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Jeremy Rifkin
Jeremy Rifkin, 2009 (cropped).jpg
Jeremy Rifkin in 2009
Born (1945-01-26) January 26, 1945 (age 74)
Denver, Colorado, U.S.
Alma materUniversity of Pennsylvania; Tufts University
RegionWestern philosophy
Main interests
Economy, political science, scientific and technological change

Jeremy Rifkin (born January 26, 1945) is an American economic and social theorist, writer, public speaker, political advisor, and activist. Rifkin is the author of 21 books about the impact of scientific and technological changes on the economy, the workforce, society, and the environment. His most recent books include, The Green New Deal (2019), The Zero Marginal Cost Society (2014), The Third Industrial Revolution (2011), The Empathic Civilization (2010), and The European Dream (2004).

Rifkin is the principal architect of the Third Industrial Revolution long-term economic sustainability plan to address the triple challenge of the global economic crisis, energy security, and climate change.[1] The Third Industrial Revolution (TIR) was formally endorsed by the European Parliament in 2007 and now is being implemented by various agencies within the European Commission.[2]

The Huffington Post reported from Beijing in October 2015 that "Chinese Premier Li Keqiang has not only read Jeremy Rifkin's book, The Third Industrial Revolution, but taken it to heart", he and his colleagues having incorporated ideas from this book into the core of the country's thirteenth Five-Year Plan.[3] According to EurActiv, "Jeremy Rifkin is an American economist and author whose best-selling Third Industrial Revolution arguably provided the blueprint for Germany's transition to a low-carbon economy, and China's strategic acceptance of climate policy."[4]

Rifkin has taught at the Wharton School executive education program at the University of Pennsylvania since 1995, where he instructs CEOs and senior management on making a transition of their business operations into sustainable economies. Rifkin is ranked #123 in the WorldPost / HuffingtonPost 2015 global survey of "The World's Most Influential Voices". He also is listed among the top ten most influential economic thinkers in the survey.[5] Rifkin has lectured before many Fortune 500 companies, and hundreds of governments, civil society organizations, and universities over the past thirty five years.[6]

Rifkin is also the president of the TIR Consulting Group, LLC,[7] in connection with a wide range of industries including renewable energy, power transmission, architecture, construction, information technology (IT), electronics, transport, and logistics. TIR's global economic development team is working with cities, regions, and national governments to develop the Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure for a collaborative commons and a third industrial revolution. Currently, TIR is working with the regions of Hauts-de-France in France,[8] the Metropolitan Region of Rotterdam and The Hague,[9] and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg[10] in the conceptualization, build-out, and scale-up of a smart third industrial revolution infrastructure to transform their economies.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Jeremy Rifkin on the Fall of Capitalism and the Internet of Things
  • ✪ EIF2018 08 A History of the Future – The World in 2025 Jeremy Rifkin
  • ✪ Jeremy Rifkin - The Empathic Civilisation
  • ✪ The Energy Internet Explained, with Jeremy Rifkin
  • ✪ UBC Connects with Jeremy Rifkin: The Third Industrial Revolution


We are just beginning to glimpse the bare outlines of an emerging new economic system, the collaborative commons. This is the first new economic paradigm to emerge on the world scene since the advent of capitalism and socialism in the early 19th century. So it's a remarkable historical event. It has long-term implications for society. But what's really interesting is the trigger that's giving birth to this new economic system. The trigger is something called zero marginal cost. Now, marginal costs are the costs of producing an additional unit of a good and service after your fixed costs are covered. Business people are all aware of marginal costs, most of the public isn't. But this idea of zero marginal cost is going to dramatically intimately affect every single person in the world in the coming years in every aspect of their life. There's a paradox deeply embedded in the very heart of the capitalist market system previously really undisclosed. This paradox has been responsible for the tremendous success of capitalism over the last two centuries. But here's the irony, the very success of this paradox is now leading to an end game and a new paradigm emerging out of capitalism is collaborative commons. Let me explain. In a traditional market, sellers are always constantly probing for new technologies that can increase their productivity, reduce their marginal costs so they can put out cheaper products and win over consumers and market share and beat out their competitors and bring some profit back to investors. So business people are always looking for ways to increase productivity and reduce their marginal cost, they simply never expected in their wildest dreams that there would be a technology revolution so powerful in it's productivity that it might reduce those margins of cost to near zero making goods and services essentially free, priceless and beyond the market exchange economy. That's now beginning to happen in the real world. The first inklings of this zero margin cost phenomenon was with the inception of the World Wide Web from 1990 until 2014. We saw this zero marginal cost phenomenon invade the newspaper industry, the magazine industry and book publishing. With the coming of the World Wide Web and the Internet all of a sudden millions of people, then hundreds of millions of people, and now 40 percent of the human race with very cheap cell phones and computers they're sending audio, video and texting each other at near zero marginal cost. So what's happened is millions of consumers became prosumers with the advent of the Internet. And so they're producing and sharing their own videos, their own news blogs, their own entertainment, their own knowledge with each other in these lateral networks at near zero marginal costs and essentially for free bypassing the capitalist market, in many instances altogether. This zero marginal cost phenomena, as it invaded the information industries, wreaked havoc on big, big industries. Newspapers went out of business; they couldn't compete with near zero marginal costs. Magazines went out of business. And my own industry publishing has been just wracked by free e-books and free knowledge and information. But, you know, the strange thing about it is at first a lot of industry watchers said this is a good thing because if we give out more and more information goods free and people are producing and sharing it free, these freemiums will stimulate people's appetite to want premiums and then upgrade this free goods and information by getting more customized information. I'll give you an example. Musicians give away their music free when they started to see this happen hoping that they would get a big loyal fan repertoire and then their fans would be enticed to go to their concerts and pay premium in order to be there in person. And then, of course, we saw this with newspapers. The New York Times will give you ten free articles a month, freemiums, hoping that you'll then upload upgrade to premiums and by their subscription service. It didn't happen on any large scale. This was very naïve by industry watchers. Sure, some people have moved from freemiums to premiums but when more and more information goods are out there nearly free shared with each other, music, film, arts, information and knowledge, attention span is not there to then want to go to the premiums when you have so much available already in the freemiums. So, economists have come back recently and said all right, we understand that information goods are moving towards near zero marginal cost devastating the newspaper industry, magazines, book publishing, et cetera, but there's a firewall here that this new year zero marginal cost phenomenon on the Internet it won't pass the firewall into the physical world of physical goods and services, the brick and mortar world; the world of energy and physical products. That's no longer the case. There's a new technology revolution coming online that's making it possible for millions and soon hundreds of millions and eventually billions of people to not only produce and share their own information goods but now energy and physical goods. And it's called the Internet of Things. This is the expansion of the Internet and it's all happening in the last 12 months. Now this is a pretty new phenomenon. What's going on here is the traditional Internet that we're all so familiar with is now converging with a very fledgling energy Internet and a nascent logistics and transport Internet. And as these three Internets come together they're creating a single operating platform, a nervous system, a sort of intelligent brain. And they're taking this brain and they're attaching sensors now across the entire value chain of the economy to feed into this three Internets, energy, communication and logistics. So right now we have 13 billion sensors out there connecting appliances and things with human beings. We have sensors connecting resource flows in nature. We have sensors at warehouse and distribution centers. We have sensors on the smart roves monitoring traffic. We have sensors on the factory floor constantly keeping up-to-date information on the flow of production in the factories. We have sensors in the front and back office, sensors in retail stores. We have sensors all across the system feeding big data back. What's interesting is 13 billion sensors now, IBM says in 2020 we'll have 30 billion sensors connecting everything with every being. And by 2030 the most recent forecast we'll have a hundred trillion sensors connecting all of us in one vast lateral neural network made up of three operating engines. A communication Internet converging with an energy and a logistics Internet. And let me say one more thing about these three engines. When you look back at every society, their economic platforms always contained three elements, a form of communication, a form of energy to power a society and a form of mobility to move economic activity. For example, in the 19th century the first Industrial Revolution their communication was steam power printing and later the telegraph to move economic activity. The form of energy was coal and steam power. The form of mobility was the locomotive and the railroads. And that platform allowed us to build out a first industrial revolution. In the 20th century we had these three as well, these components, communication, energy and mobility. The communication was centralized electricity and especially the telephone and later radio and television. The form of energy was oil, and the mobility was the internal combustion engine. And that platform then allowed us to have a great advance of economic opportunity in the 20th century with the second Industrial Revolution. This expanse of Internet, this Internet of Things brings us to a third Industrial Revolution. And the form of communication is the Internet. The form of power is renewable energy, distributed renewable energy. And the form of mobility is driverless automated vehicles, logistics and automated drones. So what we're seeing is just the first inklings of this new platform, these three Internets in one. And what this allows us to do is any consumer can become a prosumer just like we did with information goods on the old Internet, access this new Internet of Things and have available to us a complete stream of data from every part of the economy. That means you and I, small cooperatives, small businesses, large companies, if it keeps its network neutrality we all have equal access like we did with the Internet. So we can go up on this Internet of Things now and we can take that big data flowing through the system from the devices all the way to these three Internets and any of us with our own apps and our own mobile technology will be able to use the big data and combine it with analytics to create our own algorithms just like the big guys at Google. And it won't be rocket science because those apps will be programmed for us. So we can create our own apps with our mobile technology, using that big data to dramatically increase our productivity, reduce our marginal cost in the production of physical things like energy and 3-D printed products. That's already begun.



Youth and education

Rifkin was born in Denver, Colorado, to Vivette Ravel Rifkin, daughter of Russian Jewish immigrants to Texas,[11] and Milton Rifkin, a plastic-bag manufacturer. He grew up on the southwest side of Chicago. He was president of the graduating class of 1967 at the University of Pennsylvania, where he received a bachelor of science degree in economics at the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce. Rifkin was also the recipient of the University of Pennsylvania's General Alumni Association's Award of Merit 1967.[12]

He had an epiphany when one day in 1967 he walked past a group of students protesting the Vietnam War and picketing the administration building and was amazed to see, as he recalls, that "my frat friends were beating the living daylights out of them. I got very upset." He organized a freedom-of-speech rally the next day. From then on, Rifkin quickly became an active member of the peace movement. He attended the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (MA, International Affairs, 1968) where he continued anti-war activities. Later he joined Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA).


In 1973, Rifkin organized a mass protest against oil companies at the commemoration of the 200th Anniversary of the Boston Tea Party at Boston Harbor. Thousands joined the protest, as activists dumped empty oil barrels into Boston Harbor. The protest came in the wake of the increase in gasoline prices in the fall of 1973, following the OPEC oil embargo.[13] Later, this was called a "Boston Oil Party" by the press.[14]

In 1978, with Ted Howard, he founded the Foundation on Economic Trends (FOET), which is active in both national and international public policy issues related to the environment, the economy, and climate change. FOET examines new trends and their effects on the environment, the economy, culture, and society, and it engages in litigation, public education, coalition building, and grassroots organizing activities to advance their goals. Rifkin became one of the first major critics of the nascent biotechnology industry with the 1978 publication of his book, Who Should Play God?[15]


Rifkin's 1981 book, Entropy: A New World View, discusses how the physical concept of entropy applies to nuclear and solar energy, urban decay, military activity, education, agriculture, health, economics, and politics. It was called "A comprehensive worldview" and "an appropriate successor to... Silent Spring, The Closing Circle, The Limits to Growth, and Small Is Beautiful" by the Minneapolis Tribune.[16] Rifkin's work was heavily influenced by the ideas expressed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen in his 1971 book The Entropy Law and the Economic Process. In Rifkin's 1989 revised edition of Entropy:..., entitled Entropy: Into the Greenhouse World, its "afterword" was written by Georgescu-Roegen.[17]

In 1989, Rifkin brought together climate scientists and environmental activists from 35 nations in Washington, D.C. for the first meeting of the Global Greenhouse Network.[18] In the same year, Rifkin did a series of Hollywood lectures on global warming and related environmental issues for a diverse assortment of film, television, and music industry leaders,[clarification needed] with the goal of organizing the Hollywood community for a campaign. Shortly thereafter, two Hollywood environmental organizations, Earth Communications Office (ECO) and Environmental Media Association, were formed.[19]


In 1993, Rifkin launched the Beyond Beef Campaign, a coalition of six environmental groups including Greenpeace, Rainforest Action Network, and Public Citizen, with the goal of encouraging a 50% reduction in the consumption of beef, arguing that methane emissions from cattle has a warming effect 23 times greater than carbon dioxide.[20][21][22]

His 1995 book, The End of Work, is credited by some with helping shape the current global debate on automation, technology displacement, corporate downsizing, and the future of jobs. Reporting on the growing controversy over automation and technology displacement in 2011, The Economist pointed out that Rifkin drew attention to the trend back in 1996 with the publication of his book, The End of Work. Then The Economist asked "what happens... when machines are smart enough to become workers? In other words, when capital becomes labor." The Economist noted that "this is what Jeremy Rifkin, a social critic, was driving at in his book, "The End of Work," published in 1996... Mr. Rifkin argued prophetically that society was entering a new phase, one in which fewer and fewer workers would be needed to produce all the goods and services consumed. 'In the years ahead,' he wrote, 'more sophisticated software technologies are going to bring civilisation ever closer to a near-workerless world. The process has already begun."[23]

His 1998 book, The Biotech Century, addresses issues accompanying the new era of genetic commerce. In its review of the book, the journal Nature observed that "Rifkin does his best work in drawing attention to the growing inventory of real and potential dangers and the ethical conundrums raised by genetic technologies... At a time when scientific institutions are struggling with the public understanding of science, there is much they can learn from Rifkin's success as a public communicator of scientific and technological trends."[24]

In The Biotech Century, Rifkin argues that 'Genetic engineering represents the ultimate tool.' 'With genetic technology we assume control over the hereditary blueprints of life itself. Can any reasonable person believe for a moment that such unprecedented power is without substantial risk?'[25] Some of the changes he highlights are: replication partially replacing reproduction; and 'Genetically customized and mass-produced animal clones could be used as chemical factories to secrete—in their blood and milk—large volumes of inexpensive chemicals and drugs for human use.'[26]

Rifkin's work in the biological sciences includes advocacy of animal rights and animal protection around the world.[27][28]


Rifkin's book, The Age of Access, published in the year 2000, was the first to introduce the concept that society is beginning to move from ownership of property in markets, to access to services in networks, giving rise to the Sharing Economy. According to the Journal of Consumer Research, "the phenomenon of access was first documented in the popular business press by Rifkin (2000), who primarily examines the business-to-business sector and argues that we are living in an age of access in which property regimes have changed to access regimes characterized by short-term limited use of assets controlled by networks of suppliers."[29][30]

After the publication of The Hydrogen Economy (2002), Rifkin worked both in the U.S. and Europe to advance the political cause of renewably generated hydrogen. In the U.S., Rifkin was instrumental in founding the Green Hydrogen Coalition, consisting of thirteen environmental and political organizations (including Greenpeace and that are committed to building a renewable hydrogen-based economy.[31] His 2004 book, The European Dream, was an international bestseller and winner of the 2005 Corine International Book Prize in Germany for the best economics book of the year.[32][33]

2011 and 2012

In 2011, Rifkin published The Third Industrial Revolution; How Lateral Power is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World. The book was a New York Times best-seller,[34] and has been translated into 19 languages. By 2014, approximately 500,000 copies were in print in China alone.

Rifkin delivered a keynote address at the Global Green Summit 2012 on May 10, 2012. The conference was hosted by the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), in association with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). President Lee Myung-bak of South Korea also gave a speech at the conference and embraced the Third Industrial Revolution to advance a green economy.[35]

In December 2012, Bloomberg Businessweek reported that the newly-elected premier of China, Li Keqiang is a fan of Rifkin and had "told his state scholars to pay close attention" to Rifkin's book, The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World.[36]

Rifkin received the America Award of the Italy-USA Foundation in 2012.[37] He currently works out of an office in Bethesda, Maryland, a suburb of Washington, D.C.


In April 2014, Rifkin published The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism.[38][39]


Rifkin was awarded an honorary doctorate from Hasselt University in Belgium in the spring of 2015.[40] Rifkin also received an honorary doctorate from the University of Liege in Belgium in the Fall of 2015.[41]

In November 2015, the Huffington Post reported from Beijing that "Chinese Premier Li Keqiang has not only read Jeremy Rifkin's book, The Third Industrial Revolution, and taken it to heart. He and his colleagues have also made it the core of the country's thirteenth Five-Year Plan announced in Beijing on October 29th."[3] The Huffington Post went on to say that "this blueprint for China's future signals the most momentous shift in direction since the death of Mao and the advent of Deng Xiaoping's reform and opening up in 1978."[3]


On January 31, 2017, the European Central Bank hosted a conference on the theme “Into the Future: Europe’s Digital Integrated Market”. Rifkin delivered a keynote address on transforming the European Union into a smart third industrial revolution paradigm.[42] On February 7, 2017, the European Commission and the Committee of the European Regions hosted a conference in Brussels on the theme “Investing in Europe: building a coalition of smart cities and regions toward a Third Industrial Revolution”. Jeremy Rifkin joined Maros Sefcovic, vice president of the European Commission, and Markku Markkula, president of the European Committee of the Regions, in a presentation of the smart city and smart region agenda across the European Union.[43]


According to The "European Energy Review", "Perhaps no other author or thinker has had more influence on the EU's ambitious climate and energy policy than the famous American 'visionary' Jeremy Rifkin.[44] In the United States, he has testified before numerous congressional committees and has had success in litigation to ensure responsible government policies on a variety of environmental, scientific and technology related issues.[45] The Union of Concerned Scientists has cited some of Rifkin's publications as useful references for consumers[46] and The New York Times once stated that "others in the scholarly, religious, and political fields praise Jeremy Rifkin for a willingness to think big, raise controversial questions, and serve as a social and ethical prophet"[47]


Rifkin's work also has been controversial. Opponents have attacked the lack of scientific rigor in his claims as well as some of the tactics he has used to promote his views. The Harvard scientist, Stephen Jay Gould, characterized Rifkin's 1983 book, Algeny, as "a cleverly constructed tract of anti-intellectual propaganda masquerading as scholarship".[48]

A 1989 Time article about Rifkin's activist methods (entitled "The Most Hated Man in Science") details reactions by scientists, especially geneticists, of that decade.[49]




  1. ^ Belin, Hughes (July–August 2008). "The Rifkin vision" (PDF). European Energy Review: 40–46. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
  2. ^ Gurmai, Zita; et al. (May 14, 2007). "Written declaration on establishing a green hydrogen economy and a third industrial revolution in Europe through a partnership with committed regions and cities, SMEs and civil society organisations". European Parliament. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
  3. ^ a b c Editor-in-chief, Nathan Gardels (November 5, 2015). "China's New Five-Year Plan Embraces the Third Industrial Revolution".CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
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  5. ^ "Rangliste Global 2015 — Thought Leaders".
  6. ^ "Highlights 2012". Retrieved April 4, 2013.
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  8. ^ "Jeremy Rifkin - rev3 - la 3ème révolution industrielle".
  9. ^ "Rotterdam en Den Haag huren goeroe in voor 775.000 euro".
  10. ^ "Jeremy Rifkin to draw up strategy: Luxembourg becomes living lab for testing sustainable solutions". September 25, 2015.
  11. ^ "Vivette R. Rifkin: 1911 – 2007". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. August 15, 2007.
  12. ^ "The University of Pennsylvania Student Award of Merit". Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
  13. ^ Trillin, Calvin (January 21, 1974). "U.S. Journal: Boston Parallels". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
  15. ^ Rifkin, Jeremy (1977). Who Should Play God? The Artificial Creation of Life and What it Means for the Future of the Human Race (with Ted Howard). New York, NY: Delacorte Press. ISBN 978-0-440-19504-7.
  16. ^ "Jeremy Rifkin | The Foundation on Economic Trends | Books". Retrieved February 10, 2012.
  17. ^ Rifkin, Jeremy; Howard, Ted (1989). Entropy: Into the Greenhouse World. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0553347173. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
  18. ^ "The Global Greenhouse Network – C-SPAN Video Library". October 10, 1988. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
  19. ^ Brownstein, Ronald (January–February 1991). "Hollywood Hardball". Mother Jones. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
  20. ^ Takahashi, Young, Takahashi, Bruce, A. (2002). Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 372. ISBN 978-0-444-51012-9.
  21. ^ Burros, Marian (August 12, 1993). "Agriculture Dept. Unveils Cooking Labels for Meat". New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
  22. ^ United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Summary for Policy Makers: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. p. 3
  23. ^ V, N (November 4, 2011). "Difference Engine: Luddite legacy". The Economist. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
  24. ^ Krimsky, Sheldon (May 7, 1998). "All Aboard The Biotech Express". Nature. 393 (6680): 31–32. doi:10.1038/29911.
  25. ^ Rifkin, Jeremy, The Biotech Century: the coming age of Genetic Commerce (London, 1998), p. 36.
  26. ^ Rifkin, Jeremy, The Biotech Century: the coming age of Genetic Commerce (London, 1998), p. 2
  27. ^ Rifkin, Jeremy, “Man and Other Animals: Our Fellow Creatures Have Feelings – So We Should Give Them Rights Too,” in The Guardian (16 August 2003).
  28. ^ Rifkin, Jeremy, Video for the Stop Vivisection campaign (10 July 2013). Transcription: “Opinion Piece on Stop Vivisection - Moving Beyond Animal Experimentation Across the European Union,” in
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  31. ^ "Public Citizen Climate and Energy". December 3, 2010. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
  32. ^ "Books: European Dream". Retrieved April 5, 2013.
  33. ^ "The Winners". Corine Internationaler Buchpreis. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
  34. ^ Schuessler, Jennifer. "Best Sellers – October 23, 2011". The New York Times. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
  35. ^ Hyun-kyung, Kang (May 10, 2012). "Lee Pledges Green Growth Cluster". The Korea Times. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
  36. ^ Bloomberg News (December 24, 2012). "China's New Leaders Burnish Image by Revealing Personal Details". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on June 2, 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
  37. ^ "America Prize – 2012 Edition". Fondazione Italia USA. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
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  44. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 2, 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  45. ^ Naik, Paul (Spring 2000). "Biotechnology Through the Eyes of an Opponent". Virginia Journal of Law and Technology Association. Archived from the original on March 12, 2011. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
  46. ^ "The Consumer's Guide to Effective Environmental Choices" (PDF). Union of Concerned Scientists. 1999. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 11, 2011. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
  47. ^ "AN ACTIVIST TAKES ON GENETIC ENGINEERING". The New York Times. April 11, 1984.
  48. ^ S.J. Gould, "Integrity and Mr. Rifkin", Discover Magazine, January 1985; reprinted in Gould's essay collection An Urchin in the Storm, 1987, Penguin Books, p. 230
  49. ^ Thompson, Dick (December 4, 1989). "The Most Hated Man in Science: To some 'The Abominable No Man,' Gadfly Jeremy Rifkin Warns of the Dangers of Uncontrolled Experiments with New Technologies". Archived from the original on December 20, 2007. Retrieved July 8, 2014.

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