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Jewish emancipation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An 1806 French print depicts Napoleon Bonaparte emancipating the Jews
An 1806 French print depicts Napoleon Bonaparte emancipating the Jews

Jewish emancipation was the external (and internal) process in various nations in Europe of eliminating Jewish disabilities, e.g. Jewish quotas, to which European Jews were then subject, and the recognition of Jews as entitled to equality and citizenship rights.[1] It included efforts within the community to integrate into their societies as citizens. It occurred gradually between the late 18th century and the early 20th century. Jewish emancipation followed the Age of Enlightenment and the concurrent Jewish enlightenment.[2] Various nations repealed or superseded previous discriminatory laws applied specifically against Jews where they resided. Before the emancipation, most Jews were isolated in residential areas from the rest of the society; emancipation was a major goal of European Jews of that time, who worked within their communities to achieve integration in the majority societies and broader education. Many became active politically and culturally within wider European civil society as Jews gained full citizenship. They emigrated to countries offering better social and economic opportunities, such as the Russian Empire and France. Some European Jews turned to Socialism,[3] and others to Jewish Zionism.[4]

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  • ✪ Lesson 3: Haskalah: The Jewish Enlightenment
  • ✪ Lesson 5: Modern Jewish Politics: Jewish Nationalism and its Opponents
  • ✪ The Archive Thief: The Man Who Salvaged French Jewish History in the Wake of the Holocaust
  • ✪ Child Circumcision: An Elephant in the Hospital


Sholem Aleichem and welcome back to our continuing saga of the story of Galician jewelry in his East European context today we're going to look at the Haskalah the movement of Jewish enlightenment as with kostet ism I'm gonna fill in information about the broader huskarla phenomenon especially in Eastern Europe we'll spend about half of our time today on Galicia but I'm going to rely again on the readings that are assigned to have more details about the Galician iteration and the richness of the Haskalah and Galicia is it another reminder that the image of the course unlearn it glitzy honor a stereotype which we'll talk about another time this is just that it's a stereotype with very little correlation to reality our agenda is as follows you see on the screen we'll have maybe 10 minutes overview what is the Haskalah what is the Jewish enlightenment words that come from and what's it looking for will then spend about 15 or 20 minutes looking at it spread to Galicia and then the last 20 minutes looking at the spread of Haskalah to the Russian Empire and in particular I'm interested in three different moments three sort of crescendos of explosion of activity in Russian Empire which will give us a sense of the course of the 19th century so we begin what exactly is the Haskalah this is a difficult question there are many books written on this there's no single answer in a simple sense it's simply the name of the Enlightenment among the Jews Haskalah from the Hebrew meaning intellect or reason a follower of the Haskalah is called a moskal or maaske leme in plural and this begins really in the early to mid 1700s mostly in Germany where you have this early high school a movement people interested really in renewing Jewish scientific traditions Hebrew grammar Jewish philosophy internal sources of a rational Jewish tradition this then progresses in the 1760s and 70s into a comprehensive program of social and cultural transformation not just renewing Jewish traditions but a growing valuation of European secular studies also so earlier trends of acculturation the embrace of secular studies by isolated individuals even some novel criticisms of Jewish life and thought in the spirit of the Enlightenment this all now coalesce into a fully articulated movement known as the Haskalah most famously associated or personified by Moses Mendelssohn and this was absolutely religious conservative movement at first there was no intention of undermining with it his faith and with it his practice and this will remain the case by the way in Eastern Europe all the way into the 1860s we want to avoid the common Association of Haskalah meaning religious reform it wasn't that it will become bad eventually in some places but that's not what Haskalah is about the Haskalah is an intellectual movement seeking to integrate the Jews into European society but as Jews without denying their collective identity it's looking to transform and rejuvenate Judaism and Jewish society through an embrace of European culture and enlightenment values so what does that actually mean number one religion the maaske leme are arguing for a rationalistic a historical interpretation of judaism and they promoted a positive Jewish identity albeit a hyphenated identity but a positive Jewish identity based on a romantic revitalization of Biblical Hebrew and a scholarly encounter with Jewish history it's part of the rational approach to religion that's happening across Western Europe with also with Protestant faith and Catholic faith number two education mice Colima are embracing secular learning languages and manners they're really accepting in in Ashkenazic world for the first time the authority of non-jewish thought and mores as at least equal to traditional Jewish teachings and maybe even better and they desire to reform Jewish life according to European standards third productive is a ssin the idea of transforming the occupational structure of Jews away from Commerce away from finance to activities they found to be more productive and more morally up lifting like agriculture and artisan crafts forth integration this is not the same as a simulation integration means bring the Jews socially culturally and politically into broader society as Jews so when it comes to language for example Jews are traditionally as we've seen bilingual they were traditionally speaking Yiddish and scholarship was produced in Russian Kadish some kind of amalgam of various Hebrew and Aramaic dialects they want to keep that bilingualism but transform it in place of Yiddish masculine advocate German and eventually when it moves to Eastern Europe it might be polish or Russian but you abandon the Irish which is viewed really as in moral categories as morally problematic and you adopt the local language first and foremost German and instead of Russian kodesh this sort of amalgam of various Hebrew and Aramaic dialects they want some kind of purified biblical hebrew a new bilingualism and it's also promoting a new set of political assumptions because they want to integrate politically and they are going to venerate the absolutist state that we've been learning about very very much and staunchly oppose any level of jewish autonomy very much criticizing the the call the leadership structure of the Keela and wanting to break down their authority break down the caste bring the jews into european society and closet ISM will be a particular opponent than of them as we'll see viewed as obscurantist and so on they really accept what David Sorkin has called the emancipation contract the contract of rights for regeneration Jews are expected to regenerate there was an assumption there maaske beam except that the Jews are in a sense degenerate there was something wrong with Jewish society with Jewish life they have to reform themselves and in exchange they will achieve emancipation of course they want the emancipation first and they believe that the regeneration will follow others insist to go the other direction but they essentially accept the contract the connection between regeneration the assumption of degeneracy and the need to regenerate oh and the connection of that to emancipation short they need some they're looking for I should say some sort of golden modernising mean between tradition and assimilation they want to move as is Roberto put it in one of his writings they want to move from a religious corporate of identity something that's appropriate for the old Polish Commonwealth Jews as a corporate estate based on religion to a linguistic cultural identity more appropriate to a multinational Empire based on Hebrew language as the cultural language of scholarship and prayer and a cultural ethnic identity but integrating otherwise and the linguistic dualism is a key part of that speaking German but producing scholarship reading Hebrew this is the goal now in Western Europe it doesn't last more than a few decades in Western Europe the rise of romanticism the rediscovery of the mythic collective over the rational individual the Haskalah dissolves it move it switches into movements either for political emancipation which takes them several decades in Germany or else with this religious reform its begins in the 1820s and 30s pure Haskalah as an intellectual movement with its primarily educational focus from that point on from the second decade or so of the 19th century would exist only in Eastern Europe where it's going to emerge in the 1780s along with the West but only really get going right at the moment that it's dissolving in the West are on the eighteen tons and 1820s and as in the West the early Haskalah and the East is going to mean a revival of rationalist Jewish traditions together with a culturation dress language education productive ization in Russia especially the Haskalah is going to remain distinct throughout the 19th century precisely because emancipation is not granted and a secular non-christian Russian nationalism does not emerge the idea in the late 19th century as Russian nationalism really begins to take off the idea of Russians of the Jewish persuasion the way we have in Germany a Germans of the mosaic faith and so on that was an oxymoron to most Russians and and to most Jews alike now it's a little different in Galicia first of all because in Galicia emancipation does happen in the 1860s but here to Haskalah will survive until the 1860s before it finally evolves into various post emancipatory political forms the eastern Haskalah represents an attempt to create a Jewish identity compatible with emancipation to move the Jews towards secular culture and general culturation in order to earn emancipation again religious corporative identity into a linguistic cultural identity in other words they borrowed the emancipation contract and this rests on the assumption that emancipation would proceed in the east as a habit the West in assumption that was actually confirmed in galicia as we'll see tomorrow next class but found to be eventually empty in russia so let's take a look at the first half the story of the Haskalah in galicia it's not surprised that glish will be the beginning of the eastern Haskalah delicious Geographic and cultural connection to Germany led to its role as a gateway of the Hosking lot into Eastern Europe and the first East European masculine glitzy honors were personally connected to Berlin but the context of polish Austrian Galicia of that milieu is totally different in a few ways it's not the rising bourgeois industrial economy in an increasingly enlightened society moving towards general emancipation as we see in Germany and elsewhere in Western Europe that's not happening in Galicia Galicia is the most backward province in Austria feudalism remains quite strong through the 19th century the mass Keely moreover are surrounded by traditional Jews with deepening commitment to Yiddish and traditional culture as a result of the conquest of Khasan ISM totally foreign to the German context remember the story of her tumblr Hamburg was widely in contemporary views unfairly but widely reviled by Galician Jews whereas Mendelson and the masti lemur absolutely celebrated and adored in the German context moreover the reactionary government of men onic in Austria already you know admittedly he was rather disgusted and weary of the superstitious classy dame but he's even more wary of the reformist maaske we were in a post-napoleonic world here this is something the opponents of the high school ah will actually know how to exploit quite nicely the local the local government functionaries in the major cities will be supportive of the Haskalah they're mostly german-speaking bureaucrats and they feel rather alienated in this Polish setting so they're nationally supported the masculine but ultimately they're going to be and if forgive the term in today's day and age they're going to be trumped by the imperial concerns as we shall see and finally the absence of a secular mono national middle class in which to integrate in Germany there is a large German middle class into which Jews can aspire and indeed succeed to integrate that doesn't exist in Eastern Europe and you know it's the reason why East European Maskelyne they don't aspire to integrate into a nation into a specific nation at least at first they aspire to integrate into Empire into the Empire which is why German remains the language of the East European Haskell especially in Galicia for so many years the muscular communities first emerge in three cities in galicia and brody lambert and turn opa you can see them on the screen all in a sort of triangle they're already in the mid 1810 and these months these these mycelium of these cities are typically credited with introducing the Haskalah movement into eastern europe and they're holding regular meetings the helping the group congealed into a movement in those years and these are the biggest names in the early East European Haskell are menachem mendel leffen Yosef purl you delayed Mises now from chrome or many many others are laying the foundation for Haskalah in nineteenth-century Eastern Europe and the rise was made possible by the emergence of a wealthy class of Jewish merchants and professionals especially lawyers doctors and pharmacists in those three cities which are sponsoring them as Malcolm Crowe we'll put it describing Brody one of the cities on the border with Russia it's quote a city where wisdom and wealth Torah and understanding Commerce and faith are united and that commerce economic peace is part of the values of the Haskalah but also a real economic basis of the movement and interestingly while the masculine despised Yiddish as a corrupt language and really it's hard for people today maybe in Israel a little easier because of the politics of language in the 20s and 30s in Tel Aviv for example but Yiddish is not just something that's a problem because it blocks you from integration it's really viewed in moral terms as a corrupt version of of German some say some kind of amalgamated isn't really real or pure the best connection and when I teach my American students I talk about the politics over Ebonics the notion of in in the discourse of black pride in the United States well you have this discourse over Ebonics as a language and other sometimes you have African American intellectuals talking about Ebonics is not being a real language it's corrupt you have to abandon it for a pure English and so on that was sort of the discourse at the time that you - is this corrupt morally corrupt language but interestingly we see mycelium at least some of them already now already in this early period willing to publish in Yiddish for very practical purpose the vast majority of Jews read no other language not even Hebrew only the intellectual elite of DU society can read Hebrew well a few percent and mostly men and some mycelium already are be willing to toy with Eunice in order to reach the masses Yosef Perl we'll talk about in a second was one of them but most famously it was Menachem Mendel leffen Perl actually didn't publish as he dissed translations and laughs and did and he has a bio biography that's kind of typical of these masculine he spent time in Berlin he advances this muscular project grounded in sort of traditional Jewish sources he was actually famously involved in the final the four years SEM at the very end of the post with Delaney and Commonwealth he was involved there trying to advocate for the Jewish cause it was ill fated of course that the state was about to be divided up and he's publishing Yiddish translation of biblical wisdom literature for example and other polemical works he's publishing in Yiddish and of course arguing against constant ISM and sew ins we'll see in a second but also arguing again for linguistic acculturation in Yiddish arguing in Yiddish to move away from unis which is sort of a doomed project in beginning it's one of the things we'll see later on that when you start using Yiddish no matter what you say you're saying it in Yiddish and sort of making the point that Yiddish is a reasonable language in which to produce this kind of literature we'll come back to that in a later time another ideology as expected is focusing on education on more refinement through European culture and that means German language over Yiddish and so on but what most United the Galician Maskelyne in particular was their contempt and their campaign against gossiped ISM both with polemics and appeals to the state and both of these fails but they attempted to shut down Hasidic movement and that's a result of the local reality right Casa doesn't spread very early and very quickly in the Galician province and unquestionably Yosef Pearl is the most famous advocate for this campaign his most famous book Magali to Meereen the revealer of Secrets is just this brilliant satire of the Seafarer best of the praise of the baal shem tov that hagiography of the of the founder the so called founder of the classic movement and it was such a good satire that actually has said and we're buying it because they thought it was actually true stories of miracles of this of this famous of this vision of this magical man and well you know the satire to us today should be quite clear but it was missed at the time so for example there's a story in there where a woman says yet she's writing a letter and she explains you know unfortunately tragically my son was required for nine years to attend the local the local German Jewish school but thank God he learned nothing that's the kind of satire that people missed if they're Hasidic but we're able to understand if they got the gist of what he was going out he especially despised verbum Nachman we're not gonna botch loved one of his most famous publications are these stories there's incredible stories that are actually celebrated by literary scholars today is an amazing achievements very deep Kabbalistic imagery through these stories of princes and Prince and and and kings and so on and he hated them because they they make no sense their fairy tales trying to teach Judaism and he despised them and there's a lot about read nothing when he despised lover Nachman has a lot of anti rational aspects to him I want to point out that this campaign against constant ISM is unique English and not only visa vie berlin but even in congress poland eventually it comes to congress poland but it takes a few decades later the spread of kostet ISM very early on in Galicia even before Congress Poland is part of the story of what's going on here and it penetrates deep into the community hierarchy it has widespread appeal because the movement is not only attracting simple people of detracting wealthy people to attracting learned people as well pearl and me and another leader on your screen you too Mises they themselves are quite affluent and successful it's one of the reasons why they alone published anti Hasidic polemics with no fear of Hasidic pushback pearl we already spoke about Mises his most famous work is probably key not Emmett the zeal for truth 1828 and here you know he's fighting standard goals of Haskalah blah blah blah but really the clear enemy is classism so was he calling for well number one education reform Bible and Hebrew laying a Bible over Talmud Hebrew language along with European languages natural science history ethics all these good things but he's also attacking beliefs and spirits and demons and magic these are very important part of classic movement but they're also by the way important part of Jewish tradition the Talmud for example is laden with references to demons and so on something that he really tried either was unaware of or tries to suppress and of course the Zohar and the Kabbalah in general are viewed by him as some kind of foreign pollution which is quite distinct from the meat Nadeem who equally hate the kasi dean but themselves are also deeply steeped in kabbalah and certainly revealed revere it and the zohar he attacks tsadikim the Hasidic leaders as con men swindlers he posed no punches no illusions what so whatsoever he's quite clear about them he's also somewhat anti historical and scientifically ungrounded is announced of Judaism we already saw that with the demons but that's okay he was clear what he was trying to do and he is not satirical he is not using any kind of nuance he's quite explicit he doesn't have the kind of I don't know rhetorical flourishes but some other is one scale to put it this out some other books have he doesn't bring proof texts or quotations from the Bible no attempt at cleverness just laying it out on the table that's where he goes in response to him arguably the greatest of all the galician miss Celie Nachman crock mal he steps into the brink and his most famous work which is only published posthumously unfortunately guide to the perplexed of our time really was in many ways a game-changer an incredible work that I don't have time to discuss in full its obviously if you know your history parroting the name of Moses Maimonides great work the guide to perplex but it's the guide the flux of our time so he wants to bring you know just like Maimonides is speaking to the what we I guess we'd say this was a scientifically academically educated people of his day people who says I want to be Jewish I want to believe but I've also learned philosophy in science as it was understood back then and and I in my mind he says well that's no problem here's how we put them together he's doing the same thing but he's adding the dimension of historical analysis to rational Judaism that's something that's absent largely Maimonides and he's adding that because that's the perplexed of today of the eight of the mid eighteen hundreds they're perplexed they want to integrate historical analysis and he's able to do it and almost all subsequent Maskelyne in galicia and also and beyond are studying under him either directly or indirectly most famously for example Solomon Yehuda Rapoport his house becomes a center of Haskalah in Lambert and he was fiercely attacked by the local rabbi the famous Yaakov orange team and there's actually a great story there was a theorem there was an excommunication made by Ornstein against him but and I'll read you in a moment the problem is at the time it was illegal to excommunicate anybody in the Austrian Empire here's the harem how it goes so well we the harem here he was the language dear brethren of the household of Israel it's known that for a certain time now culture and education and also the study of the German language had begun to spread among us those chiefly responsible are too well known young people Solomon Rapoport and Hirsch not Kish they publicly recites Scripture and German translation and with the commentary of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn they also agitate among all their friends and acquaintances urging them to study languages and Sciences therefore with the authority the torrent of the Holy rabbis we decree against them and against their colleagues and against all who hold with them the great excommunication and you can read here the kind of venom and hatred and they're quite explicit about what it is that they hate there are spreading German language they're spreading these new interpretations of Mendelssohn and so on now unfortunately for them this was illegal and the state came down and they forced from a Ornstein to publicly refute the excommunication and actually the story comes down that he was sitting rap what we're sitting in the audience and needling him on saying I can't hear you I can't hear you and he forced him to recant that didn't help much actually an ultimately report fled the city what he gonna do there were too much Gillick schools founded during this period in turn Opel 1813 and Brodie in 1818 their curriculum is as you would expect they're teaching Bible some Talmud Hebrew grammar together with Polish French math history and geography this is the curriculum of the Haskalah and similar schools established later in Lemberg in 1845 and these became influential centers for the masculine but also sources of employment something we'll see in Russia as well they're also establishing modern synagogues in these cities when I say modern I want to recall from the last class modern does not mean modern reform it's really what we would probably call today something like Modern Orthodox it means that there's a dick there's a sort of a decorum in the place it means there's a sermon in the German language with the rabbi fate given by the rabbi each week and edifying sermon not some kind of people connecting verses of Tom wood and so on it means people pray together all these sorts of things nothing that violates haha but rather a new style of Judaism and I want to point out to you if you look at the picture of this is an absolutely religiously committed man this man is absolutely religiously committed in fact his school had twice daily prayers obligatory and he once fired a teacher who allegedly had violated Shabbat and cross mail and even Mises likewise called for the fulfillment of the commandments as absolutely obligatory this fits well actually with the conservative reactionary era of men are NIC they're not calling for religious reform crossly what the following quote thank God it's well known to all who come in the gates of my city that I have not cast off god forbid the yoke of the precepts and of the word of the teachers of blessed memory and that I observe all the minutiae of the law and pursue regularly a course in the scriptures the Mishnah and the Gemara this is a religiously conservative movement very very much so and with pearls backing rep report actually secures employment as the rabbi of turn opal in 1828 but after Pearl dies we call the pros a wealthy man and quite influential after Pearl dies in thirty-nine Rappaport is forced out as a heretical rabbi and leaves Galicia a similar fate actually much worse happens to the Moscow rabbi abraham Cohn he's hired at the modern temple in Lemberg we call that he was murdered in 48 almost certainly at the behest of rabbi Orenstein when his food was poisoned he was responsible not Ornstein rabbi Cohen he was responsible for the modern Jewish school on pearls model opening in Lombard in 1845 but he'd also championed the economic cause of abof abolishing the kosher meat and candle taxes and this had a consequence to it because this threatened the Orthodox establishment economically which was profiting from that from that tax and he was actually even an early advocate of Jewish colonization we'll see next class and in the readings for next class that Jews were advocating pollenization in German language early on which is quite an interesting phenomenon in any event the heyday of Galician Haskalah the heights of glish muscala are coming to an end in the 1850s and 60s I want to remind you that the mosque elem truly venerated the absolute State but there's a problem because of the nature of the conflict with the Hasidim in muskie leme they didn't quite appreciate what was going on I mean Rappaport wrote a dirge on the death of the Galician governor franz von hier pearl is writing you know poetry and literature of loyalty and love to the Austrian royalty and note by the way the medals he wears one from the Emperor of Austria one from the Tsar of Russia that's what he's most proud of showing in his official portrait but they made a critical miscalculation because in the revolutionary and reactionary period you know partly because it was turning chords conservatism partly because it doesn't want to foment unrest the Austrian system was really not interested in squelching the very popular Hasidic movement Austrian control meant quiet that means a secure relationship with the polish aristocracy and a secure relationship with the Jews but I also want to add one other point and you read about this yesterday when it comes to how manikins article and cosmetic movement the Austrian state accepted religious toleration and therefore they were certainly not going to work with the mosque elene to try to destroy a Hasidic movement and this is another place to remind ourselves of the changing historiography of East Europe in general but also glish in particular in this case work there are readings for today contrasted again our good friend Mahler with the newer work of Nancy sinned cough and we see again Mahler I have to read to you just a little bit so you get a sense of the kind of ideology that's affecting the scholarship here's a mother described posit ISM cross it is imbued the diaspora as the chief calamity of the Jewish people the only remedy an ideal being messianic Redemption and return to Palestine for the masculine the problem of the Diaspora in effect does not exist and as a solution of the abnormal situation of the Jewish masses they advocate education and linguistic assimilation to the Hasidim Galicia was a foreign land now this is an interesting model the Hasidim are almost proto nationalists right and the must lemurs for the emulation is the problem with this is not grounded in reality we've already seen how the caste deem you know with the exception of some messianic groups for the most part they've neutralized that messianic element they're finding personal Redemption here and in any event their land of Israel their Jerusalem their temple is the rabba is that Sadiq in his court here in in the Diaspora right here in Galicia in bells in sons inside the gore in short come that's word they're seeking redemption that's where their pilgrimage is to so this notion of Cassidy in view this is some kind of foreign land I think it's quite problematic and on the other hand the masculine it's true advocated linguistic acculturation but they also remain with the distally conservative which means they're they're praying for the Messiah and they have no notion of messianic Redemption other than the traditional one because they're not going to any Rebbe in short cover Boyan so to a certain extent when we read these historical accounts there is the scholarship is great and wonderful and important but keep in mind the kind of ideologies that are affecting it as you go through and I think the contrast between mother and the UH the newer scholarship is is quite pronounced and will be quite obvious to you and finally one last point note the overlapping battle of masculine and meat knob deem early on the masculine meat not deemed both hate Casa diem different reasons the masculine view it as anti rational and so on whereas the meat nog deem see it as a heresy but they both battle the kasi deem that will remain the case until the 1820s or 1830s there would be a fluidity between the two groups in the earliest years of the East European Haskalah which is reinforced by the fact that both coming from the same area the both coming from the East European you should vote the mosque Lima are taking advantage of that area addition interim acquired in their pre muskie liqu days in order to prove the validity of the Haskalah from tourist sources in any event through Galicia the Maskelyne the physical the actual people themselves and the muscular texts are going to spread throughout the Russian Empire as well as and Galician merchants are going settle in some of the new in the Russian Empire especially the frontier city of Odessa they'll come back to Odessa a little bit later and the remaining time that we have we want to take a brief overview twenty minutes or so of the major events on the Russian side of the border so let's take a look at the Russian side the first incident we want to look at is the mass kill Isaac Baer Levinson sometimes known as reball this is during that time the fluidity between traditionalism and enlightenment was still happening but was about to be blocked and it happens because of him in particular Sara's support for the mosque Elam was tenuous but it was present enough to give Russian Jews especially the CAHSEE deem an image of muscular power and when events seemed to give of evidence to this the impact on do society was quite quite profound and this first happens in 1828 the great Hebrew writer Isaac B Levinson is awarded a grant of 1000 rubles by the government a phenomenal sum of money who is Levinson is born in Bohemia eastern Ukraine to a wealthy family touch of enlightenment his father spoke polish insisted that he study Bible and learn Russian later like many Maskelyne he taught himself German and Latin and Greek and he travels Galicia where he associates with many of the most important Maskelyne of the time and he's very much influenced by their strong anti cousin ISM and he begins to write his major work testimony in Israel which argues for the permissibility of secular study and the necessity of productive izing Jewish economic activities he says Jews need to learn Russian farming crafts rabbis should have less power and of course hated hated Yiddish language these are all things that we've seen before and this work was widely read by my skin at the time and when he got the stipend he assumed that meant the Russian government shared his enlightened vision of Western Europe and wants to help him help the Jews and the traditional Jews on the other hand saw that he was colluding with the dastar's government for the destruction of Judaism so he's assuming the tower's government has its benevolent notion of help the Jews achieve enlightenment and the traditional Jews think the mycelium have colluded with the tower to destroy Judaism and the truth is obviously somewhere in between but actually believe it or not probably closer to the traditional view the mosque Ely Magan have sort of a pathetic misjudgment about the goals of the Russian Empire the Russian bureaucrats are completely ignorant of Jewish life and so when the mice Gillick texts criticized the fanatical rabbis or that makes fun of their or attacks their miss reading of the Talmud this is understood by the Russian government as criticism of Judaism as criticism of the Talmud as a whole you know they don't have a sense of the nuance that you know of between a muscular conservative you know rational Judaism and what they viewed as a extremist version by by the classy Dean the Russian government doesn't have this commitment to enlightenment as such the reward was the award was really a payoff for for denouncing the Jews from their perspective still his being singled out by the government established the book is gospel for the enlightened and it's government support began to block that fluidity between traditionalism and not deem and enlightenment levin sent for example and many other previous masculine had received rabbinic endorsement ask a Moute for their books no longer traditionalists would no longer collaborate with masculine and the latter the masculine became more bold it became emboldened in their statements Levinson's collaboration with the state opened the gates of haast : russia and my ski lien started spreading ideas they learned while trading in galicia or east prussia which is part of the german german empire so to speak Vilna probably emerges as the most important center of the east Pescara in easter Haskalah s : Russia because if it's status is a trade center between Russian Empire in Western Europe and there are stories actually am i stealing the masking with dress and the German style and would insist on speaking pure German and they became therefore known as deutschen as Germans we saw that already in the last class or the first class perhaps but they had a problem because it was dangerous to appear that way in Vilna and some of them actually maintain two wardrobes which they would change they went back and forth across the border this was a very conservative Haskalah I mean what they mostly demanded what a little secular education a moderation of her binax finding see a subtle turn away from the Talmud is the cynic when non of Jewish intellectual area edition they remained entirely observant Jews many of them unwilling or afraid to shave they they were trying to remain part of traditional society just pushing it a little bit this is very different and I mentioned this a moment ago than what's going on in Odessa in Odessa you have a cadre of masculine who moved there and then this gets augmented in the 1820s by a large number of Galician Jews coming there for economic reasons a bunch of wheat dealers from Brody for example and it turns into one of the most important centers of Haskalah in Russia maybe the second most important after Vilna but it's a different city because it's a frontier city a completely new Jewish community and if there's no Kela no kaha no established rabbinic structure and what's going to happen over the next century actually is that every mosque you everyone who wants to escape mine under society they know they can go to Odessa and many of the most important literary and political figures of the late nineteenth century we're spending time in Odessa the expression in Yiddish went hell burned seven miles around Odessa and indeed from many perspectives it did I guess we could say what happens in Odessa stays no deaths or something like this the number of Russian mosque Elam was growing in late 20s and 30s you could even say growing quickly but they were still a tiny minority of a massive population little coherence as an intellectual social group no power base and so on the main goal was the establishment of some modern Jewish schools along the lines of Perl school and ternopol and its most significant if meager results were in the realm of educational reform they did open for modernized schools the most successful as you would guess in Odessa doing what you'd expect me to do Russian language and you know other standard high school are subjects in 1838 riga receives permission to bring a german-jewish muscular crab Ida had their German style school for the small germanized community and they decided to bring 23 year old graduate of the University of Munich max lilienthal who comes in 1840 and the school fails but in 1841 lilienthal's called by the minister of national enlightenment Sergei Ivanov to head a proposed reform of the entire educational system of Jews throughout the empire and this moment ends the first stage of the history of the Haskalah in Russia and from now on from the 1840s it's going to be the government along with the mud with the Haskalah consciously in seriously beginning a policy of spreading enlightenment to Russian Jews here's max Lilienthal so these are key years the 1840s who was / of / of look he's not bent on converting the Jews as I say and that day he's gonna mourn that but his goal is not to assimilate them per se rather he wants to regenerate them right this is the rhetoric coming from Western Europe he wants to regenerate them they are degenerate they have these problems he wants to improve them and he doesn't want to solve it by force to some of the earlier policies of Nicolas the first had done but by reeducation based on my skill ik principles the government had already opened public schools the Jews but almost none of them and they're almost no Jews ever attended and he wants to establish a network of Haskalah schools with state support to teach secular and religious subjects as we'll see actually does establish about 71 of these by 1855 he's not able to get support among Russian Jews so he decides Western Jews will spearhead the project and he invites Lilienthal keep in mind how young he was now who contacts the most important figures in Western Europe asks for teachers and so on to get the thing going there's severe opposition to lilienthal's the whole story that I won't get into an uber on decides to convene a rabbinic commission in 1843 to decide how to implement his desire for a new Jewish school network there's a famous story I won't go into the details be about the leader of the meeting at the time was really its cock been crime of illusion the son of a kind of illusion and Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson who is the third in the line of the Chabad Lubavitch Hasidic group Schneerson absolutely refused to cooperate from us I've been high M tried to negotiate a better deal thinking that compromise would be a would be more effective neither of them were especially effective but in any event the battle lines are drawn it's the government the mosque you me man one side and for lack of a better way of saying it God and his people on the other and it's actually by the way is a moment we begin to see the kernel of an organized orthodoxy beginning to emerge I'll come back to that in a minute so this Commission of 1843 serves as the second decisive turning point in relations between traditionalists and the mosque Elam the Haskalah is now on the side of the Russian government and this is sealed with the passing of the law of 1844 on establishing special schools for the education of Jewish youth and the goal was quite clear the goal of the education of the Jews consists in their gradual reproach meant with the Christian population and in the eradication of superstitions and harmful prejudices instilled by the study of the Talmud in a call for establishing Jewish primary and secondary schools as well as with Pinnacle seminaries in the curriculum to be expected Jewish law for sure but also Russian literacy and grammar Hebrew literacy and grammar that dual language hyphenated dual language to be seen over and over again arithmetic calligraphy the secondary schools would then add a geography history mechanical drawing in a variety of optional courses like bookkeeping and so on that would prepare you for a career Jewish subjects would be taught only by Jewish teachers masculino obviously and the secular by either Jews or Christians and the graduates would enjoy the same benefits as graduates of the Christian schools which above all meant various levels of draft exemption the first two were binnacle seminaries also established at the time to train loyal rabbis in 1847 in Vilna and in gypsum and this further undermines a trend of Jewish communal Authority being cracked there's other in things going on in Russian history at the time but this is undermining the authority of the Jewish community the government requires rabbis to attend one of these two official seminaries and what happens actually afterwards is you have sort of a dual rabbinate in the Russian Empire on the one hand you have the crown rabbis they are officially permitted to be rabbis paid from official from from the Jewish taxes and they have to have been graduate from one of these seminaries then you have the unofficial rabbis and most people actually prefer to go to for their various needs the latter are paid from a now illegal fund based on the kosher meat tax and soon thereafter Lilienthal is out of the picture he leaves Russia ends up in America founder of American Reform Judaism a whole nother story but the Commission's recommendation goes through and as I said 71 schools are established by the end of Nicholas the First's reign in 1855 finally we come to the third period of Haskalah the Haskalah under alexander ii 1850s 1855 to 1881 when he's assassinated this is really the heyday of the Haskalah and russian empire and not only in terms of numbers it's still a tiny minority but rather in terms of influence there's a tremendous excitement of masculine with the accession and reforms of alexander ii he was the one we call that emancipated the serfs in 1861 and he's issuing edict after edik law after law which is lightening the burden on not only Jews but also Jews for example opening the peril of settlement the area that Jews restricted to live in to increasing numbers of Jews who could enter Mother Russia several hundred thousand by the time he's assassinated early Maskelyne moderate masculine are transmitting their message in Hebrew also even in Yiddish highly optimistic highly optimistic at this time one of the most famous is yahuda lept Gordon his pictures on the screen he's really among the high schooler's most important spokesman ever this great representative of this moderate Haskalah religiously observant highly optimistic conservative you see the poem on your screen so this poem is one of the most famous coming out of the Haskalah east or west awake my people write awake my people how long will you sleep the night has passed the Sun shines through away cast your eyes hither and yon recognized your time in place recognize what's going on it's finally happening the dreams of the Haskalah it's finally happening it's happening right here awake my people how long will you sleep the night has passed the Sun shines through and among the most famous lines be a man - sorry - the treasury of yours of the state bring your wealth bury your share of its which isn't in bounty be part of the state around you be a man in the streets and a Jew at home a brother to your countrymen and a servant to your king in those lines we see the whole project the Haskalah but also the optimism that it's really happening wake up the surrounding culture become citizens dual identity hyphenated Russian Jews loyal patriotic integrated into the Russian Empire and the Haskell is also receiving considerable stimulus through economic changes you have the growth of a class of Jewish merchants even already under Nicholas the first but now even more so and they're learning Russian and language and math and other scientists and actually you have a whole class of thousands of Jewish families no longer dependent on Jewish society from an economic or social point of view these Jews are wearing non-jewish dress they're beginning to neglect many religious precept precepts they're shaving their beard the drawing close to Russian language and culture the older masculine the first masculine were self-taught very familiar with Jewish literature the new Mass Keo receives his education in a Russian Jewish school or maybe even in a general Russian school and was conspicuous for his you know rather considerable alienation from Jewish tradition in this contrast is quite important the moderate masculine were interested in descent the masculine message too popular works you know in Yiddish but especially Hebrew a Jewish history books that promoted optimistic patriotism European literature science romantic novels even and there emerges at this point a normal Hebrew reading public people educated in traditional houses of study but interested in expanding their horizons etus literature would have expanded it even much more but of course they weren't quite ready for that for the most part that's the moderate Haskalah but now you have a radical Haskalah coming out in the 1860s they don't share the same optimism and they don't share the same desire for a hyphenated Jewish Russian dual identity as their conservative moderate counterparts they reassessed the role of the Hebrew language was there any need to continue it why why do we need Hebrew at all and this is the context you know there's a growing government policy of rousseff occasion growing Russian cultural influence and Jewish intellectuals in the schools and universities and they're calling not only for radical would they just reform even for outright assimilation it's quite a break and this is part of why it's right now in the 1860 we begin to see the emergence of Orthodoxy in the east and mostly see this much more in Galicia in a much more organized fashion but even here in Russian oh you know many maaske leme especially the early ones they were still fully observant but the school trained rabbis and other students in these schools are less than fully observant and there's a shift and there's a famous event that happens when motion Labe lillian bloom will later become a famous early Zionists in 1868 he demands a rabbinical conference to reform the Chicano work the code of Jewish law and sets off a tidal wave that helps to solidify the Orthodox camp he eventually flees by the way from that from the to load and of course ends up in Odessa like everybody else this is a time of a lot of reef major reform events happening in Germany and Hungary in America a lot of public discussion about religious reform in Russia it begins to give the impression that the reform movement is succeeding and it's increasingly radical nature is a grave threat to traditional judaism and orthodox for the first time begin to push using modern means we'll see it this is again much more English but even here in Paris they launched because of censorship rules they launched in Paris a Hebrew Journal howl ever known which is by the way online now and accessible as a forum to express themselves and oppose the masculine this is a huge milestone we'll speak about it another time but the Orthodox using the modern method of the press to fight for their cause is an incredible transformative moment Gordon by the way backs William bloom but rejects the radical religious change he called for he supported him right to call for the change and so him but he himself was much more conservative and he was very concerned about the loss of Hebrew among these radical masculine you know his his other most second most famous poem perhaps even more so for whom do i toil well he writes for whom do i toil why am i writing these Hebrew poems why am I talking about Zion and talking about Jewish culture maybe I'm gonna be the last Hebrew writer and you the last Hebrew reader were being supplanted and there's a mournfulness to it that it's all being lost the project isn't working you know he was a Hebrew poet and writer trying to advocate for Russian Jews to learn Russian fluently but to maintain the Hebrew to maintain the Jewish heritage and that's a difficult balancing act at this point finally politically masculine moved from the fringe of Jewish society and come to dominate Jewish politics by the 1880s as you see on the screen they do this through a few ways first of all they take over two key positions of traditional Jewish society the informer and the Scotland you know that miskeen have been going to the to the trying to use the absolute estate to their benefit so a Sedin by the way for many years but now they're really becoming part of that state for example the role of censor is falling on the masculine and also many cases providing advisors to Russian ministers and bureaucrats of the Jewish society that's not falling in the masculine and it's not only coercive they're also becoming the Stockland that love the lobbyists now they're not being hired by anybody to be the lobbyist like it used to be done they're stepping up and volunteering they have a knowledge of European languages and secular learning puts them in a position to defend Jews and they're acting openly not discretely and they they felt that the fragmentation of Jewish society which was quite real meant that somebody had to step into the brink there was an acute need for national leadership and they saw themselves as that choice and secondly the masculine developed institutions of power first of all the crown schools we've already seen not only is is training hundreds and thousands of new masculine but it's providing an economic base to the masculine as teachers and administrators second of all the ope the Society for promoting enlightenment among Jews in Russia funded by Baron de Gunzburg for various muscular projects a very important source of power and most importantly and most interestingly the muscular press the first one being hamaji de Hebrew paper in 1856 in Hebrew in Russian and polish and eventually decades later in Yiddish again we'll speak about this in their time the fact that they refused still refused to publish in Yiddish despite the fact that vast majority of Jews could only read yudish is quite interesting but in any event in Hebrew Russian and polish and German of course there begin to publish these new papers and this builds Masekela jit a'mma see it affects public opinion but it also creates it creates the sphere of public opinion you know they caught the reason why they call him argued hamaji it is the preacher this is a new preacher this is the new medium that's going to affect public opinion and they begin to speak about the notion of the public will that the public will was the legitimate basis of policy little minute basis of what should be done and we here see obviously here the origins of proto Jewish nationalism among other things and third of all and really most importantly most interestingly is the masculine press beginning with hamaji in 1856 in Hebrew and polish and Russian not yet in Yiddish even though the vast majority of Jews could only read Yiddish and when finally begin to publish in Yiddish decades later they're gonna discover exactly the power of the reach they still cannot overcome that mental block to publish in Yiddish but in Hebrew and then later in Russian and in Polish in German the by skillet press is coming out and it creates this new public sphere in the new sphere in which Maskelyne begin to think of themselves as being representatives of the Jewish people as a whole and begin to think about the public will as a legitimate basis of policy so to bring this all together you know in 1881 there was a tremendous explosion of pogroms and violence in Russia very very famous and then the tower responds with these new decrees that really make the economic situation that Jews in the pay are intolerable people speak about this as the birth of Jewish politics they speak about this moment as the moment where the Haskalah becomes totally disillusioned people lose faith in it and so on but besides the anti-semitism besides the pogroms besides that we need to see something happening internally you know criticism of the Haskalah is beginning already in the 1870s mass migration is actually beginning already in the 1870s but there's something more there's an internal momentum towards modern Jewish politics and identity nationalism in particular take a look at the chart that I have in front of you the Myron Haskalah we've seen this optimistic advocating modern moderately religious dual Russian Jewish identity accepting the discourse of need for regeneration and then we saw the radical Haskalah beginning in the 1860s it says a hyphenated identity is impossible we don't want it therefore but I like the modern I like the modern I like the secular I like that idea so instead I'm going to advocate for an unhyphenated Russian modern secular identity but then you have people say I agree with that - eight identity is unattractive to me but I don't to be I don't want to abandon the Hebrew I don't want to abandon the Jewish I don't want to abandon the idea that Jews need to change and modernize and regenerate the - identity is impossible so instead we advocate an unhyphenated modern secular Jewish identity whether it's Zionists or yiddishists or another form of jewish nationalist or or do a socialist and so on and the point of this is that modern Jewish politics is not simply a reaction to anti-semitism and pogroms it's that simply a reaction to disillusionment but rather it is coming from inside Jewish society and this is especially importantly we turned to Galicia next time because there were no with a few exceptions there really were no programs English sure there was some anti-semitism but there is no reversal of the move towards an emancipation on the contrary next class we'll see Galician Jews are emancipated and yet even there in fact in some ways more so their modern Jewish politics and modern Jewish identities emerge and we have to remember there's a balance there's the external impact of the surrounding society and the Empire and there's an internal momentum coming on and the modern Jewish politics are not so much reacting against the Haskalah as being born of the Haskalah and that's where we end up next time next time we'll look first of all at the process of emancipation and then after that we'll look at the new politics coming out of it and of course most Jews are not masculine most it will not be members of these new of these new political organizations in the 1880s and 1890s but the ideologies of the Haskalah and the modern Jewish movements that come out of it these will set the parameters of modern Jewish identity and politics in the 20th century for all Jews so we need to look at these thousands of elites who are creating first aha Scala and then the modern Jewish movements that come out of the huskarla because that was at the parameters for the 20th and 21st centuries thanks so much see you next time take care



The 1791 law proclaiming the Emancipation of the Jews – Musée d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaïsme
The 1791 law proclaiming the Emancipation of the Jews – Musée d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaïsme

Jews were subject to a wide range of restrictions throughout most of European history. Since the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215, Christian Europeans required Jews and Muslims to wear special clothing, such as the Judenhut and the yellow badge for Jews, to distinguish them from Christians. The practice of their religions was often restricted, and they had to swear special oaths. Jews were not allowed to vote, where vote existed, and some countries formally prohibited their entry, such as Norway, Sweden and Spain after the expulsion in the late 15th century.

In contrast, in 1264, the Polish Prince Boleslaw the Pious issued the "Statute of Kalisz" – The General Charter of Jewish Liberties in Poland, an unprecedented document in medieval history of Europe that allows Jews personal freedom, legal autonomy and separate tribunal for criminal matters as well as safeguards against forced baptism and blood libel. The Charter was ratified again by subsequent Polish Kings: Casimir the Great of Poland in 1334, Casimir IV of Poland in 1453, and Sigismund I the Old of Poland in 1539. After massive expulsions of Jews from Western Europe (England, France, Germany, and Spain), they found a refuge in the lands of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. During the Jagiellon Era Poland became the home to Europe's largest Jewish population, as royal edicts warranting Jewish safety and religious freedom from the 13th century contrasted with bouts of persecution in Western Europe, especially following the Black Death of 1348–1349, blamed by some in the West on Jews themselves. Large parts of Poland suffered relatively little from the outbreak, while the Jewish immigration brought valuable manpower and skills to the rising state. The greatest increase in Jewish numbers occurred in the 18th century, when Jews came to make up 7% of the Polish population.

Jewish involvement in gentile society began during the Age of Enlightenment. Haskalah, the Jewish movement supporting the adoption of enlightenment values, advocated an expansion of Jewish rights within European society. Haskalah followers advocated "coming out of the ghetto", not just physically but also mentally and spiritually.

On September 28, 1791, revolutionary France became the second country of the world, after Poland 500 years earlier, to emancipate its Jewish population. The 40,000 Jews living in France at the time were the first to confront the opportunities and challenges offered by emancipation. The civic equality that the French Jews attained became a model for other European Jews.[5] Newfound opportunities began to be provided to the Jewish people, and they slowly pushed toward equality in other parts of the world. In 1796 and 1834, the Netherlands granted the Jews equal rights with gentiles. Napoleon freed the Jews in areas he conquered in Europe outside France (see Napoleon and the Jews). Greece granted equal rights to Jews in 1830. But, it was not until the revolutions of the mid-19th century that Jewish political movements would begin to persuade governments in Great Britain, Central and Eastern Europe to grant equal rights to Jews.[6]

Emancipation movements

The early stages of Jewish emancipation movements were part of the general progressive efforts to achieve freedom and rights for minorities. While this was a movement, it was also a pursuit for equal rights.[7] Thus, the emancipation movement would be a long process. The question of equal rights for Jews was tied to demands for constitutions and civil rights in various nations. Jewish statesmen and intellectuals, such as Heinrich Heine, Johann Jacoby, Gabriel Riesser, Berr Isaac Berr, and Lionel Nathan Rothschild, worked with the general movement toward liberty and political freedom, rather than for Jews specifically.[8]

In 1781, the Prussian civil servant Christian Wilhelm Dohm published the famous script Über die bürgerliche Emanzipation der Juden. Dohm disproves the antisemitic stereotypes and pleads for equal rights for Jews. Till this day, it is called the Bible of Jewish emancipation.[9]

In the face of persistent anti-Jewish incidents and blood libels, such as the Damascus affair of 1840, and the failure of many states to emancipate the Jews, Jewish organizations formed to push for the emancipation and protection of their people. The Board of Deputies of British Jews under Moses Montefiore, the Central Consistory in Paris, and the Alliance Israelite Universelle all began working to assure the freedom of Jews.

Jewish emancipation, implemented under Napoleonic rule in French occupied and annexed states, suffered a setback in many member states of the German Confederation following the decisions of the Congress of Vienna. In the final revision of the Congress on the rights of the Jews, the emissary of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, Johann Smidt – unauthorised and unconsented to by the other parties – altered the text from "The confessors of Jewish faith are preserved the rights already conceded to them in the confederal states", by replacing a single word, which entailed serious consequences, into: "The confessors of Jewish faith are preserved the rights already conceded to them by the confederal states."[10] A number of German states used the altered text version as legal grounds to reverse the Napoleonic emancipation of Jewish citizens. The Prussian emissary Wilhelm von Humboldt and the Austrian Klemens von Metternich promoted the preservation of Jewish emancipation, as maintained by their own countries, but were not successful in others.[8]

During the Revolutions of 1848, Jewish emancipation was granted by the Basic Rights of the Frankfurt Parliament (Paragraph 13), which said that civil rights were not to be conditional on religious faith. But only some German states introduced the Frankfurt parliamentary decision as state law, such as Hamburg; other states were reluctant. Important German states, such as Prussia (1812), Württemberg (1828), Electorate of Hesse (1833), and Hanover (1842), had already emancipated their Jews as citizens. By doing so, they hoped to educate the gentiles, and terminate laws that sought to oppress the Jews.[11] Although the movement was mostly successful; some early emancipated Jewish communities continued to suffer persisting or new de facto, though not legal, discrimination against those Jews trying to achieve careers in public service and education. Those few states that had refrained from Jewish emancipation were forced to do so by an act of the North German Federation on 3 July 1869, or when they acceded to the newly united Germany in 1871. The emancipation of all Jewish Germans was reversed by Nazi Germany from 1933 until the end of World War II.[6]

Dates of emancipation

In some countries, emancipation came with a single act. In others, limited rights were granted first in the hope of "changing" the Jews "for the better."[12]

Years when legal equality was granted to Jews
Year Country
1264 Poland
1791 France[13]
1796 Batavian Republic
1808 Grand Duchy of Hesse
1808 Westphalia[14]
1811 Grand Duchy of Frankfurt[15]
1812 Mecklenburg-Schwerin[16]
1812 Prussia[17]
1828 Württemberg
1830 Belgium
1830 Greece
1831 Jamaica[18]
1832 Canada (Lower Canada (Quebec))
1833 Electorate of Hesse
1834 United Netherlands
1839 Ottoman Empire[19]
1842 Kingdom of Hanover
1848 Nassau[20]
1849 Hamburg[21]
1849 Denmark[22]
1849 Hungary[23]
1856 Switzerland
1858 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
1861 Italy
1862 Baden
1863 Holstein[24]
1864 Free City of Frankfurt
1867 Austria-Hungary
1869 North German Confederation
1870 Sweden-Norway (1851 in Norway)
1871 Germany[25]
1877 New Hampshire (last US state to enact full emancipation of Catholics, Jews, and other non-Protestants)
1878 Bulgaria
1878 Serbia
1890 Brazil[26]
1910 Spain[citation needed]
1911 Portugal
1917 Russia
1918 Finland
1923 Romania


The emancipation and the practice of Judaism

The emancipation disrupted the relationship the Jews had with their religion, which could not govern any longer all the actions in their lives. Many considered a practice of Judaism more closely to the lifestyle of their non-Jewish fellow citizens. The emancipation in France, Italy, Germany, at least during the Empire, permitted many Jews to leave the ghettos and contribute, as a result of the Haskalah, to the development of Reform during the 19th century. The emancipation contributed moreover to the assimilation of Jews and sometimes to their cultural disappearance when Jews merged through marriage in the surrounding society. It was not until Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch defined a modern vision of orthodox Judaism, enabling orthodox Jews to participate fully in a society.[6][failed verification][clarification needed] Ultimately, emancipation immersed the Jews into a new culture. In doing so, Jews were able to not only see themselves as members of a religious sect, but also as citizens within society. At the same time, however, some[who?] were concerned that leaders within the Jewish movement were seeking to position Judaism with an approach catered toward a new Western civilization.[11]

See also


  1. ^ Eli Barnavi. "Jewish Emancipation in Western Europe". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  2. ^ Shmuel Ettinger. "Jewish Emancipation and Enlightenment". Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  3. ^ "Socialism". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  4. ^ Beauchamp, Zack (14 May 2018). "What is Zionism?". Vox Media, Inc. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  5. ^ Paula E. Hyman, The Jews of Modern France (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), pp. 17–18.
  6. ^ a b c "Emancipation". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  7. ^ Nicholas, de Lange; Freud-Kandel, Miri; C. Dubin, Lois. Modern Judaism. Oxford University Press. pp. 30–40.
  8. ^ a b Sharfman, Glenn R., "Jewish Emancipation", in Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions
  9. ^ Barbara Stollberg-Rilinger: Europa im Jahrhundert der Aufklärung. Stuttgart: Reclam, 2006 (2nd edition), 268.
  10. ^ In the German original: "Es werden den Bekennern des jüdischen Glaubens die denselben in [von, respectively] den einzelnen Bundesstaaten bereits eingeräumten Rechte erhalten." Cf. Heinrich Graetz, Geschichte der Juden von den ältesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart: 11 vols., Leipzig: Leiner, 1900, vol. 11: 'Geschichte der Juden vom Beginn der Mendelssohnschen Zeit (1750) bis in die neueste Zeit (1848)', p. 317. Emphasis not in the original. Reprint of the edition revised by the author: Berlin: Arani, 1998, ISBN 3-7605-8673-2.
  11. ^ a b C. Dubin, Lois. Modern Judaism. Oxford University Press. pp. 32–33.
  12. ^ "THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN ANTI-SEMITISM: images pg.21". Retrieved 2015-02-17.
  13. ^ Jean Jaurès. "Law Relating to the Jews 1791". Retrieved 2015-02-17.
  14. ^ However, reversed by the Westphalian successor states in 1815. Cf. for introduction and reversion Heinrich Graetz, Geschichte der Juden von den ältesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart: 11 vols., Leipzig: Leiner, 1900, vol. 11: 'Geschichte der Juden vom Beginn der Mendelssohnschen Zeit (1750) bis in die neueste Zeit (1848)', p. 287. Reprint of the edition of last hand: Berlin: arani, 1998, ISBN 3-7605-8673-2.
  15. ^ Reversed at the dissolution of the grand duchy in 1815.
  16. ^ On February 22, cf. Heinrich Graetz, Geschichte der Juden von den ältesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart: 11 vols., Leipzig: Leiner, 1900, vol. 11: 'Geschichte der Juden vom Beginn der Mendelssohnschen Zeit (1750) bis in die neueste Zeit (1848)', p. 297. Reprint of the edition of last hand: Berlin: arani, 1998, ISBN 3-7605-8673-2.
  17. ^ On March 11, cf. Heinrich Graetz, Geschichte der Juden von den ältesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart: 11 vols., Leipzig: Leiner, 1900, vol. 11: 'Geschichte der Juden vom Beginn der Mendelssohnschen Zeit (1750) bis in die neueste Zeit (1848)', pp. 297seq. Reprint of the edition of last hand: Berlin: arani, 1998, ISBN 3-7605-8673-2.
  18. ^ Finding Your Roots, PBS, September 23, 2014
  19. ^ By order of the Sultan, equal rights were granted to non-Muslims, including Jews, in 1839 as part of the Tanzimat reforms.
  20. ^ Introduced on December 12, 1848.
  21. ^ By introduction of the basic freedoms as decided by the National Assembly, adopted for Hamburg's law on February 21, 1849.
  22. ^ By the Constitution of Denmark of June 5, 1849.
  23. ^ The Hungarian Governor-President Lajos Kossuth declared the full emancipation of the Jews in the realm on July 28, 1849. However, this would soon be rolled back by the Hungarians' defeat at the hands of the Russians barely two weeks later on August 13. The emancipation of the Hungarian Jews would not be restored until the Compromise of 1867.
  24. ^ By law on the Affairs of the Jews in the Duchy of Holstein on July 14, 1863.
  25. ^ For the status of Jews in the states, which united in 1871 to constitute Germany see the respective regulations of the principalities and states that preceded the 1871 unification of Germany.
  26. ^ Since 1810 Jews already had partial freedom of religion, that was completely guaranteed in 1890 after the proclamation of the Republic


  • Christian Wilhelm von Dohm. Über die bürgerliche Verbesserung der Juden (Berlin /Stettin 1781). Kritische und kommentierte Studienausgabe. Hrsg. von Wolf Christoph Seifert. Wallstein, Göttingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-8353-1699-7.
  • David Feuerwerker. L'Émancipation des Juifs en France. De l'Ancien Régime à la fin du Second Empire. Paris: Albin Michel, 1976 ISBN 2-226-00316-9
  • Heinrich Graetz, Geschichte der Juden von den ältesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart: 11 vols., Leipzig: Leiner, 1900, vol. 11: Geschichte der Juden vom Beginn der Mendelssohnschen Zeit (1750) bis in die neueste Zeit (1848), reprint of the edition of last hand; Berlin: arani, 1998, ISBN 3-7605-8673-2
  • Hyman, Paula E. The Jews of Modern France. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

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