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John Cromwell (director)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John Cromwell
Elwood Dager Cromwell

(1886-12-23)December 23, 1886
DiedSeptember 26, 1979(1979-09-26) (aged 92)
OccupationDirector, actor
Years active1912–1978
Spouse(s)Alice Lindahl
(m. 19??; died 1918)
Marie Goff
m. 1919; div. 1921)

m. 1928; div. 1946)

m. 1947;
his death 
Children2, including James Cromwell

John Cromwell (born Elwood Dager, December 23, 1886 – September 26, 1979), was an American film and stage director and actor. His films spanned the early days of sound to 1950s film noir, when his directing career was cut short by the Hollywood blacklist.[2]


Early Life and Education

Born was Elwood Dager in Toledo, Ohio to a well-off Scottish-English family, executives in the steel and iron industry, Cromwell graduated private high school at Howe Military Academy in 1905, but never pursued a higher education.[3]

Early Acting Career, 1905-1912

John Cromwell (seated) as John Brooke with Alice Brady as Meg in the Broadway production of Little Women (1912)
John Cromwell (seated) as John Brooke with Alice Brady as Meg in the Broadway production of Little Women (1912)

Upon leaving school, Cromwell immediately began his stage career touring with stock companies in Chicago, then made his way to New York City in his early 20s. Billed as Elwood Dager in his youth, he changed his name to John Cromwell at the age of 26 following a 1912 New York stage appearance.[4]

Cromwell made his Broadway debut in the role of "John Brooke" in Little Women (1912) an adaptation of Louisa May Alcott's novel. The production was an immediate hit and ran for 184 performances.[5] Throughout Cromwell’s stage career, he worked in close collaboration with one of the outstanding Broadway producers of the day, William A. Brady. Indeed, virtually all of the stage productions Cromwell participated before he began his film career were produced by Brady.[6][7] The Painted Woman (1913) marks Cromwell’s first assignment as stage director. Written by Frederic Arnold Kummer, the play closed in two days.[8] By 1914, he was acting in and co-directing productions, including Too Many Cooks (1914), which ran for 223 performances.[9]

In 1915 he joined the New York Repertory Company and performed in the American premieres of two George Bernard Shaw plays: Major Barbara and, in 1916, as character "Charles Lomax", and in a revival of Captain Brassbound's Conversion. Cromwell’s stage career was interrupted by a brief stint in the U.S. Army during World War I [10][11] By the 1920s he had become a respected Broadway director, often in collaboration with co-directors Frank Craven or William Brady. Cromwell. He frequently performed on stage in this period which included works by future Pulitzer-Prize-winners Sidney Howard and Robert E. Sherwood. In 1927 Cromwell directed and played the lead in the gangster drama, The Racket, with newcomer Edward G. Robinson debuting in the kind of tough guy role for which he would become synonymous. [12]

In 1928, Cromwell immigrated to Hollywood to serve as a dialogue director in the movie industry’s transition to “talkies” Though Cromwell would return to Broadway in later years, his primary occupation after 1928 was as movie director. [13]

Film Career

 Paramount-Famous Players-Lasky, 1929

Paramount film producer  Ben Schulberg signed the 42-year-old Cromwell as a screen actor in October 1928 at the time of the industry wide transition from silent productions to the new sound technology. After a satisfactory début performance in the 1929 early talkie The Dummy with some of the most experienced movie actors of the day: Ruth Chatterton, Fredric March, Jack Oakie and ZaSu Pitts, Cromwell was invited to undertake directorial duties with Edward Sutherland, an experienced filmmaker. Cromwell continued to appear in small roles in his own films during the early 1930s, the last being For the Defense (1930). He would not appear as a film actor again until 1940 in RKO’s Abe Lincoln in Illinois portraying abolitionist John Brown.[14]

Though Cromwell had never served behind a camera, Paramount was eager to enlist a veteran stage director “because of their presumed knowledge in handling dialogue.” However erroneous this assumption, Cromwell and Sutherland enjoyed a productive collaboration completing two early talkies, both in 1929: Close Harmony, a jazz-band romance, and The Dance of Life, based on the George Mankers Watters play Burlesque (Sutherland’s directing was uncredited in The Dance of Death). Cromwell had a minor acting role in each of these productions.[15][16] In a 1973 interview with Leonard Maltin, Cromwell offered a frank assessment of his difficulties adapting to the new medium as a movie director:

“I never got accustomed to the terrific range of the camera, and what the choice of a shot can do to a scene...[though] i was always very aware of composition. I had to rely enormously on my cameraman, especially at first. I was never able to learn much about lighting because it seems to me that every cameraman I had was so different from the last in his technique that it became almost impossible to learn unless you just took out time and devoted yourself to it. So I had to be completely at their mercy...But I was very lucky. I had some wonderful cameramen—wonderful in that they never let me like Jimmy Howe, Charlie Lang, Arthur Miller.”[17]

During Cromwell’s early films with Paramount-Famous Lasky, he was tasked with directing Star George Bancroft, the studio’s top property. Bancroft had performed in a number successful films with Paramount’s rising director Josef von Sternberg, culminating in a Best Actor nomination for Bancroft in Thunderbolt (1930). The Mighty (1930) was Cromwell’s first of four pairings with Bancroft, and his first solo debut as director. [18]

On his next film, The Street of Chance, Cromwell formed a personal and professional bond with producer David O. Selznick in his first production, then an assistant to B.P. Schulberg. The picture, starring William Powell, Kay Francis and Jean Arthur, was a success at the box office.[19]

A curious coda to Cromwell’s last credited picture with Paramount-Famous Lasky entitled Seven Days Leave (1930) is that he denies directing the film. According to biographer Kingsley Canham, “Cromwell disputes the credit. Claiming he was hired to work [strictly] on dialogue... [he] in fact contributed nothing to the finished film.”[20]

Paramount-Publix, 1930-1931

In 1930, Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation changed its name to Paramount Publix Corporation because of the growing importance of the Publix Theatres,

The Texan (1930) was an adaptation of the popular writer O. Henry’s short story “A Double-Dyed Deceiver” and starring Paramount’s rising star Gary Cooper.[21]

Paramount again enlisted actors Powell and Francis for Cromwell’s 1930 For the Defense, a legal drama involving a lawyer and his criminal fiancée. He directed the second film version of Mark Twain’s Tom Sawyer (1930) with Jackie Coogan starring as the eponymous Tom.

During 1931-1932 Cromwell fulfilled his commitments to direct Bancroft in three more films. Indeed, Cromwell had agreed to continue working with Bancroft only if Paramount arranged to let him direct Gary Cooper and Helen Hayes in an adaption of  Hemingway’s novel A Farewell to Arms, a project that never materialized.

The Bancroft films include Scandal Sheet, with co-stars Bancroft and Clive Brook, Rich Man's Folly (1931), an adaption of DickensDombey and Son and The World and the Flesh (1931). Cromwell’s professional view of Bancroft’s performance in Rich Man's Folly  elicited these remarks:

“[The role] should have been absolutely splendid for Bancroft except it required a consciousness of the material—of which he had none! To him it was always just another part to play in the same old manner...”[22]

Cromwell finished up 1931 with three more pictures for Paramount-Publix: Scandal Sheet, with Bancroft, Unfaithful, with Ruth Chatterton and Vice Squad with Paul Lukas and Kay Francis.[23]

During the pre-production of the 1932 The World and the Flesh, a tale of the [ Russian Revolution|[Bolshevik Revolution]] of 1917, Cromwell became disgusted with both the quality of the scenario, as well as the Paramount’s sharp curtailment in rehearsal time. Cromwell historical outlook and stage experience informed these following comments:

“The World and the Flesh was the high point of degradation from my point of view. It was such an asinine, concocted story! I had personally taken an interest in the Russian Revolution, and had heard a great deal from a journalist...Lincoln Steffens who had been in Moscow at the time it happened...And so I had an idea of what chances there were to do a real picture. Then to have this...this almost disgusting tale, the same old hash served up as a script! I made up my mind that would be the last of it, I would try to get away."[24]

In the early sound films, the studios, having experience only with dialogue-free (silent) pictures, deferred to the Broadway dialogue-savvy stage directors, like Cromwell, who they enlisted during the transition to “talkies”. In early production of For the Defense, Cromwell reports he was informed about a change in policy concerning rehearsals:

I set up the usual rehearsal schedule [of 2 ½ weeks], but at the production meeting Schulberg said ‘We can’t have anymore rehearsals, John.’ I asked him what he meant, and he continued: ‘It’s a waste of time. The [film] directors don’t know what to do with rehearsals...’ I had noticed this too, but I had improved every minute of my time with rehearsals, so I said ‘Well, you know you don’t have to do that with me, you know I don’t waste my time.’ Schulberg replied ‘If I give you the privilege, they’ll all want it, and that will just create a situation...’”[25]

Cromwell bargained with the producer, and they agreed to trade shooting days in exchange for rehearsal days. Cromwell recalled: “I think I ended up with four days rehearsal [by] cutting two days off the shooting schedule. Incredible! I couldn’t believe it years afterwards.” [26][27]}}

He directed The Texan, starring Gary Cooper, in 1930; Tom Sawyer (1930), starring Jackie Coogan in the title role; Sinclair Lewis's Ann Vickers (1933), starring Irene Dunne, Walter Huston, Conrad Nagel, Bruce Cabot, and Edna May Oliver; and Somerset Maugham's Of Human Bondage (1934), starring Leslie Howard, Bette Davis, and Frances Dee. In 1934, Cromwell also directed a young Katharine Hepburn in Spitfire (1934), which succeeded at the box office despite its unlikely casting of Hepburn as a backwoods faith-healer.

Ann Vickers, by the celebrated Midwestern novelist Sinclair Lewis - and Of Human Bondage - were both at RKO and both had censorship trouble. In the novel by Lewis, Ann Vickers is a birth control advocate and reformer who has an extramarital affair. The screenplay was finally approved by the Production Code when the studio agreed to make Vickers an unmarried woman at the time of her affair, thus eliminating the issue of adultery.

Of Human Bondage

The screenplay for Maugham's Of Human Bondage was unacceptable to the Hays Code because Mildred Rogers (played by Davis), whom the club-footed medical student, Philip Carey (played by Howard), falls in love with, is not only a prostitute who conceives out of wedlock, but who also visibly dies of syphilis. Will Hays' office demanded that Mildred be made a waitress who comes down with TB and that she be married to Carey's rival with whom she runs off and becomes pregnant. RKO agreed to everything to keep from having to pay a fine.

But, despite their attempts to gut the story, Bette Davis' performance was so powerful, and her immorality still so obvious, that an outraged Will Hays decided it was time to put real teeth into his office and seriously toughen up on all film censorship. He spelled out a list of do's and don'ts - on the length of kisses, the banning of double beds, the punishment of all villains and so on - which would dictate the content of Hollywood screens until the 1960s, and he brought in the rigid, anti-Semitic Catholic Joseph Breen to enforce it. Thus, the very year of Of Human Bondage's release - 1934 - is the dividing line for the morally looser "pre-Code" era (even though the less rigid code had technically been in place since 1931) and the more sanitized films which followed it.

Of Human Bondage made Cromwell's name as a director, and most specifically as a man who knew how to cast - he had to bargain with Warner Bros. to get the then little-known Bette Davis, whose portrayal of the vicious, lurid waitress Mildred was unlike any a Hollywood actress had given to that point. Cromwell also agreed, quite unusually, to Bette Davis request to devise her own garish, mask-like make-up as she descends morally and physically into a kind of living hell. This was a radical departure from the glamorous looks that actresses were supposed to have even in their death scenes.

Films with Selznick and Zanuck

Cromwell was wooed by the powerful producer David O. Selznick to launch his new independent film company with Little Lord Fauntleroy (1936) starring Freddie Bartholomew and Dolores Costello. He followed this with two lesser-known works for Daryl Zanuck at 20th-Century Fox, directing Myrna Loy in To Mary With Love, a portrait of a marriage tested, not by adversity but by success. Then a hillbilly musical called Banjo on My Knee (1936) starring Barbara Stanwyck with a scene-stealing Walter Brennan, set in Alabama, and worked on by William Faulkner. The final script by the soon-to-be-celebrated writer-director Nunnally Johnson was well received. Banjo on my Knee got an Oscar nomination for Sound Recording by Edmund H. Hansen.

It was Selznick's glossy The Prisoner of Zenda (1937) starring Ronald Colman and Madeleine Carroll, with Raymond Massey, Mary Astor, David Niven, and Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. that truly solidified Cromwell's reputation as a top Hollywood director; wildly successful at the box office, it was nominated by the Academy for Lyle Wheeler's art direction and Alfred Newman's lush score (though Selznick did bring in another director, Woody Van Dyke, to reshoot the sword fights.)[28] It also won honors for him that year at the Venice (Italy) Film Festival as Best Foreign Film. Cromwell's Algiers (1938) unveiled two exotic European imports, the debonair French actor Charles Boyer and an Austrian Jewish emigre fleeing the Nazi Anschluss named Hedy Lamarr in her Hollywood debut. The film was a near-exact remake of Julien Duvivier's 1937 French film of a gangster on the run, Pepe le Moko, this Hollywood version was produced by activist anti-fascist producer Walter Wanger and shot by James Wong Howe. Made famous by a line which never actually occurs in the film - "Come with me to the Casbah" - Algiers also garnered 4 Oscar nominations: for Boyer, supporting actor Gene Lockhart, art direction and Howe's cinematography.

In 1939, Cromwell made two back-to-back Carole Lombard pictures, first for Selznick, who paired the screwball comedian with upcoming actor Jimmy Stewart, in Made For Each Other (1939), a film that threw away Lombard's and Stewart's comedy skills on the trials of newlyweds who marry after one day, and whose baby nearly dies but is saved by a brave pilot making a treacherous flight bearing a miracle drug. The life-saving flight was a last-minute change based on producer Selznick's own white-knuckle experience when he chartered a TWA plane to fly a new serum developed in New York back to LA to save his beloved brother Myron's life. The serum was rushed to the hospital where Myron lay in a coma; the next day, he was out of danger. "This is too good to waste on Myron," Selznick cracked. "Let's put it in the picture." [29]

Lombard was then teamed with Cary Grant in RKO's In Name Only, where Grant plays an unhappily married wealthy man for whom Lombard's character, a young widow, falls but whose unloving society wife, played by Kay Francis, refuses to let him go. Carole Lombard was determined to work with Cromwell again and corralled him and Grant to team up with her. Oddly, this film also ended with a third act life-or-death medical cliffhanger, when the miserable Grant, sick with pneumonia, will die unless he has true love to live for - Lombard's. But it proved popular and turned a decent profit.

Rise of World War II

As tensions rose in Europe, Cromwell returned to his Broadway roots - and longtime friendships - by directing the film adaptation of Robert E. Sherwood's 1939 Pulitzer-prize-winning, anti-isolationist play Abe Lincoln in Illinois (1940) with Raymond Massey repeating his tour-de-force performance as Lincoln struggling with the decision to fight slavery, in which he had triumphed on Broadway. Gene Lockhart, and Ruth Gordon in her screen debut, starred with him, and Cromwell himself played the part of the abolitionist radical, John Brown. Once again, Cromwell's directorial skills brought his leading actor an Oscar nomination in what would be the most famous role of Massey's life, but neither Massey nor James Wong Howe, nominated for his work in the black-and-white category, won. The film also jostled with John Ford's Young Mr. Lincoln (1939), covering much of the same period in Lincoln's life as in Henry Fonda's Oscar-nominated portrayal from the year before.

Cromwell's 1940 film adaptation for Paramount of Joseph Conrad's first popular novel, Victory (1915), repeated a film that had already been made in 1930 by William Wellman and, in 1915, as a silent film with Lon Chaney Jr. Cromwell's version was adapted by John Balderston, who'd written The Prisoner of Zenda, and starred Fredric March and Betty Field in a tropical psychological thriller.

Cromwell and Frederic March teamed up again in So Ends Our Night (1941), one of the most explicitly anti-Nazi films to be made in Hollywood before the United States entered the war at the end of that year. An adaptation of exiled German author Erich Maria Remarque's fourth novel Flotsam, screenwriter Talbot Jennings adapted the story from a series of magazine articles even before it came out as a novel in 1941. Producers David Loew and Albert Lewin cast Fredric March, Margaret Sullavan and Glenn Ford as three desperate German exiles trapped and on the run after being deprived of their citizenship and passports by the Nazi regime.

Since You Went Away

With war declared on December 7, 1941, Cromwell returned to a bit of on-location swashbuckling with Son of Fury: The Story of Benjamin Blake (1942) starring Tyrone Power in one of his many costume roles and paired with rising star Gene Tierney and also featuring Frances Farmer.

But it was the war at home that inspired Cromwell's best-known and most-honoured film, the nearly three-hour-long Since You Went Away (1944) starring Claudette Colbert, Jennifer Jones, Joseph Cotten, Shirley Temple, Robert Walker, and Monty Woolley, with Hattie McDaniel, Agnes Moorehead, Alla Nazimova, Lionel Barrymore and Keenan Wynn; This star-studded film portrayed an American family whose men have gone off to war - their struggles, fears and losses - and arrived in movie theaters when American women had been without their husbands, sons, and sweethearts for more than three years. It was, moreover, producer Selznick's first screen production in four years, and he both wrote the script and lavished attention on every detail, especially on the ingenue, Jennifer Jones, who was to become his second wife. A commercial as well as critical success, the film earned a million in rentals and received nine Oscar nominations - including Best Picture, virtually the entire cast and all technical credits - but winning only one, for Lee Garmes' cinematography.

Cromwell was by now president of the Screen Directors Guild, a tenure which lasted only two years (1944 to 1946) but reflects his stature in the business at the time. His next film, The Enchanted Cottage, from a play by Pinero, is a romantic fantasy, set in England, in which a disfigured war veteran, played by Robert Young, finds love with a shy, plain Dorothy Maguire, helped along by a blind composer, played by Herbert Marshall. This fragile tale was one of Cromwell's favourites, as was his next film Anna and the King of Siam (1946) a black-and-white, non-musical version of the story of the British governess and her arrogant employer, starring Irene Dunne, with a miscast Rex Harrison as the king, along with Linda Darnell, Lee J. Cobb, and Gale Sondergaard. The film won Oscars for black-and-white cinematography by Arthur Miller and again for Lyle Wheeler's art direction.

Film Noir and the Hollywood Blacklist

Cromwell's next picture, Dead Reckoning (1947), came about because Humphrey Bogart, a leading man after his triumph in Casablanca (1942), had his choice of director in his contract and expressly asked for him at Columbia Pictures, possibly because it was Cromwell who had given a very young Bogart his first break with a small stage role back in his salad days on Broadway. The film would become the first of Cromwell's "film noir" canon. Bogie plays a cynical veteran, who, despite his tough guy exterior, may or may not be being hoodwinked by femme fatale Lizabeth Scott in a baffling plot.

Cromwell came back with the harrowing women's prison drama Caged (1950) starring Eleanor Parker—who, like Bette Davis in 1934, was eager to drop her glamorous image for a meatier role. Its bitter depiction of suicide, sadism—in the form of matron Hope Emerson—head shaving, solitary confinement and brutal introduction into the hopeless underworld of women sucked into prison life again brought Oscar nominations for his cast and story. Finally, in 1951, Cromwell had the idea to resurrect the 1928 play which had made him a director and Edward G. Robinson a star, and in doing so created another noir, The Racket (1951) starring Robert Mitchum, Lizabeth Scott, and Robert Ryan.

By this point, the House Un-American Activities Committee had begun its investigation of Hollywood writers, actors and directors Communist affiliations.[30] Cromwell was blacklisted[31] in Hollywood from 1951 to 1958 for his political affiliations, which seemed primarily to consist of heading up a small group of Hollywood Democrats supporting FDR's third term - and having directed a famous film of a famous play - Abe Lincoln in Illinois - written by Roosevelt's favorite speechwriter, Robert E. Sherwood. Cromwell had a theater career which he had returned to intermittently during his film directing years, and he returned to the Broadway stage that year, winning the 1952 Tony for Best Featured Actor in a Play for his performance as John Gray in Point of No Return (1951) starring Henry Fonda.

In 1958, Cromwell was removed from the blacklist and made his return to films with a scathing portrait of Hollywood and its stardom in The Goddess for Columbia. This was the first original screenplay by Paddy Chayefsky whose previous work had been for the stage, as well as the screen debut of Method actress Kim Stanley in the lead. The child star Patti Duke plays a lonely child born in poverty to a mother who doesn't want her; Kim Stanley portrays the still insecure but now alluring girl who shoots to Hollywood stardom only to find its meaningless acclaim and shallow relationships can't heal her inner wounds and in fact render her helpless and drug-dependent in the end.

As soon as it opened, Goddess was said to be based on Marilyn Monroe, then still very much alive, whose troubled on-set behavior, depressions, and drug use were beginning to intrude on her staggering fame as a sex symbol. Playwright Arthur Miller, Monroe's then-husband, objected to critics naming Monroe as the real-life model for 'The Goddess' prompting Chayefsky to insist in interviews that, indeed, she was not. Perhaps not coincidentally, Kim Stanley had, in fact, studied at the Actor's Studio when Marilyn Monroe had famously left Hollywood to study there.

The film was nominated for Original Screenplay, but Cromwell hated what was done in the cutting room, apparently by Chayefsky himself, and walked away from the picture while it was still being cut.

Cromwell's film career came to an end with two lackluster films: The Scavengers (1959), made in the Philippines, and a low-budget drama, A Matter of Morals, made in Sweden in 1961.

Life after Hollywood

Cromwell devoted the rest of his career primarily to the theater where he'd begun it. He wrote three plays, all staged in New York; starred opposite Helen Hayes in a revival of What Every Woman Knows, directed the original Broadway company of Desk Set, and eventually found artistic satisfaction in four seasons at the Tyrone Guthrie theater in Minneapolis, founded by the expatriate British director in 1963 when he, like Cromwell, had grown disenchanted with Broadway's increasing commercialism.

Cromwell was cast by Robert Altman in the role of Mr. Rose for the film 3 Women (1977) starring Shelley Duvall and Sissy Spacek, and as Bishop Martin in A Wedding (1978) starring Desi Arnaz, Jr., Carol Burnett, Geraldine Chaplin, Mia Farrow, Vittorio Gassman and Lillian Gish. His wife Ruth Nelson also appeared in both those Altman films.

Personal life

Cromwell married four times. His first wife, stage actress Alice Lindahl died of influenza in 1918.[32] He and stage actress Marie Goff divorced. Cromwell next married actress Kay Johnson in 1928, divorcing in 1946). His final marriage, to actress Ruth Nelson (1947–79) lasted to his death.[1][33] Cromwell and Johnson had two sons;[34] one is actor James Cromwell.[35]


He died at age 92 in Santa Barbara, California of a pulmonary embolism.[36]


Year Title Credited as
Director Actor Role
1929 The Dummy Yes Walter Babbing (film debut)
Close Harmony Yes
The Dance of Life Yes Yes Doorkeeper
The Mighty Yes Yes Mr. Jamieson
1930 Street of Chance Yes Yes Imbrie
The Texan Yes
For the Defense Yes Yes Second Reporter At Trial
Tom Sawyer Yes
1931 Scandal Sheet Yes
Unfaithful Yes
The Vice Squad Yes
Rich Man's Folly Yes
1932 The World and the Flesh Yes
Hell's Highway Yes
1933 Sweepings Yes
The Silver Cord Yes
Double Harness Yes
Ann Vickers Yes Yes Sad-Faced Doughboy
1934 Spitfire Yes
This Man Is Mine Yes
Of Human Bondage Yes
The Fountain Yes
1935 Village Tale Yes
Jalna Yes
I Dream Too Much Yes
1936 Little Lord Fauntleroy Yes
To Mary - with Love Yes
Banjo on My Knee Yes
1937 The Prisoner of Zenda Yes
1938 Algiers Yes
1939 Made for Each Other Yes
In Name Only Yes
1940 Abe Lincoln in Illinois Yes Yes John Brown
Victory Yes
1941 So Ends Our Night Yes
1942 Son of Fury: The Story of Benjamin Blake Yes
1944 Since You Went Away Yes
1945 The Enchanted Cottage Yes
1946 Anna and the King of Siam Yes
1947 Dead Reckoning Yes
1948 Night Song Yes
1950 Caged Yes
1951 The Company She Keeps Yes Yes Policeman
The Racket Yes
1954 Producers' Showcase Yes Jim Conover
1955 Ponds Theater Yes Mr. Lattimer
1956 Studio One in Hollywood Yes Senator Harvey Rogers
1957 Top Secret Affair Yes General Daniel A. Grimshaw
1958 The Goddess Yes
1959 The Scavengers Yes
1961 A Matter of Morals Yes
1977 3 Women Yes Mr. Rose
1978 A Wedding Yes Bishop Martin (final film)


  1. ^ a b Walling, Paula (September 7, 1947). "Sweden Can Keep Sex Films Clean". The Brisbane Sunday Mail. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  2. ^ Canham, 1976 p. 60: Given name, stage name
    Barson, Britannica: Barson reports that Cronwell’s “original name [was] Elwood Dager Cromwell”
    LoBianco, TMC: LoBianco lists his birth name as Elwood Dager John Cromwell.
  3. ^ Canham, 1976 p. 60: Graduated from “Howe School in 1905.”
  4. ^ Canham, 1976 p. 60: “changed his name to John Cromwell…”
  5. ^ See IMBd
  6. ^ LoBianco, TMC: Cromwell “worked as a theater director for the great William Brady.”
  7. ^ Imdb Cromwell: Other Works
  8. ^ Imdb, Other Works: The work was adapted to film in 1917 as The Slave Market
  9. ^ LoBianco, TMC
  10. ^ Canham, 1976 p. 60-61
  11. ^ LoBianco, TMC: “Cromwell made history by starring as Charles Lomax in the first Broadway performance of George Bernard Shaw's Major Barbara (1915).”
  12. ^ Canham, 1976 p. 60-61
  13. ^ Canham, 1976 p. 61
  14. ^ Canham, 1976 p. 116-117: Note: On p. 117 Cromwell is listed as player in For the Defense, but Canham does not list this on p. 116 film acting section, nor is his cameo in Ann Vickers (1933)
  15. ^ Baxter, 1968 p. 8: The studios were hiring “playwrights...directors from New York ...all brought in to satisfy the demand for sophisticated feeling of the stage which [movie] producers imagined” film audiences would demand.
  16. ^ Canham, 1976, p. 58-59: During the conversion to sound films “studios hired stage directors” to direct sound films, however “many [of these] new directors turned out static stage-[influenced] material that soured audiences…” And p. 116: See Cromwell roles in these films. Sutherland uncredited.
  17. ^ Canham, 1976, p. 60
  18. ^ Canham, 1976, p. 62
  19. ^ Canham, 1976, p. 61: Cromwell: “David and I found we hit it off very well together. I was always a great admirer of David...” And p. 62-63: Film was a success according to Cromwell, causing “quite a stir” And Selznick’s first project.
  20. ^ Canham, 1976, p. 117: The film today is credited to Richard Wallace (director)
  21. ^ Canham, 1976, p.62
  22. ^ Canham, 1976, p.63
  23. ^ Canham, 1976, p.118
  24. ^ Canham, 1976, p.63-64
  25. ^ Canham, 1976, p.64
  26. ^ Canham, 1976, p.64
  27. ^ LoBianco, TMC: “As DeWitt Bodeen wrote in his profile of Cromwell, ‘He believed in full rehearsals with camera before any shooting took place. "For every day of full rehearsal you give me,’ he was fond of saying, ‘I'll knock off a day on the shooting schedule.’ At RKO they gave him three days for rehearsal, and he obligingly came in three days early.”
  28. ^ Behlmer, Rudy, ed. (1972). Memo From David O. Selznick. New York: Viking Press. p. 115.
  29. ^ Thomas, Bob (1970). Selznick. Garden City NY: Doubleday & Company. p. 112.
  30. ^ Robert E. Sherwood - the playwright in Peace and War, by Harriet Alonso, U. of Mass. Press, 2007, pp. 301-308
  31. ^ "John Cromwell - Director - Films as Director:, Other Films:, Publications".
  32. ^ "Ban Is Lifted - - Theaters Re-Open This Week in Dayton to Stay Open". Dayton Daily News. November 3, 1918. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  33. ^ "Obituaries: John Cromwell". Variety. October 3, 1979. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  34. ^ Moore, Charles R. (October 9, 1941). "Hollywood Film Shop". The Clinton Journal and Public. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  35. ^ Lumenick, Lou (February 22, 2007). "Father's Footsteps". New York Post. Archived from the original on August 3, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2020. [Actor James] Cromwell's mother, Kay Johnson, was a star of early talkies.... His father, John Cromwell, directed such Golden Age classics as Of Human Bondage....
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External links

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