states. They wanted to understand their populations… and, now, shape them. Compulsory sterilization was challenged in the US Supreme Court in 1927 in the famous Buck v. Bell case. But the decision, written by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., sided with the eugenicists and has never technically been overturned. In fact, forced sterilization was still happening in California prisons until it was banned in 2014. Did Galton think that studying human difference would lead to bad science and even worse laws? Not necessarily. But in some ways, his legacy -- a legacy of comparing humans quantitatively -- is still with us. Next time—we’ll see what’s going on in a less creepy area of the life sciences: it’s time for Pasteur, Koch, and the birth of microbiology! Crash Course History of Science is filmed in the Dr. Cheryl C. Kinney studio in Missoula, Montana and it’s made with the help of all this nice people and our animation team is Thought Cafe. Crash Course is a Complexly production. If you wanna keep imagining the world complexly with us, you can check out some of our other channels like Nature League, Sexplanations, and Scishow. And, if you’d like to keep Crash Course free for everybody, forever, you can support the series at Patreon; a crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content you love. And that is helping the world. Thank you to all of our patrons for making Crash Course possible with their continued support.

Contents

Biography

John Kinney was born in Oelwein, Iowa, to John and Marie (née McCarty) Kinney.[1] He received his primary education at St. Thomas Elementary School in Winona, Minnesota, and Annunciation Elementary School in Minneapolis. He attended DeLaSalle High School in Minneapolis before entering Nazareth Hall Seminary in St. Paul. Kinney graduated from St. Paul Seminary in 1963, and was ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop Leo Binz on February 2, 1963, in the Cathedral of Saint Paul.

He then served as assistant pastor of St. Thomas Parish in Minneapolis until 1968, and was named vice-chancellor of the Archdiocese of St. Paul-Minneapolis in 1966. From 1968 to 1971, Kinney completed his graduate studies at the Pontifical Lateran University in Rome, from where he obtained his doctorate in canon law. Upon his return to the United States, he resumed his post as vice-chancellor, rising to become full chancellor in 1973. He also served as pastor of St. Leonard of Port Maurice Parish in Minneapolis during his tenure as chancellor.

On November 9, 1976, Kinney was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of St. Paul-Minneapolis and Titular Bishop of Caprulae by Pope Paul VI. He received his episcopal consecration on January 25, 1977 from Archbishop John Roach, with Archbishop Binz and Bishop James Ham, MM, serving as co-consecrators, in the Basilica of Saint Mary. He was archdiocesan Vicar for Parishes from 1979 to 1982.

Kinney was later named the fifth Bishop of Bismarck, North Dakota, on June 28, 1982, and was formally installed as such on the following August 23. He sat on the Board of Directors of Catholic Relief Services from 1993 to 1998. Pope John Paul II appointed him the ninth Bishop of St. Cloud, Minnesota, on May 9, 1995, being installed on July 6 of that same year.

Within the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, Kinney currently sits on the Committee for Priestly Life and Ministry, Committee on Migration, and the USCCB's Administrative Committee. He formerly chaired the Ad Hoc Committee on Bishops' Life and Ministry, Ad Hoc Committee on Sexual Abuse, and Committee on Permanent Diaconate.

On September 20, 2013 Pope Francis accepted Bishop Kinney's resignation as Bishop of St. Cloud. Bishop Donald Joseph Kettler of Fairbanks was appointed as his successor on the same day.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Bishop Kinney". Retrieved April 1, 2014.

External links

Episcopal succession

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Jerome George Hanus, OSB
Bishop of St. Cloud
1995–2013
Succeeded by
Donald Joseph Kettler
Preceded by
Hilary Baumann Hacker
Bishop of Bismarck
1982–1995
Succeeded by
Paul Albert Zipfel
Preceded by
-
Auxiliary Bishop of Saint Paul and Minneapolis
1977–1982
Succeeded by
-
This page was last edited on 25 October 2018, at 01:14
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