To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Jerome of Prague

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Engraving of Jerome of Prague by Johann Balzer
Engraving of Jerome of Prague by Johann Balzer

Jerome of Prague (Jeroným Pražský in Czech, 1379 in Prague, Kingdom of Bohemia in the Holy Roman Empire – 30 May 1416 in Konstanz, Bishopric of Constance in the Holy Roman Empire) was a Czech scholastic philosopher, theologian, reformer, and professor. Jerome was one of the chief followers of Jan Hus and was burned for heresy at the Council of Constance. He is often called Hieronymus the Latin form of his first name.[1]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    10 546
    8 554
  • ✪ Huss & Jerome - Bohemian Reformation | Episode 12 | Lineage
  • ✪ John Huss & Jerome of Prague by Bill Santos - Part 2
  • ✪ Trial of Huss & Jerome in Constance | Episode 13 | Lineage


The song says, 'It only takes a spark to set a whole fire going', and once the fire was lit in one part of Europe, it spread quickly to other areas. John Wycliffe had made a massive impact, not just in England but further afield in Europe, in particular here in Prague and the region that was known then as Bohemia. [music] John Huss was of humble birth and his father died soon after he was born. His mother sought an education for him and he was able to get admission to the University of Prague as a charity scholar. As she reached Prague with her son, she knelt down and prayed that God would bless his life, a prayer that was answered again and again. He soon distinguished himself by his tireless application to study and by his blameless life. Upon completing his studies he entered the priesthood and rapidly rose to prominence, soon becoming attached to the court of the king. In a few short years he was the pride of his country and his name was known all over Europe. Today they've built a statue to commemorate him here in the old town square. [music] Several years after becoming a priest, Huss was appointed preacher of the Bethlehem Chapel here in Prague. The founder of this particular chapel had advocated as a matter of importance the preaching of the scriptures in the language of the people. At that time there was a large degree of ignorance concerning the Bible, and Huss also believed that it was vitally important to preach the scriptures in the language of the people. [music] At this point in his life Huss came in contact with Jerome, who would prove to be his right-hand man until his death. Jerome was a citizen of Prague and he had brought back with him from a recent trip to England the writings of John Wycliffe. The Queen of England at that time was also a convert of John Wycliffe and she was of a Bohemian princess and through her influence his writings were circulated at length in Bohemia. Huss read them, believed their author to be a sincere Christian, and believed the writings to be true. [music] Huss's impact was growing, not just here in his homeland, but also in neighboring Germany. And soon news of the work here in Prague reached Rome and he was summoned to appear before the Pope. To go would be fatal. The king and queen of Bohemia, nobility, and the government all asked for a local trial but this was not granted. The trial of Huss went ahead in his absence, during which the city of Prague was put under interdict. This struck terror into the hearts of everyone. No church services could take place baptisms, funerals, weddings, those ceremonies that were so key to life in general were not allowed to take place, and through this means, Rome was able to hold sway over the people. The city was in turmoil, and so Huss withdrew to his native village but he continued to travel to the surrounding countryside where he was able to preach to eager crowds. When the danger and excitement had subsided, he was able to return to Prague where alongside with Jerome he was able to continue his work. [music] During this time in Europe there was not one, or two, but three rival Popes, all claiming to be the vicar of Christ. This abuse of power in the church was something that many men strongly condemned, Huss being one of the loudest voices. The Emperor at that time, Emperor Sigismund, called for a council in Constance Germany to settle this dispute once and for all and also to deal with some of the new heresies arising from men such as John Huss that they didn't agree with. Huss was summoned to appear before the council and was given assurance of a safe passage by the Emperor. One thing that stands out from this story is the prayer that John Huss' mum made with him as he was on the way to university. I want to encourage you, if you're praying for a child, if you're praying for a parent, to never give up in your prayers. The prayer of John Huss' mother was answered many many times over in ways that she couldn't have even imagined. Maybe you're praying for your children, may be they're on the way to school, maybe you're praying for a loved one. Keep them in prayer and never think that our prayers will go unanswered. God does hear and God does answer our prayers.


Early life

Jerome was born in Prague, Kingdom of Bohemia (now the Czech Republic) in 1379 and graduated from the Charles University of Prague in 1398. He later studied at Oxford University where he first became familiar with the reformist teachings of John Wycliffe.[2] He was a philosopher, theologian, university professor, and church reformer who dedicated his life to eradicate those church doctrines and dogmas he found to be corrupt. He was constantly in and out of jail.[3] His radical ideas eventually brought about his death by execution as a heretic to the church, but made him a martyr for the Protestant Reformation and followers of Jan Hus (known as Hussites).[citation needed]

He was well-educated and spent most of his life traveling, trying to incite religious reform in various cities. It was for his criticisms rather than heresy that he was martyred.[4]

Early life and education

Jerome spent time teaching at the universities of Paris, Cologne, and Heidelberg, but was accused of heresy at all these universities and forced to return to Bohemia.[5] He spent much of his life traveling about various universities, but frequently returned to Bohemia where he was virtually safe from any prosecution. He earned popular renown, as his rhetoric and oratory skills were acclaimed and often roused the public into demonstrations against the church, although they sometimes ended badly.[6] He secured, in 1399, permission to travel. In 1401 he returned to Prague, but in 1402 visited England, where, at Oxford University, he copied out the Dialogus and Trialogus of John Wycliffe, and thus evinced his interest in Lollardry. He became an ardent and outspoken advocate of realism and, thereafter, of Wyclifism; charges of which were constantly getting him into trouble. In 1403 he went to Jerusalem, in 1405 to Paris. There he took his master's degree, but Jean Gerson drove him out. In 1406 he took the same degree at the University of Cologne, and a little later at the University of Heidelberg.[citation needed]

He was no safer in Prague, where he returned and where, in 1407, he took the same degree. In that year he returned to Oxford, but was again compelled to flee. During 1408 and 1409 he was in Prague, and there his pronounced Czech preferences aroused opposition to him in some quarters. Early in January 1410, he made a cautious speech in favour of Wycliffe's philosophical views, and this was cited against him at the Council of Constance four years later. In March 1410, a Papal Bull against Wycliffe's writings was issued, and on the charge of favouring them, Jerome was imprisoned in Vienna, but managed to escape to Moravia. For this he was excommunicated by the bishop of Kraków. Returned to Prague, he appeared publicly as the advocate of Hus. Popular legend attributes to Jerome leadership of a protest in which papal bulls were first strung around the neck of a prostitute in a cart and then carried to the pillory in Prague to be publicly burned, but the leader was actually Wok of Waldstein.[7]

Middle life and teachings

Jerome tended to teach radical ideas pertaining to Roman Catholic doctrine, namely that God’s teachings were directly accessible to a Christian without need for the church or church officials. He taught that one should obey the direct teachings of Jesus, even when they conflicted with those of the Catholic Church. He was largely a follower of the ideologies of both church reformers John Wyclif and Jan Hus.[8] As his teachings were contrary to those of the Roman Catholic Church, he was constantly on the run from authorities. Hus, although much less disruptive in his approach, was a mentor for Jerome.[6]

Jerome incited public demonstrations in Paris, Vienna, Prague, and everywhere in between; most of these demonstrations took place in cities with universities where Jerome taught. Teaching at universities allowed Jerome to reach a broad audience. In Kraków, he was publicly examined as to his acceptance of the forty-five articles which the enemies of Wyclif had made up from Wyclif's writings and which they asserted represented Wyclif's heretical teachings. Jerome declared that he rejected them in their general tenor.[citation needed]

Trial and death

The burning of Jerome of Prague, John Foxe's Book of Martyrs (1563)
The burning of Jerome of Prague, John Foxe's Book of Martyrs (1563)

When, on 11 October 1414, Hus left for the Council of Constance, Jerome assured him that if needed, he would come to his assistance, contrary to the wishes of Hus. Hus was tricked into attending the Council of Constance by means of a letter promising immunity, and upon his arrival in the city he was arrested and imprisoned.[9] Jerome kept his promise, even though Hus and other friends of Jerome warned him not to come. On 4 April 1415, he arrived at Constance. Predictably, he created a stir in the town.[citation needed]

As he had, unlike Hus, come without a safe-conduct, Jerome's friends persuaded him to return to Bohemia. But on his way back he was arrested in Hirschau on 20 April and taken to Sulzbach, where he was imprisoned, and was returned to Constance on 23 May.[6] He was immediately arraigned before the council on the charge of fleeing a citation.[10]

His condemnation was predetermined in consequence of his general acceptance of the views of Wyclif and his open admiration for Hus. Consequently, he did not have a fair hearing. The conditions of his imprisonment were so horrid that he fell seriously ill and so was induced to recant at public sessions of the council held on 11 and 23 September 1415. The words put into his mouth on these occasions made him renounce both Wyclif and Hus. The same physical weakness made him write in Bohemian letters to the king of Bohemia and to the University of Prague, which were declared to be entirely voluntary and to state his own opinions, in which he announced that he had become convinced that Hus had been rightfully burned for heresy. (Hus had been burned at the stake while Jerome was imprisoned.) However, the Council of Constance kept him imprisoned as they doubted his sincerity and wanted a more incriminating confession.[6] On 23 May 1416, and on 26 May, he was put on trial by the Council. On the second day he withdrew his recantation, and on 30 May he was condemned and burned.[1] In this way, Jerome became the first official martyr for the Hussite reform cause.[11]


  1. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1908). "Council of Constance". Catholic Encyclopedia. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ "Jerome of Prague". Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2012.
  3. ^ Bernard, Paul P. "Jerome of Prague, Austria and the Hussites". Church History. 27.1 (1958), p. 7.
  4. ^ Housely, Norman (2000). Swanson, R.N., ed. "Holy Land or Holy Lands? Palestine and the Catholic West in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance". The Holy Land, Holy Lands, and Christian History. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Ecclesiastical History Society, Boydell Press: 239..
  5. ^ Neu Watkins, Renee (1958). "The Death of Jerome of Prague: Divergent Views". Speculum. 42 (1): 108.
  6. ^ a b c d Looser, Frieda (2008). "The Wanderer". Christian History. 68. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  7. ^ Lea, Henry C. (2004). A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages Part Two. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. p. 450. ISBN 0-7661-8894-9.
  8. ^ Bernard, Paul P. Jerome of Prague, Austria and the Hussites. Church History. 27.1 (1958): 3.
  9. ^ Spinka, Matthew (1968). "John Hus: A Biography". Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  10. ^
     Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed. (1914). "Jerome of Prague". New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (third ed.). London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls.
  11. ^ "Jerome of Prague" profile, Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition, ibid.

External links

This page was last edited on 9 January 2019, at 20:36
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.