To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame
John F Kennedy eternal flame after 2013 upgrade - 2013-05-30.jpg
John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame at Arlington National Cemetery after its 2013 renovation
LocationArlington County, Virginia
Coordinates38°52′54″N 77°04′17″W / 38.88153°N 77.07150°W / 38.88153; -77.07150
Area3 acres (1.2 ha)
EstablishedNovember 25, 1963 (temporary)
March 15, 1967 (permanent)
Governing bodyU.S. Department of the Army
Location of John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame in the United States

The John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame is a presidential memorial at the gravesite of John F. Kennedy, 35th president of the United States, in Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. This permanent site replaced a temporary grave and eternal flame used at the time of President Kennedy's state funeral on November 25, 1963, three days after his assassination. The site was designed by architect John Carl Warnecke, a long-time friend of the president.[1][2] The permanent John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame grave site was consecrated and opened to the public on March 15, 1967.[3]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    10 643
    4 309
    15 331
    2 395
    5 113
  • ✪ ◄ JFK Eternal Flame, Washington [HD] ►
  • ✪ John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame - Grave Site in Arlington National Cemetery - 17-Apr-2015
  • ✪ Eternal Flame President John Fitzgerald Kennedy Grave Arlington National Cemetery
  • ✪ John F. Kennedy Grave Site - Eternal Flame
  • ✪ John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame, Arlington National Cemetary

Transcription

Welcome to the grave of John F Kennedy, parts of his family and the Eternal Flame. The John F Kennedy Eternal Flame presidential memorial is one of the centerpieces of the Arlington National Cemetery and it pays honor to one of most famous of all US presidents. Keep in mind that the site you are standing at is a grave and not a tourist attraction, so please pay the appropriate respect. Before going into detail about the memorial itself, I want to give you a summary of the man this site is dedicated to; John F Kennedy. John Fitzgerald Kennedy, or "JFK" as he is also known, as born in 1917 in Brookline, Massachusetts. John was the second son of Joseph P Kennedy and Rose Fitzgerald, whose father was a prominent Boston politician. JFK however, didn't become a politician right away. After his studies, which included several public and private schools and an international affairs degree from Harvard, John volunteered for the US Army during the Second World War. He served several years in the US Navy, first in office and then later on the field where he took part in several missions in the Pacific. John older brother, Joseph Jr., was the one who were suppose to carry the family's political traditions on. However, Joseph served as a pilot during the Second World War and was killed during one of his missions. Joseph's death was one of the reasons John decided to get involved in politics. John quickly became a successful politician and tried to become Democratic Party's vice president choice for the 1956 elections. He failed, but decided to run for President himself four years later. This time he was successful and he became the 35th US President after beating Richard Nixon in one of the closest presidential races in the 20th century. John F Kennedy was a strong believer in civil rights, which came to shape his domestic and foreign policies. He is also known for his famous speeches. During his inaugural address, he delivered the legendary; "Ask not what your country can do for you - ask what you can do for your country". Kennedy's was the president in a very tough era. He was facing the Cold War, with the newly erected Berlin Wall, the Vietnam War and the Cuban Missile Crises. He was also president during the ongoing race to space where he said; "We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy but because they are hard." On November 22nd, 1963, President Kennedy was shot and killed in an open limousine during a parade on a campaign trip to Dallas. Lee Harvey Oswald, an employee of the schoolbook depository from which the shots were suspected to have been fired from, was arrested and charged with the assassination of Kennedy. He denied shooting anyone and claimed he was set up. Before any trials could be held, Oswald himself was shot at point-blank range and killed during the move to a high security prison. The motives for all these shootings are still to a large extent unknown. After Kennedy's death, many believed he would be buried in the state of Massachusetts, as it was the common practice that former presidents were buried in their home states. Jacqueline Kennedy however had a wish which simply stated that he should belong to the people. With this, the possibility of placing Kennedy at Arlington National Cemetery was investigated. Arlington seemed the perfect choice, as it is one of the largest cemeteries in the US where hundreds of thousands of people, who also gave their life for their country, is buried. Three sites within the cemetery were considered and the final choice fell on the slope area below Arlington House. The grave of Kennedy is directly aligned with the Memorial Bridge and the Lincoln Memorial. JFK's funeral was also modeled after Abraham Lincoln's funeral, as a wish of Jacqueline Kennedy. Both were two great presidents and both became assassinated. It was also his wife's wish to place the eternal flame on his grave, a flame you can still see burning today. The flame was inspired by the French Tomb of the Unknown Solider under the Arch of Triumph in Paris, which the Kennedys had visited earlier in 1961. The planners who were organizing the funeral granted her request immediately and rushed to implement it. Overnight, the engineers ran a gas line to the planned gravesite, fed by propane tanks from a distance. The state funeral was held on November 25th, 1963, where several heads of states were attending. At the end of the burial service, Jacqueline Kennedy lit the flame with a lightened taper. About a month after it was lit, the flame was extinguished when a Catholic school group visiting the site poured, rather than sprinkled, holy water directly onto the flame. The burner of today prevents accidents like this from happening. It is specially designed by the Institute of Gas Technology of Chicago. It consists of a constantly flashing electric spark near the tip of the nozzle which instantly relights the gas if the flame should be extinguished by rain, wind or accident. The fuel is natural gas and is mixed with a controlled quantity of air to achieve the color and shape of the flame. If you look at the grounds you see JFK's burial plaque in the ground together with his wife's next to him. On the far sides you can also see two smaller plaques. These are for the two of Kennedy's children, who also are buried on the site. One of them, a son, was born five and a half weeks prematurely and died two days later. The other, a daughter, was dead on birth. The burial site quickly became crowded after it opened to the public, as many people wanted to visit the grave of their newly lost president. During the first year, often as many as 3,000 people an hour visited the Kennedy gravesite and on weekends an estimated 50,000 people visited the grave. This led to the construction of a gravesite more suitable for visitors, with a paved area surrounding the graves. The area was paved with irregular stones of Cape Cod granites, stones which had been quarried at a site near the president's home in Brookline. Close to the JFK Eternal Flame, you can find the gravesites of John's brothers; Robert and Edward "Ted" Kennedy. Robert F. Kennedy, a Senator who also became assassinated during a run for Presidency, is buried about 100 feet away from the Eternal Flame and their brother Ted, a longtime Senator, is buried about 100 feet farther away. Over the years, the JFK Eternal Flame has been visited by millions of people. It has become a symbol for JFK and what he stood for. The memorial has been the official postage stamp, with a picture of the flame together with the text: "And the glow from that fire can truly light the world". This phrase was delivered during Kennedy's inaugural address by John himself; a man whose own fire burned, and still burns, to light the world.

Contents

Original grave site

President Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas, while there on a campaign trip. His body was brought back to Washington D.C. soon after his death. Dignitaries from 92 countries attended his state funeral three days later, on November 25.[4]

Jacqueline Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy walk away from the president's casket after lighting the Eternal Flame, November 25, 1963
Jacqueline Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy walk away from the president's casket after lighting the Eternal Flame, November 25, 1963

Initial press reports indicated that President Kennedy would be buried at Holyhood Cemetery in Brookline, Massachusetts, where his son Patrick Bouvier Kennedy (who had died on August 9, 1963, two days after his premature birth) was buried.[5] But the site for the president's grave was quickly changed to the hillside just below Arlington House in Arlington National Cemetery. The site was chosen because Kennedy and his friend, architect John Carl Warnecke, happened to visit the site in March 1963 and the President had admired the peaceful atmosphere of the location.[6][7][8][9] The initial suggestion to bury Kennedy at Arlington appears to have been made by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara.[10][11] First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy agreed to the change.[10] Although Kennedy's sisters and many of his long-time associates from Massachusetts were opposed to burial at Arlington, his brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy visited the site with McNamara on Saturday, November 23, and concluded that Jacqueline Kennedy's wishes should be honored.[10][11]

On Sunday, November 24, 1963, Jacqueline Kennedy requested an eternal flame for her husband's grave.[12][13] According to several published accounts, she drew inspiration from a number of sources. One was the eternal flame at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, which she and her husband had seen during a visit to France in 1961.[14] She also took inspiration from the novel The Candle in the Wind (the fourth book from the collection The Once and Future King by T. H. White), which was part of the inspiration for the 1960 stage musical Camelot (the cast recording was a favorite of the Kennedys).[15][16] Her brother-in-law, Sargent Shriver, counseled against an eternal flame, worried that it might appear ostentatious or that it would compete with other such memorials at Arlington National Cemetery;[16] but she remained adamant.[16]

The president's funeral was set for Monday, November 25, which left very little time to manufacture and install an eternal flame. Overnight, Colonel Clayton B. Lyle and a United States Army Corps of Engineers team built the eternal flame: A propane gas-fueled tiki torch was procured from the Washington Gas and Light Company, tested, and slightly modified for emplacement.[13][17][18][19][20] The Corps also installed a gas line to a propane tank 200 yards (180 m) away to feed the torch.[17] A mound of evergreens was placed around the base of the flame to cover the tubing and torch mechanism, and the head of the grave dug in front of the flame.

The grave was set in a plot of grass roughly 5 yards (4.6 m) on each side.[21][a] The site was about halfway up the hill on which Arlington House stands.[21][28] The grave was placed so that it had a view of the Lincoln Memorial and Washington Monument, and was aligned with them.[11] Jacqueline Kennedy lit a taper from a candle held by a nearby soldier, and then brought the eternal flame to life at the end of the burial service.[29] The president's brothers, Robert and Ted, symbolically lit the flame after her.[10][29][b]

On the evening of November 26, the site was surrounded by a white picket fence.[21][28] The fencing covered an expanded area 30 feet (9.1 m) long by 20 feet (6.1 m) wide.[28] The enlarged site was due to Jacqueline Kennedy's desire to have her deceased children, Patrick and Arabella (a stillborn daughter born in 1956), reinterred next to their father.[18] She had read that in 1865, President Abraham Lincoln had been buried next to his deceased son, Willie, and she recalled her husband's desire to be buried with his family.[32] A small white cross was placed at the head of Arabella's grave, and a small white headstone placed at the head of Patrick's.[28]

During the funeral, flowers were laid on the hillside above the gravesite.[21] After the erection of the fence, flowers were placed inside the enclosure, leaning against the uphill side of the fence.[21] A canvas-covered circular wooden walkway was built from Sheridan Drive to the grave site to give members of the public access to the grave.[28]

Development of a permanent gravesite

View of Arlington House from the Kennedy grave site

John Carl Warnecke, a friend of the Kennedys, visited the grave with Jacqueline Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy on November 28, to discuss themes and plans for a permanent memorial.[18][33] The following day, Warnecke was chosen by now former-first lady to design the president's tomb.[9][33][34] Warnecke immediately concluded that the permanent grave must be simple and must incorporate the eternal flame.[18][33] A few days later, Warnecke agreed that, although it was not required, he would submit the design for the permanent Kennedy grave site to the U.S. Commission on Fine Arts.[18]

Initially, there was some concern that an eternal flame might not be approved by the cemetery. The Army Corps of Engineers was studying the installation of a permanent flame just a week after Kennedy's burial.[35] But the Army was also considering removing the flame, as no such memorials were permitted in Arlington National Cemetery.[36] On December 3, 1963, the Army concluded that the Kennedy plot was not part of the official burial section of Arlington National Cemetery, and agreed to continue to allow an eternal flame.[36]

The U.S. government formally set aside a 3 acres (1.2 ha) site surrounding the President's grave on December 5, 1963.[18] The grave design process was placed under tight secrecy.[37][38][39] An extensive research project was conducted in which hundreds of famous tombs (such as the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus and Grant's Tomb) as well as all existing presidential burial sites were documented and images of them collected.[40] Warnecke discussed design concepts with more than 40 architects, sculptors, painters, landscape architects, stonemasons, calligraphers, and liturgical experts[9][41]—including the sculptor Isamu Noguchi, architectural model maker Theodore Conrad, and the U.S. Commission on Fine Arts.[37][38] Noguchi counseled Warnecke to add a large sculptural cross to the site and to eliminate the eternal flame (which he felt was kitschy).[37] Warnecke consulted with Jacqueline Kennedy about the design of the grave many times over the following year.[8] Hundreds of architectural drawings and models were produced to explore design ideas.[9][41] On April 6, 1964, Warnecke sent a memorandum to her in which he outlined his desire to retain the eternal flame as the centerpiece of the burial site and to keep the site's design as simple as possible.[42] In the course of the research and conceptualization effort, Warnecke considered the appropriateness of structures or memorials at the site (such as crosses, shafts, pavilions, etc.), the history of Arlington National Cemetery, the vista, and how to handle ceremonies at the site.[42] By August 1964, Warnecke and his assistants had written a 76-page research report which concluded that the gravesite was not a memorial nor monument, but a grave.[40][42] "This particular hillside, this flame, this man and this point in history must be synthesized in one statement that has distinctive character of its own. We must avoid adding elements that in later decades might become superficial and detract from the deeds of the man," Warnecke wrote[40] This conclusion drove the final design. The walkways and elliptical overlook were conceptualized very early in the design process.[40] Landscape architects Hideo Sasaki and Lawrence Halprin helped design the approaches and setting, but not the grave site.[40] For some time in the spring and summer of 1964, the design process appeared to slow as Warnecke and his associates struggled to design the grave site. But in the summer of 1964 Sargent Shriver, President Kennedy's brother-in-law, forcefully told Warnecke that "There must be something there when we get there."[40] This spurred the design efforts forward. In the late summer and early fall, Warnecke considered massive headstones, a sarcophagus, a sunken tomb, a raised tomb, and sculpture to mark the graves.[40] Very late in the design process, two abstract sculptures were designed but ultimately rejected.[40]

View from the Kennedy grave site across the Arlington Memorial Bridge to the Lincoln Memorial and Washington Monument
View from the Kennedy grave site across the Arlington Memorial Bridge to the Lincoln Memorial and Washington Monument

The final design was unveiled publicly at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., on November 13, 1964.[9] Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara unveiled the design, with the president's brother, Robert F. Kennedy, and sister, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, in attendance.[9] The final design had won the approval of the Kennedy family, the Department of Defense, the U.S. Commission on Fine Arts, and the National Capital Planning Commission.[9][39] Two overarching design concerns guided the design of the site. First, Warnecke intended the grave itself to reflect the early New England tradition of a simple headstone set flat in the ground surrounded by grass.[9] Second, the site was designed to reflect President Kennedy's Catholic faith.[9] As originally envisioned, a circular granite walkway was envisioned which would create two approaches to the grave site.[42][43] The walkways were intended to overcome the steep 45-degree incline of the hill up to the burial plot.[9][39] President Kennedy was buried so that his grave faced northeast toward the Washington Monument. The entrance to the circular walkway was from the southeast, which created a southern, shorter leg of the circular walkway. Warnecke intended for this shorter walkway to be used by family members and dignitaries who were making private visits to the grave, while the longer walkway would not only separate the public from these VIPs but also accommodate the long lines of people wishing to pay their respects.[9] A small elliptical plaza (120 feet (37 m) long and 50 feet (15 m) wide) made of marble was set at the top of and inside the circle.[42][43][44] The northeastern side of the elliptical plaza would be enclosed by a low wall inscribed with quotes from Kennedy's speeches.[42][43] Marble steps would lead up from the plaza to a rectangular terrace 66 feet (20 m) long and 42 feet (13 m) wide.[42][43][44] Flowering magnolia trees would be planted on either side of the steps up to the terrace.[9] Centered in the terrace would be a rectangular plot of grass 30 feet (9.1 m) long and 18 feet (5.5 m) wide, raised slightly above the ground level, which would accommodate the graves.[9][42][43][44] Flat black slate grave markers (3 feet (0.91 m) by 4.53 feet (1.38 m)) would mark each grave, listing the name and date of birth and death in raised lettering.[9] The headstones would be set flush with the earth.[42][43] A 7.5 feet (2.3 m) high and 36 feet (11 m) long retaining wall, inscribed with the presidential seal, formed the rear of the burial site.[42][43][45] The walkways, elliptical plaza, and terrace were designed to accommodate more than 50,000 visitors per day.[9] The eternal flame itself would be placed in the center of the grassy plot in a flat, triangular bronze sculpture intended to resemble a votive candle or brazier.[9][42][43] Rachel Lambert Mellon was employed to landscape the approaches with flowering trees (magnolia, cherry, and hawthorn).[46] At the time of the design's unveiling, the quotations for the low wall had not yet been selected by Mrs. Kennedy.[9] The original design won near-universal praise.[47]

Construction of the new gravesite

Permanent Kennedy grave site under construction in October 1965; the temporary grave is just beyond the picket fence, where the crowd has gathered.
Permanent Kennedy grave site under construction in October 1965; the temporary grave is just beyond the picket fence, where the crowd has gathered.

The plan was for work to begin in the fall of 1965 and be completed by the fall of 1966.[9] The design required that the bodies of President Kennedy and his children be moved downhill about 20 feet (6.1 m).[9][42][43][44] A 150-year-old oak tree, which was off-center in the circular pathway, was to be retained.[9] The total cost of the tomb was estimated at $2 million.[9][42] The Kennedy family offered to pay for the entire cost, but the U.S. government refused and asked them to pay only the $200,000-$300,000 cost of the grave itself.[9][42] Most of the cost was attributed to the need to reinforce and strengthen the site to accommodate the weight of such large crowds.[42] The U.S. Department of Defense formally hired Warnecke to design the approaches (although this was a fait accompli).[9][48]

Work on the John F. Kennedy burial site continued over the next two and a half years. The Washington Gas and Light Company offered to build, maintain, and supply gas to the eternal flame at no expense.[49] The final burner was a specially designed torch created by the Institute of Gas Technology with an electrical ignition which kept the flame lit in wind or rain and which fed the gas oxygen to create the correct color.[50] A debate broke out between providers of bottled propane gas and line-fed natural gas as to which source of fuel should be used to supply the eternal flame. The debate was so vigorous that it broke out in public in March 1964.[19] The cost of construction of the approaches, elliptical plaza, walls were estimated at $1.77 million in February 1965.[41] The cost of construction of the actual grave site was estimated at $309,000.[41] Fifteen firms were invited to bid on the construction contract and nine did so.[51] A $1.4 million contract for construction was awarded to Aberthaw Construction in mid-July 1965.[51] The Army Corps of Engineers consulted with the Kennedy family before letting the award.[51] A second contract for structural design consulting in the amount of $71,026 went to Ammann & Whitney.[50] At this time, contracts for the quotation inscriptions, the marble base for the flame, the bronze brazier, and the slate markers had yet to be let.[51] The white marble for the plaza, terrace, and steps came from Proctor, Vermont, and the granite for the approaches came from Deer Isle, Maine.[51][52]

Prior to construction, several design changes were made to the Kennedy grave site. The retaining wall behind the grave was removed, and the hill landscaped to allow an unobstructed view of Arlington House.[45][46] Concerned that the grass on the burial plot would wither in Washington's hot summers, in the fall of 1966 the decision was made to replace the grass with rough-hewn reddish-gold granite fieldstone set in a flagstone pattern.[45][46] The fieldstones used had been taken more than 150 years ago from a quarry on Cape Cod near where President Kennedy used to spend his summers.[45][53] The burial plot, originally designed to be raised a substantial height above the surrounding terrace, was lowered so that it was just three to four inches higher.[46] The bronze brazier shape for the eternal flame was also replaced. Instead, a 5 feet (1.5 m) wide beige circular fieldstone (found on Cape Cod in 1965) was set nearly flush with the earth and used as a bracket for the flame.[45][46]

Aerial view of the John F. Kennedy grave site and Eternal Flame at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia, in November 2005.
Aerial view of the John F. Kennedy grave site and Eternal Flame at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia, in November 2005.

Construction of the approaches required regrading the hill. Crews were forced to work with picks and shovels around the oak tree to protect its roots while engaged in regrading work.[54] The tree's roots were reinforced with concrete to provide stability to the plant, and a "breathing system" incorporated into the concrete to allow the roots to still secure nourishment.[54] Twenty tons of steel were used to build the terrace, and 280 tons of concrete poured to build the grave vaults and the eternal flame site.[54] The first fieldstones for the graves were placed April 11, 1966.[44] At the same time, the ground was prepared for the emplacement of the granite blocks which would form the low memorial wall on the downslope side of the elliptical plaza.[44] Jacqueline Kennedy, with assistance of Kennedy speechwriter Ted Sorensen, selected the inscriptions for the wall by November 1965, all of which came from Kennedy's inaugural 1961 address (although some were shortened for artistic reasons).[44][54] John E. Benson inscribed the quotations onto the seven granite blocks.[44][46] The lettering is in Roman majuscule.[55] In November 1965, the contractors estimated that the site would be finished by July 1966.[52] The government announced that the bodies of the President and his two children would be reburied in a private ceremony at night after cemetery had closed on the day before the site was opened to the public.[52][54] For a time in the fall of 1966, the Army considered floodlighting the site to permit night-time ceremonies, but this plan was quickly discarded.[56] In mid-October 1966, design changes and construction delays had forced the opening of the new burial site to early 1967.[57]

Consecration of the new grave

The permanent John F. Kennedy grave site opened with little announcement or fanfare on March 15, 1967. A few days before, the eternal flame had been moved from its temporary location to the new site.[58] The reburial of the bodies occurred on the evening of March 14, after Arlington National Cemetery had closed.[3] Earth over the existing grave was removed, and a small crane was used to lift the burial vault (which remained unopened) from the old grave and place it in the new one.[59][c] The event was unannounced.[58] The transfer was witnessed by U.S. senators Robert and Ted Kennedy, and Cardinal Richard Cushing of Boston.[53] Exhumation began at 6:19 PM and was complete at 9:00 PM.[53] Consecration of the new burial site occurred at 7:00 AM on March 15, 1967, in a driving rain.[3] The ceremony, which took 20 minutes, was attended by President Lyndon B. Johnson, Jacqueline Kennedy, and several members of the Kennedy family.[3][53] Cardinal Cushing presided over the consecration.[53] The final cost of the entire project was $2.2 million.[3] Landscaping around the permanent site was not complete at the time of its consecration, and continued for several more weeks.[46]

Operation of the site

One spontaneous act of respect at the site was curbed almost immediately. Jacqueline Kennedy had requested that a member of the U.S. Army Special Forces (the Green Berets) be part of the military honor squad at President Kennedy's burial service.[6] She specifically asked that the Special Forces soldier wear a green beret rather than formal Army headgear.[6] After the funeral, the six military personnel in the honor guard (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine, Coast Guard, and Special Forces) had spontaneously removed their covers and laid them on the evergreen boughs around the eternal flame.[46][60][61] Also laid on the greenery were the insignia of a U.S. Army military policeman and the shoulder braid from a soldier in the 3rd US Infantry Regiment.[46][60] The presence of the headgear was widely criticized after the dedication of the permanent grave site,[46] and the U.S. Army (which administers Arlington National Cemetery) ordered all such memorabilia removed from the grave in April 1967.[62]

Alterations caused by new burials at the grave site

Grave site as it was reconfigured after Jacqueline Kennedy's death; this image shows all four graves at the site.
Grave site as it was reconfigured after Jacqueline Kennedy's death; this image shows all four graves at the site.
Replacement sapling of the Arlington Oak, planted in April 2012 at the Kennedy grave site.
Replacement sapling of the Arlington Oak, planted in April 2012 at the Kennedy grave site.

Robert F. Kennedy was assassinated on June 6, 1968 in Los Angeles, California. An expansion to the John F. Kennedy grave site was dedicated in 1971 to accommodate Robert Kennedy's grave.[63] Robert F. Kennedy's resting place is only about 50 feet (15 m) southwest from the terrace at the John F. Kennedy site.[64] Robert Kennedy is buried on the upslope side of the walkway, his burial vault marked by a white cross and a slate headstone set flush with the earth.[64] Opposite his grave is a granite plaza designed by architect I. M. Pei and dedicated on December 6, 1971.[63][65] A low granite wall similar to the one at the John F. Kennedy terrace contains quotations from famous Robert F. Kennedy speeches, and a small reflecting pool.[64] As with his brother, Robert Kennedy's first grave was a temporary one, about 10 feet (3.0 m) upslope from its current location.[64]

The Kennedy grave site's approaches were altered at the time the Robert F. Kennedy memorial was built. Previously, the approach consisted of a series of long steps. But several individuals in wheelchairs appealed to Senator Edward M. Kennedy, and the steps were replaced by long ramps in June 1971.[66]

Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis was buried at the site alongside her husband following her death from cancer in May 1994.[67] Senator Edward M. Kennedy was buried about 100 feet (30 m) south of Robert Kennedy's memorial between two maple trees shortly after his death on August 25, 2009, from brain cancer.[68]

The Arlington Oak

The 220-year-old "Arlington Oak", which stood off-center within the Kennedy memorial gravesite area was uprooted and killed on August 27, 2011, during Hurricane Irene.[69] The gravesite was closed to the public for two days to remove the tree and stump, but reopened on August 30.[69]

On Arbor Day, April 27, 2012, a sapling grown from an acorn of the Arlington Oak was planted at the same site. Two other Arlington Oak saplings were planted nearby, while a fourth was planted in Section 26 near Tanner Amphitheater and a fifth in Section 36 near Custis Walk.[70]

Maintenance

Transferring the eternal flame to a temporary location on April 29, 2013, for repair and upgrades to the permanent site.
Transferring the eternal flame to a temporary location on April 29, 2013, for repair and upgrades to the permanent site.

Maintenance of the eternal flame is an ongoing issue. Arlington National Cemetery experts said in 2001 that it cost about $200 a month to keep the flame burning.[71] As of 2010, Fenwal Controls, a gas equipment manufacturer based in Boston, was the contractor responsible for maintaining the flame.[72] The eternal flame's original, custom-manufactured ignition system was contained in a weather-proof box buried a few feet from the grave site.[72] The system controlled the flow of gas and oxygen to the flame and kept it lit via a high-voltage cable and 20,000-volt spark ignition electrode near the gas burner.[72] No longer constantly sparking to keep the flame lit, the system monitored the flame and activated the ignition system only when the flame was extinguished.[72] The electrode was specially designed for outdoor use.[72] Oversight of the flame's maintenance was provided by the Army Corps of Engineers, which contracted with Fenwal Controls to ensure the eternal flame was maintained and upgraded as needed.[72] According to Arlington National Cemetery historian Tom Sherlock, when the gas burner required maintenance the flame was shut off.[73] But maintenance needs were so minimal that no living Fenwal Controls employee had seen the interior of the ignition system.[72] An on-site visit was planned by Fenwal Controls for early 2010 to inspect the eternal flame and conduct a review of the ignition and burner systems.[72]

In late 2012, the eternal flame began malfunctioning. The causes of the malfunction were not known, but the automatic ignition system began clicking audibly. On January 31, 2013, Meltech Corporation of Landover, Maryland, was awarded a $350,000 contract to upgrade the eternal flame. The work required that the permanent flame be extinguished, and a temporary flame displayed to one side. Army Corps of Engineers officials said that this was the first time a temporary flame was used since the permanent flame was installed. A solid white fence surrounded the permanent flame during the renovations, although the headstones of Kennedy and his family were not obscured.[74] The flame was transferred to the upgraded permanent eternal flame on May 17, 2013, and the temporary flame extinguished. The refurbishment replaced the original 1967 burner with one that did not require a separate oxygen supply, laid new gas lines, relocated gas pressure regulators, installed automated controls to provide a more energy-efficient flame, and laid new electrical cables and replaced aging electrical conduits.[75]

In November 2010, the carved Kennedy quotations in the low stone wall of the plaza in front of the grave site underwent a major restoration. Power cleaning of the site and weather had made the letters difficult to read. The Knights of Columbus, a Roman Catholic fraternal service organization to which Kennedy belonged, donated $6,000 to have the letters darkened and more deeply incised in time for the 50th anniversary of Kennedy's inauguration. Gordon Ponsford, a sculptor who restored several major monuments at Arlington National Cemetery, performed the work.[55]

Accidental extinguishments

The eternal flame has been extinguished a few times by accident. On December 10, 1963, a group of Catholic schoolchildren were sprinkling the temporary flame with holy water. The cap came off the bottle and water poured onto the flame, putting it out. A cemetery official quickly relit the flame by hand.[76] In August 1967, an exceptionally heavy rain extinguished the permanent flame. A nearby electrical transformer flooded as well, depriving the spark igniter of power and preventing the flame from being relit. After the rain ended, a cemetery official relit the flame by hand. Two of the gravesite's flagstones had to be removed to access the transformer and repair it.[77]

The Emigrant Flame

In 2013, the eternal flame was shared for the first time in its history.[78] On June 18, a U.S. Army honor guard accompanied Irish Minister of State Paul Kehoe, T.D., in a wreath-laying ceremony at the Kennedy grave site. An Irish Army officer, accompanied by an Irish Army honor guard, lit a lamp in a metal burner[78] from the eternal flame.[79][80] (The lamp and burner were created by the Bullfinch company, which also designed the torches for the 2012 Summer Olympics torch relay.)[78] The "spark" traveled back to Ireland aboard a special Aer Lingus flight, accompanied by Kehoe, Irish Army personnel, and a delegation from the New Ross Town Council.[79]

The "spark" arrived at Dublin Airport on June 20, where Kehoe transferred the flame to Colonel Brendan Delaney. Delaney transferred the flame to officers of the Irish Naval Service. The flame was taken by the Naval vessel LÉ Orla (P41),[81] which traversed the Irish Sea and sailed up the River Barrow to New Ross[79] (the town which John F. Kennedy's great-grandfather emigrated from in 1848).[78] On June 22, several Irish Special Olympians carried the flame from the Orla to a ceremony at the Kennedy Homestead. Taoiseach Enda Kenny, Jean Kennedy Smith, and Caroline Kennedy used the burner to jointly light an "Emigrant Flame" in an iron globe to mark the 50th anniversary of President Kennedy's trip to Ireland. The Emigrant Flame is now the centerpiece of the expanded homestead visitor center.[80] Four days later, the flame went out, but was reignited with fire from the miner's lamps that were lit at Arlington.[82]

Cultural influence

Immediately after Kennedy's burial, the eternal flame was being visited by 50,000 people per day.[9] More than 16 million people visited the site in its first three years.[83] In 1971, the grave attracted more than 7 million people.[84]

1964 5-cent U.S. postal stamp depicting the eternal flame.
1964 5-cent U.S. postal stamp depicting the eternal flame.

The presence of the grave also boosted attendance at Arlington National Cemetery. The president's 1963 funeral had been televised live, with 93 percent of all American homes watching.[85] Satellites beamed the proceedings to another 23 countries, where another 600 million viewers watched.[85] The television coverage transformed Arlington National Cemetery from a quiet veterans' cemetery into one of the Washington area's most popular tourist attractions.[84] Average yearly attendance rose from 1 million people in 1962 to 9 million in the first six months of 1964.[84]

In 1964, the United States Post Office Department used an image of the eternal flame on an official postage stamp issued to commemorate the assassinated president.[86] The stamp also used the words "And the glow from that fire can truly light the world"—an excerpt from Kennedy's inaugural address.[86]

The Kennedy eternal flame has also attracted some unwanted attention as well. The leader of a group protesting segregation in housing was nearly arrested at the grave site in August 1967 after attempting to lead a group of protesters in the singing of "America the Beautiful".[87] A mentally ill individual attempted to throw red paint on the grave in August 1971.[88] A 23-year-old Army veteran committed suicide at the grave in 1972 by plunging a knife into his chest.[84] The cross and the headstone marking Robert F. Kennedy's grave were stolen in 1981 and never recovered.[89] In December 1982, an intoxicated Salvadoran immigrant broke into the cemetery at night and knelt before the eternal flame. He experienced a fatal heart attack, and fell into the flame.[84][90] In 1997, thieves pried loose one of the paving stones from the terrace in front of the eternal flame and attempted to make off with it. They gave up after realizing the 500-pound (230 kg) stone was too heavy to move.[91]

See also

Footnotes

Notes
  1. ^ In 1955, Arlington National Cemetery stopped using gravediggers and mechanized the grave digging process by purchasing a Trench Master light backhoe.[22][23] Cemetery worker Clifton Pollard used the backhoe to dig Kennedy's grave on Sunday, November 24.[24][25] The Washington Wilbert Vault Works of Rockville, Maryland, provided the burial vault,[26] a 3,000-pound (1,400 kg) "Copper Triune" double-reinforced, copper-lined concrete vault.[26][27]
  2. ^ The graveside service ended at 3:15 PM,[30] the burial vault was sealed (either with an epoxy[26] or tar[31]), and the president's coffin and burial vault lowered into the earth at 3:32 PM.[30] The grave was then filled with earth.[30]
  3. ^ Clifton Pollard also assisted in the process of moving the burial vault.[25]
Citations
  1. ^ Brown, "John Carl Warnecke Dies at 91, Designed Kennedy Gravesite," Washington Post, April 23, 2010.
  2. ^ Grimes, "John Carl Warnecke, Architect to Kennedy, Dies at 91," New York Times, April 22, 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d e Levy, "Kennedy's Body Moved to Final Grave," Washington Post, March 16, 1967.
  4. ^ Selverstone, Marc J. "John F. Kennedy: Death of the President". millercenter.org. Charlottesville, Virginia: Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Retrieved September 13, 2019.
  5. ^ Raymond, "President's Body Will Lie In State," New York Times, November 23, 1963.
  6. ^ a b c Hamblin, "Mrs. Kennedy's Decisions Shaped All the Solemn Pageantry," Life, December 6, 1963.
  7. ^ Robertson, "Thousands Expected to Pay Respects at Grave," New York Times, November 22, 1964.
  8. ^ a b Moeller and Weeks, AIA Guide to the Architecture of Washington, D.C., 2006, p. 334.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Von Eckardt, "Kennedy Monument Classic in Simplicity," Washington Post, November 17, 1964.
  10. ^ a b c d Hilty, Robert Kennedy: Brother Protector, 2000, p. 484.
  11. ^ a b c Johnston, The Truth About Patriotism, 2007, p. 169.
  12. ^ Matthews, Kennedy & Nixon: The Rivalry That Shaped Postwar America, 1997, p. 242-243.
  13. ^ a b Bugliosi, Four Days in November: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy, 2007, p. 502-503.
  14. ^ Gormley and Henderson, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis: Friend of the Arts, 2002, p. 142-143.
  15. ^ Pierson, Camelot and the Cultural Revolution: How the Assassination of John F. Kennedy Shattered American Liberalism, 2007, p. 197.
  16. ^ a b c Matthews, Kennedy & Nixon: The Rivalry that Shaped Postwar America, 1997, p. 242-242.
  17. ^ a b Stockland, The Assassination of John F. Kennedy, 2008, p. 81; "'Eternal Flame' at Arlington Will Be only Temporary Setup," New York Times, November 26, 1963; "'Eternal' Flame to Burn Over Grave of Kennedy," Washington Post, November 26, 1963; Wilson, Engineer Memoirs: Lieutenant General Walter K. Wilson, Jr., May 1984, p. 194-196.
  18. ^ a b c d e f Raymond, "Arlington Assigns Plot of Three Acres To Kennedy Family," New York Times, December 6, 1963.
  19. ^ a b Pearson, "LBJ A Chair-Mover, Not A Chair-Warmer," Nevada Daily Mail, March 25, 1964.
  20. ^ Smith, Grace and Power: The Private World of the Kennedy White House, 2006, p. 511.
  21. ^ a b c d e "Fence Installed Near Grave," United Press International, November 26, 1963.
  22. ^ Atkinson 2007, p. 27.
  23. ^ Woestendiek, John (September 14, 2003). "'On Behalf of a Grateful Country...'". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  24. ^ Breslin, Jimmy (November 26, 1963). "It's an Honor". New York Herald Tribune. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  25. ^ a b Shapiro, T. Rees; Langer, Emily (November 23, 2013). "Arlington caretaker Clifton Pollard: It was 'an honor' to prepare JFK's grave". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  26. ^ a b c Leung, Shirley (October 14, 1994). "The Cadillac of Vaults". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  27. ^ Bugliosi 2007, p. 181.
  28. ^ a b c d e Wainwright, "A Visit to the Grave," Life, February 14, 1964, p. 15.
  29. ^ a b Bzdek, The Kennedy Legacy: Jack, Bobby and Ted and a Family Dream Fulfilled, 2009, p. 111.
  30. ^ a b c Bugliosi 2007, p. 313.
  31. ^ Select Committee on Assassinations 1979, pp. 31-32.
  32. ^ Pottker, Janet and Jackie: The Story of a Mother and Her Daughter, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, 2001, p. 229-231.
  33. ^ a b c Clopton, "Mrs. Kennedy to Discuss Tomb," Washington Post, November 30, 1963.
  34. ^ "Mrs. Kennedy Chooses an Architect to Design Husband's Tomb," New York Times, November 30, 1963.
  35. ^ "Flame at Kennedy Grave Studied by Army Engineers," New York Times, November 29, 1963.
  36. ^ a b "Army Tacitly Approves Eternal Flame at Grave," New York Times, December 4, 1963.
  37. ^ a b c "Artists At Odds On Kennedy Job," New York Times, October 7, 1964.
  38. ^ a b "Kennedy Tomb Design to Be Revealed in Nov.," Washington Post, October 10, 1964.
  39. ^ a b c Robertson, "Tomb for Kennedy Is of Simple Design," New York Times, November 14, 1964.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h Von Eckardt, "JFK Grave Design Combines Past, Present," Washington Post, November 22, 1964.
  41. ^ a b c d "Congress Gets $1.77 Million Request For Permanent JFK Resting Place," Washington Post, February 9, 1965.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Robertson, "The Kennedy Tomb: Simple Design Outlined," New York Times, November 17, 1964.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i Huxtable, "Design Dilemma: The Kennedy Grave," New York Times, November 29, 1964.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h Robertson, "First Stones Placed At Permanent Site Of Kennedy Grave," New York Times, April 12, 1966.
  45. ^ a b c d e "3 Changes Made In Original Design Of Kennedy Grave," New York Times, March 17, 1967.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Von Eckardt, "A Critical Look at the Kennedy Grave," Washington Post, March 26, 1967.
  47. ^ Von Eckardt, "Kennedy Grave's Design Lauded By Architects and Art Experts," Washington Post, November 18, 1964.
  48. ^ Wilson, Engineer Memoirs: Lieutenant General Walter K. Wilson, Jr., May 1984, p. 196.
  49. ^ Casey and Diggins, "Mourners Keep Vigil on Green Slope Where Kennedy Lies in Arlington," Washington Post, November 27, 1963.
  50. ^ a b "President John Fitzgerald Kennedy," Monument and Memorials, Visitor Information, Arlington National Cemetery, no date; Atkinson, "Arlington Cemetery," National Geographic, June 2007.
  51. ^ a b c d e Dewar, "Contract for Memorial At Kennedy's Grave Let," Washington Post, July 17, 1965.
  52. ^ a b c Hunter, "Thousands Visit Kennedy's Grave," New York Times, November 23, 1965.
  53. ^ a b c d e Semple "Johnson at Grave With the Kennedys," New York Times, March 16, 1967.
  54. ^ a b c d e "New Kennedy Gravesite Readied for Reburials," Washington Post, November 21, 1965.
  55. ^ a b O'Keefe, Ed. "Memorable Words Becoming More Visible." Washington Post. October 29, 2010.
  56. ^ "JFK's Reburial Due by Nov. 22," Washington Post, October 18, 1966.
  57. ^ Cite error: The named reference ReburialTrue was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  58. ^ a b "Bodies of Kennedy, Children Are Moved To Permanent Grave," New York Times, March 15, 1967.
  59. ^ Select Committee on Assassinations 1979, p. 32.
  60. ^ a b Heymann, Bobby and Jackie: A Love Story, 2009, p. 16.
  61. ^ Moore, The Green Berets: The Amazing Story of the U.S. Army's Elite Special Forces Unit, 2007, p. 9.
  62. ^ "Military Hats Banished At JFK Grave," Washington Post, April 18, 1967.
  63. ^ a b Coonerty and Highsmith, Etched in Stone: Enduring Words From Our Nation's Monuments, 2007, p. 45.
  64. ^ a b c d Reed, "Mourners Mark the Death of Robert Kennedy," New York Times, June 7, 1969.
  65. ^ "Robert Kennedy's Body Now at Permanent Site," United Press International, December 2, 1971.
  66. ^ McCardle, Dorothy. "Paths for the Handicapped at Kennedy Grave Sites." Washington Post. June 27, 1971.
  67. ^ Heyman, American Legacy: The Story of John and Caroline Kennedy, 2007, p. 391-392.
  68. ^ Ruane, "Kennedy's Arlington Burial Will Continue a Family Legacy," Washington Post, August 29, 2009; Broder and Wheaton, "Kennedy Laid to Rest After Day of Honor," New York Times, August 29, 2009.
  69. ^ a b McCall, Ash. "Natural Treasure Lost at Arlington National Cemetery." ArmyLive. September 3, 2011. Accessed 2011-09-26.
  70. ^ Cronk, Terri Moon. "Arlington National Cemetery Plants Saplings to Honor Troops." American Forces Press Service. April 27, 2012. Archived July 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Accessed 2012-05-07.
  71. ^ "Eternal Flames Honoring Soldiers Burn On Despite Cost," Associated Press, May 28, 2001.
  72. ^ a b c d e f g h "Eternal Flame Thanks Fenwal Controls," Product Design & Development, January 11, 2010.
  73. ^ Sherlock, "Arlington National Cemetery," Washington Post, May 23, 2001.
  74. ^ Bloodgood, Patrick. "Kennedy Flame to Receive Upgrades." US Army. February 4, 2013, accessed 2013-04-17; Doren, Jenny. "John F. Kennedy Eternal Flame Scheduled for Upgrades." WJLA.com. February 25, 2013, accessed 2013-04-17; "Kennedy Flame Getting Upgrades." United Press International. February 6, 2013, accessed 2013-04-17.
  75. ^ "New Burner Installed for Eternal Flame at the President John F. Kennedy Gravesite." Norfolk District.  U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. May 17, 2013. Accessed 2013-06-23.
  76. ^ "Kennedy Flame Put Out Accidentally by Pupils," Associated Press, December 11, 1963.
  77. ^ "Kennedy Grave Flame Extinguished by Rain," Associated Press, August 30, 1967.
  78. ^ a b c d Byrne, Luke. "Kennedy's US 'Eternal Flame' Will Light New Monument Here." Irish Independent. June 13, 2013. Accessed 2013-06-23.
  79. ^ a b c Walsh, Jane. "'The Emigrant Flame' From Graveside of John F. Kennedy En Route to New Ross Town." IrishCentral.com. June 21, 2013. Accessed 2013-06-23.
  80. ^ a b "Kennedys, Ireland Recall 50th Anniversary of JFK Visit With Eternal Flame, Parade, Concert." Associated Press. June 22, 2013. Accessed 2013-06-23.
  81. ^ "Flame From JFK's Graveside on Its Way to New Ross, Co Wexford." RTE News. June 20, 2013. Accessed 2013-06-23.
  82. ^ Johnston, Ian. "Not-So Eternal Flame: JFK-Linked Memorial Goes Out." NBC News. June 28, 2013. Accessed 2013-010-01.
  83. ^ Atkinson, Where Valor Rests: Arlington National Cemetery, 2007, p. 31.
  84. ^ a b c d e Carlson, "Stone Cold Somber," Washington Post, May 25, 1997.
  85. ^ a b Otinofski, Television, 2007, p. 53; Edgerton, The Columbia History of American Television, 2007, p. 203-204.
  86. ^ a b Lidman, "Kennedy Stamp Design Shown," New York Times, May 4, 1964.
  87. ^ The police seized him because they wanted to maintain respectful quiet at the site, but immediately released the individual. See: "Kennedy's Grave Is Site of Scuffle In Rights Protest," New York Times, August 21, 1967.
  88. ^ "Paint Tossed At JFK Grave; Suspect Held." Washington Post. August 31, 1971.
  89. ^ "Robert Kennedy's Grave Loses Marker to Thieves," Associated Press, December 28, 1981.
  90. ^ "Man Found at Grave Died of Heart Attack," Washington Post, December 7, 1982.
  91. ^ Poole, p. 256.

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 13 December 2019, at 21:30
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.