In differential topology, the **jet bundle** is a certain construction that makes a new smooth fiber bundle out of a given smooth fiber bundle. It makes it possible to write differential equations on sections of a fiber bundle in an invariant form. Jets may also be seen as the coordinate free versions of Taylor expansions.

Historically, jet bundles are attributed to Charles Ehresmann, and were an advance on the method (prolongation) of Élie Cartan, of dealing *geometrically* with higher derivatives, by imposing differential form conditions on newly introduced formal variables. Jet bundles are sometimes called **sprays**, although sprays usually refer more specifically to the associated vector field induced on the corresponding bundle (e.g., the geodesic spray on Finsler manifolds.)

Since the early 1980s, jet bundles have appeared as a concise way to describe phenomena associated with the derivatives of maps, particularly those associated with the calculus of variations.^{[1]} Consequently, the jet bundle is now recognized as the correct domain for a geometrical covariant field theory and much work is done in general relativistic formulations of fields using this approach.

## Jets

Suppose *M* is an *m*-dimensional manifold and that (*E*, π, *M*) is a fiber bundle. For *p* ∈ *M*, let Γ(p) denote the set of all local sections whose domain contains *p*. Let be a multi-index (an *m*-tuple of integers, not necessarily in ascending order), then define:

Define the local sections σ, η ∈ Γ(p) to have the same ** r-jet** at

*p*if

The relation that two maps have the same *r*-jet is an equivalence relation. An *r*-jet is an equivalence class under this relation, and the *r*-jet with representative σ is denoted . The integer *r* is also called the **order** of the jet, *p* is its **source** and σ(*p*) is its **target**.

## Jet manifolds

The ** r-th jet manifold of π** is the set

We may define projections *π _{r}* and

*π*

_{r,0}called the

**source and target projections**respectively, by

If 1 ≤ *k* ≤ *r*, then the ** k-jet projection** is the function

*π*defined by

_{r,k}From this definition, it is clear that *π _{r}* =

*π*o

*π*

_{r,0}and that if 0 ≤

*m*≤

*k*, then

*π*=

_{r,m}*π*o

_{k,m}*π*. It is conventional to regard

_{r,k}*π*as the identity map on

_{r,r}*J*(

^{r}*π*) and to identify

*J*

^{0}(

*π*) with

*E*.

The functions *π _{r,k}*,

*π*

_{r,0}and

*π*are smooth surjective submersions.

_{r}A coordinate system on *E* will generate a coordinate system on *J ^{r}*(

*π*). Let (

*U*,

*u*) be an adapted coordinate chart on

*E*, where

*u*= (

*x*,

^{i}*u*). The

^{α}**induced coordinate chart (**on

*U*,^{r}*u*)^{r}*J*(

^{r}*π*) is defined by

where

and the functions known as the **derivative coordinates**:

Given an atlas of adapted charts (*U*, *u*) on *E*, the corresponding collection of charts (*U ^{r}*,

*u*) is a finite-dimensional

^{r}*C*

^{∞}atlas on

*J*(

^{r}*π*).

## Jet bundles

Since the atlas on each defines a manifold, the triples *, ** and ** all define fibered manifolds. In particular, if **is a fiber bundle, the triple ** defines the *** r-th jet bundle of π**.

If *W* ⊂ *M* is an open submanifold, then

If *p* ∈ *M*, then the fiber is denoted .

Let σ be a local section of π with domain *W* ⊂ *M*. The ** r-th jet prolongation of σ** is the map defined by

Note that , so really is a section. In local coordinates, is given by

We identify * with .
*

### Algebraic-geometric perspective

An independently motivated construction of the sheaf of sections * is given*.

Consider a diagonal map , where the smooth manifold is a locally ringed space by for each open . Let be the ideal sheaf of , equivalently let be the sheaf of smooth germs which vanish on for all . The pullback of the quotient sheaf from to by is the sheaf of k-jets.^{[2]}

The direct limit of the sequence of injections given by the canonical inclusions of sheaves, gives rise to the **infinite jet sheaf** . Observe that by the direct limit construction it is a filtered ring.

### Example

If π is the trivial bundle (*M* × **R**, pr_{1}, *M*), then there is a canonical diffeomorphism between the first jet bundle and *T*M* × **R**. To construct this diffeomorphism, for each σ in write .

Then, whenever *p* ∈ *M*

Consequently, the mapping

is well-defined and is clearly injective. Writing it out in coordinates shows that it is a diffeomorphism, because if *(x ^{i}, u)* are coordinates on

*M*×

**R**, where

*u*= id

_{R}is the identity coordinate, then the derivative coordinates

*u*on

_{i}*J*correspond to the coordinates ∂

^{1}(π)_{i}on

*T*M*.

Likewise, if π is the trivial bundle (**R** × *M*, pr_{1}, **R**), then there exists a canonical diffeomorphism between and **R** × *TM*.

## Contact structure

The space *J ^{r}*(π) carries a natural distribution, that is, a sub-bundle of the tangent bundle

*TJ*(π)), called the

^{r}*Cartan distribution*. The Cartan distribution is spanned by all tangent planes to graphs of holonomic sections; that is, sections of the form

*j*for

^{r}φ*φ*a section of π.

The annihilator of the Cartan distribution is a space of differential one-forms called contact forms, on *J ^{r}*(π). The space of differential one-forms on

*J*(π) is denoted by and the space of contact forms is denoted by . A one form is a contact form provided its pullback along every prolongation is zero. In other words, is a contact form if and only if

^{r}for all local sections σ of π over *M*.

The Cartan distribution is the main geometrical structure on jet spaces and plays an important role in the geometric theory of partial differential equations. The Cartan distributions are completely non-integrable. In particular, they are not involutive. The dimension of the Cartan distribution grows with the order of the jet space. However, on the space of infinite jets *J ^{∞}* the Cartan distribution becomes involutive and finite-dimensional: its dimension coincides with the dimension of the base manifold

*M*.

### Example

Consider the case *(E, π, M)*, where *E* ≃ **R**^{2} and *M* ≃ **R**. Then, *(J ^{1}(π), π, M)* defines the first jet bundle, and may be coordinated by

*(x, u, u*, where

_{1})for all *p* ∈ *M* and σ in Γ_{p}(π). A general 1-form on *J ^{1}(π)* takes the form

A section σ in Γ_{p}(π) has first prolongation

Hence, *(j ^{1}σ)*θ* can be calculated as

This will vanish for all sections σ if and only if *c* = 0 and *a* = −*bσ′(x)*. Hence, θ = *b(x, u, u _{1})θ_{0}* must necessarily be a multiple of the basic contact form θ

_{0}=

*du*−

*u*. Proceeding to the second jet space

_{1}dx*J*with additional coordinate

^{2}(π)*u*, such that

_{2}a general 1-form has the construction

This is a contact form if and only if

which implies that *e* = 0 and *a* = −*bσ′(x)* − *cσ′′(x)*. Therefore, θ is a contact form if and only if

where θ_{1} = *du*_{1} − *u*_{2}*dx* is the next basic contact form (Note that here we are identifying the form θ_{0} with its pull-back to *J ^{2}(π)*).

In general, providing *x, u* ∈ **R**, a contact form on *J ^{r+1}(π)* can be written as a linear combination of the basic contact forms

where

Similar arguments lead to a complete characterization of all contact forms.

In local coordinates, every contact one-form on *J ^{r+1}(π)* can be written as a linear combination

with smooth coefficients of the basic contact forms

*|I|* is known as the **order** of the contact form . Note that contact forms on *J ^{r+1}(π)* have orders at most

*r*. Contact forms provide a characterization of those local sections of

*π*which are prolongations of sections of π.

_{r+1}Let ψ ∈ Γ_{W}(*π _{r+1}*), then

*ψ*=

*j*σ where σ ∈ Γ

^{r+1}_{W}(π) if and only if

## Vector fields

A general vector field on the total space *E*, coordinated by , is

A vector field is called **horizontal**, meaning that all the vertical coefficients vanish, if * = 0.
*

A vector field is called **vertical**, meaning that all the horizontal coefficients vanish, if *ρ ^{i}* = 0.

For fixed *(x, u)*, we identify

having coordinates *(x, u, ρ ^{i}, φ^{α})*, with an element in the fiber

*T*of

_{xu}E*TE*over

*(x, u)*in

*E*, called

**a tangent vector in**. A section

*TE*is called **a vector field on E** with

and ψ in *Γ(TE)*.

The jet bundle *J ^{r}(π)* is coordinated by . For fixed

*(x, u, w)*, identify

having coordinates

with an element in the fiber of *TJ ^{r}(π)* over

*(x, u, w)*∈

*J*, called

^{r}(π)**a tangent vector in**. Here,

*TJ*^{r}(π)are real-valued functions on *J ^{r}(π)*. A section

is **a vector field on J^{r}(π)**, and we say

## Partial differential equations

Let *(E, π, M)* be a fiber bundle. An ** r-th order partial differential equation** on π is a closed embedded submanifold

*S*of the jet manifold

*J*. A solution is a local section σ ∈ Γ

^{r}(π)_{W}(π) satisfying , for all

*p*in

*M*.

Consider an example of a first order partial differential equation.

### Example

Let π be the trivial bundle (**R**^{2} × **R**, pr_{1}, **R**^{2}) with global coordinates (*x*^{1}, *x*^{2}, *u*^{1}). Then the map *F* : *J*^{1}(π) → **R** defined by

gives rise to the differential equation

which can be written

The particular

has first prolongation given by

and is a solution of this differential equation, because

and so for *every* *p* ∈ **R**^{2}.

## Jet prolongation

A local diffeomorphism *ψ* : *J ^{r}*(

*π*) →

*J*(

^{r}*π*) defines a contact transformation of order

*r*if it preserves the contact ideal, meaning that if θ is any contact form on

*J*(

^{r}*π*), then

*ψ*θ*is also a contact form.

The flow generated by a vector field *V ^{r}* on the jet space

*J*forms a one-parameter group of contact transformations if and only if the Lie derivative of any contact form θ preserves the contact ideal.

^{r}(π)Let us begin with the first order case. Consider a general vector field *V*^{1} on *J*^{1}(*π*), given by

We now apply to the basic contact forms and expand the exterior derivative of the functions in terms of their coordinates to obtain:

Therefore, *V ^{1}* determines a contact transformation if and only if the coefficients of

*dx*and in the formula vanish. The latter requirements imply the

^{i}**contact conditions**

The former requirements provide explicit formulae for the coefficients of the first derivative terms in *V ^{1}*:

where

denotes the zeroth order truncation of the total derivative *D _{i}*.

Thus, the contact conditions uniquely prescribe the prolongation of any point or contact vector field. That is, if satisfies these equations, *V ^{r}* is called the

**.**

*r*-th prolongation of*V*to a vector field on*J*^{r}(π)These results are best understood when applied to a particular example. Hence, let us examine the following.

### Example

Consider the case *(E, π, M)*, where *E* ≅ **R**^{2} and *M* ≃ **R**. Then, *(J ^{1}(π), π, E)* defines the first jet bundle, and may be coordinated by

*(x, u, u*, where

_{1})for all *p* ∈ *M* and *σ* in Γ_{p}(*π*). A contact form on *J ^{1}(π)* has the form

Consider a vector *V* on *E*, having the form

Then, the first prolongation of this vector field to *J ^{1}(π)* is

If we now take the Lie derivative of the contact form with respect to this prolonged vector field, we obtain

Hence, for preservation of the contact ideal, we require

And so the first prolongation of *V* to a vector field on *J ^{1}(π)* is

Let us also calculate the second prolongation of *V* to a vector field on *J ^{2}(π)*. We have as coordinates on

*J*. Hence, the prolonged vector has the form

^{2}(π)The contact forms are

To preserve the contact ideal, we require

Now, *θ* has no *u*_{2} dependency. Hence, from this equation we will pick up the formula for *ρ*, which will necessarily be the same result as we found for *V ^{1}*. Therefore, the problem is analogous to prolonging the vector field

*V*to

^{1}*J*

^{2}(π). That is to say, we may generate the

*r*-th prolongation of a vector field by recursively applying the Lie derivative of the contact forms with respect to the prolonged vector fields,

*r*times. So, we have

and so

Therefore, the Lie derivative of the second contact form with respect to *V ^{2}* is

Hence, for to preserve the contact ideal, we require

And so the second prolongation of *V* to a vector field on *J*^{2}(π) is

Note that the first prolongation of *V* can be recovered by omitting the second derivative terms in *V ^{2}*, or by projecting back to

*J*.

^{1}(π)## Infinite jet spaces

The inverse limit of the sequence of projections gives rise to the **infinite jet space** *J ^{∞}(π)*. A point is the equivalence class of sections of π that have the same

*k*-jet in

*p*as σ for all values of

*k*. The natural projection π

_{∞}maps into

*p*.

Just by thinking in terms of coordinates, *J ^{∞}(π)* appears to be an infinite-dimensional geometric object. In fact, the simplest way of introducing a differentiable structure on

*J*, not relying on differentiable charts, is given by the differential calculus over commutative algebras. Dual to the sequence of projections of manifolds is the sequence of injections of commutative algebras. Let's denote simply by . Take now the direct limit of the 's. It will be a commutative algebra, which can be assumed to be the smooth functions algebra over the geometric object

^{∞}(π)*J*. Observe that , being born as a direct limit, carries an additional structure: it is a filtered commutative algebra.

^{∞}(π)Roughly speaking, a concrete element will always belong to some , so it is a smooth function on the finite-dimensional manifold *J ^{k}*(π) in the usual sense.

### Infinitely prolonged PDEs

Given a *k*-th order system of PDEs *E* ⊆ *J ^{k}(π)*, the collection

*I(E)*of vanishing on

*E*smooth functions on

*J*is an ideal in the algebra , and hence in the direct limit too.

^{∞}(π)Enhance *I(E)* by adding all the possible compositions of total derivatives applied to all its elements. This way we get a new ideal *I* of which is now closed under the operation of taking total derivative. The submanifold *E*_{(∞)} of *J*^{∞}(π) cut out by *I* is called the **infinite prolongation** of *E*.

Geometrically, *E*_{(∞)} is the manifold of **formal solutions** of *E*. A point of *E*_{(∞)} can be easily seen to be represented by a section σ whose *k*-jet's graph is tangent to *E* at the point with arbitrarily high order of tangency.

Analytically, if *E* is given by φ = 0, a formal solution can be understood as the set of Taylor coefficients of a section σ in a point *p* that make vanish the Taylor series of at the point *p*.

Most importantly, the closure properties of *I* imply that *E*_{(∞)} is tangent to the **infinite-order contact structure** on *J ^{∞}(π)*, so that by restricting to

*E*

_{(∞)}one gets the diffiety , and can study the associated Vinogradov (C-spectral) sequence.

## Remark

This article has defined jets of local sections of a bundle, but it is possible to define jets of functions *f: M* → *N*, where *M* and *N* are manifolds; the jet of *f* then just corresponds to the jet of the section

*gr*→_{f}: M*M*×*N**gr*=_{f}(p)*(p, f(p))*

(*gr _{f}* is known as the

**graph of the function**) of the trivial bundle (

*f**M*×

*N*, π

_{1},

*M*). However, this restriction does not simplify the theory, as the global triviality of π does not imply the global triviality of π

_{1}.

## See also

## References

**^**Krupka, Demeter (2015).*Introduction to Global Variational Geometry*. Atlantis Press. ISBN 978-94-6239-073-7.**^**Vakil, Ravi (August 25, 1998). "A beginner's guide to jet bundles from the point of view of algebraic geometry" (PDF). Retrieved June 25, 2017.

## Further reading

- Ehresmann, C., "Introduction à la théorie des structures infinitésimales et des pseudo-groupes de Lie."
*Geometrie Differentielle,*Colloq. Inter. du Centre Nat. de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg, 1953, 97-127. - Kolář, I., Michor, P., Slovák, J.,
*Natural operations in differential geometry.*Springer-Verlag: Berlin Heidelberg, 1993. ISBN 3-540-56235-4, ISBN 0-387-56235-4. - Saunders, D. J., "The Geometry of Jet Bundles", Cambridge University Press, 1989, ISBN 0-521-36948-7
- Krasil'shchik, I. S., Vinogradov, A. M., [et al.], "Symmetries and conservation laws for differential equations of mathematical physics", Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 1999, ISBN 0-8218-0958-X.
- Olver, P. J., "Equivalence, Invariants and Symmetry", Cambridge University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-521-47811-1
- Giachetta, G., Mangiarotti, L., Sardanashvily, G., "Advanced Classical Field Theory", World Scientific, 2009, ISBN 978-981-283-895-7
- Sardanashvily, G., Advanced Differential Geometry for Theoreticians. Fiber bundles, jet manifolds and Lagrangian theory", Lambert Academic Publishing, 2013, ISBN 978-3-659-37815-7; arXiv:0908.1886