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Jeffrey Scott Flier

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jeffrey Scott Flier
21st Dean of the Harvard Medical School
In office
September 1, 2007 – July 31, 2016
Personal details
Born (1948-02-27) February 27, 1948 (age 70)
New York, New York
Spouse(s) Eleftheria Maratos-Flier
Children Sarah Flier and Lydia Flier
Website Dean of the Faculty of Medicine

Jeffrey Scott Flier (born February 27, 1948) is an American physician, endocrinologist, researcher, and the 21st Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at Harvard University.[1]

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Transcription

OK. Thank you, Pratt. I am so delighted to be your commencement speaker today. But I really don't want you to think I'm totally new to this kind of thing. 44 years ago, almost to the day, in 1972, my parents and younger brother drove from the Pelham Parkway neighborhood in the Bronx to the new Mount Sinai Medical School across from Central Park to watch me graduate in Mount Sinai's first graduating class. They saw me deliver the student speech that day, and they knew that I had helped to select the commencement speaker. I admit I made a few mistakes that day. Took me a few years to figure it out. The people who gathered there really wanted to celebrate, but I led off with a fiery political speech. I blasted everything I saw wrong with health care and politics. And believe me, there was plenty wrong. Hey, it was the '70s-- just finished the '60s, began the '70s. And what a platform I had. But very few there actually wanted to hear my views on these various subjects that I addressed. Then came a commencement speaker, a prominent psychiatrist, with strong and what I thought were appropriately provocative views on various subjects. So what were those views? He felt that using medicine then available to treat the mentally ill was generally a huge mistake. He believed the mentally ill-- a term that he really didn't like at all, wrote a book saying that he didn't like it-- had a right to be left alone. And he called for emptying psychiatric hospitals and wards as fast as possible and the ending of involuntary commitment of patients. And I had sympathy for those views at the time. As he spoke, the department of psychiatry professors looked to me like they were going into mass cardiac arrest. The longer he talked, the more they glared at me, knowing that I had played some role in selecting him. But don't worry, class of 2016, I will not repeat the error I made in 1972 by delivering a politically-charged speech today, though I did certainly consider it until a few days ago. This is a moment for you to celebrate, for you and for me to celebrate. Not only are all of you graduating, but this class of 2016 is truly impressive. I could single out each one of you for something exciting that you have done while you've been here, but let me just give you a few examples. We have a student who, in addition to being a Rhodes Scholar, used his passion and skills in health care policy to create Be Jersey Strong, a program helping uninsured individuals in his home state to sign up for available insurance. [APPLAUSE AND CHEERING] And that student is Aakash Shah. If you would please stand and take a bow. [APPLAUSE AND CHEERING] We have another student who worked with others at HMS and elsewhere to develop a prototype for something called SurgiBox, a way to deliver safe, affordable, transportable, and sterile surgical equipment. It won the grand prize in this year's Harvard's Innovation Lab President's Challenge. And that is Debbie Teodorescue. Please stand. [APPLAUSE AND CHEERING] We have a student who worked tirelessly with students, faculty, and staff to create a welcoming environment for LGBT students, patients, and staff throughout HMS, and that is Cary Crall. [APPLAUSE AND CHEERING] We have a student who joined with others to found the first student-faculty collaborative pediatric clinic in the nation at MGH Revere, and that is Amy O'Brien. [APPLAUSE AND CHEERING] Now, there's obviously so much more I could say about each student in this remarkable class, so let's together applaud all 164 of our HMS graduates today. [APPLAUSE] And let's together recognize the people here whose work, sacrifice, and love made these achievements possible. Let's have a standing ovation for your parents, family, friends, partners, and significant others. [APPLAUSE] I'm also proud to share with you that I'm the father of a newly-minted HMS graduate, Lydia Flier. [APPLAUSE AND CHEERING] So today is especially meaningful for me and for my wife, daughter, and brother who are all on the HMS faculty and are here today. So let's applaud all the faculty, staff, and other mentors who have supported and encouraged all of your endeavors. [APPLAUSE] Today we celebrate this day, our great school, and all of you. Yes, there are distinguished students at medical schools all over this country celebrating too. But we can be excused today for thinking that this school, this place, is unique. In fact, there are times each day when I'm racing to a meeting when I pass students, and I wish I could stop and talk. I'd like to know you all for the wonderful, complex people you are, with hopes and dreams and occasional complaints, though having a daughter here ensures that I do hear many of those. But there hasn't been time. And I've rarely had the time or the opportunity to speak with you and get to know you or to tell you about myself. Today I get a few minutes to share something of my hopes and dreams with you. Yes, people your parents' age do actually still have hopes and dreams. But while you're listening, it's OK to let your thoughts drift a bit. You might think about what's happened in your lives since the day you set foot in Boston or at HMS. You might be thinking about what's ahead, what will change in your career, and in this profession. This is not just a day to celebrate. It's also a day of transition. We are all facing them. Many of you will leave here hopeful and perhaps a bit worried. Have I chosen the right specialty? Have I chosen the right residency? Should we put off the wedding until next year? You aren't the only ones in transition. Your parents may go home feeling a little lost, for perhaps the first time in 26 or more years their child is no longer a student. And yes, our profession is in a time of transition. Over the course of history, HMS has made mistakes, and the transitions that sought to correct them were profoundly important. Just reflect on the arguments being made well into the 20th century about how wrong it would be to allow women to study here, or Jews, or blacks, and then celebrate the diversity of our school today. But our profession has much more work to do on that subject and many others. So last month, I read two articles with disturbing headlines, and you may have seen them as well. The first one, "Medical Errors-- A Leading Cause of Death." So trained doctors, even in our hospitals, still sometimes operate on the wrong leg or other body part. Though much progress has been made, we have failed to sufficiently reduce medical errors within our hospitals and in our practices. We know this needs to be fixed. Some of the brightest minds at HMS and elsewhere are dedicating their careers to addressing this problem, but we haven't yet fixed it. Here's the second headline. "Study-- One in Three Antibiotic Prescriptions Unneeded." So it's hard to overstate the value of antibiotics. Everyone knows about that. And that's why it's so frustrating to read that physicians gave out millions of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions last year, some estimate one-third of all such prescriptions. That's not just a waste of money. These prescriptions promote antibiotic resistance, an increasingly critical therapeutic challenge. And by the way, the way physicians prescribe opiates, most often with the appropriate intent to reduce pain, which we all seek to do, happens to contribute today to the epidemic of opiate overdose deaths. Now, we're always transitioning between the imperfections of today, as illustrated by these examples and many others that I could give, and the better care we seek in our future. And it gives me comfort to realize that many of you under this tent will play a key role in making that happen. But while you can see some transitions that are ahead, you cannot imagine them all. Now, when my parents watched me walk across the stage in 1972, they thought they knew what lay ahead for me. I would be a doctor, of course. And after further training, I'd open a practice in the Bronx to deliver care, or if I was really successful, maybe in Manhattan. But I didn't do what they or I imagined at that time. Many of you won't do what your parents or you today imagine either, for this is a time of change for everyone. My life was forever altered when, as a young trainee in endocrinology, I made a discovery that taught me that generating change through discovery was not a fantasy. It also taught me that I had more skill in that domain than I had previously known. Excited by my one discovery in 1975, I chose research as the core of my career, and it took me in directions that I never imagined on the day I graduated from medical school. Now, one reason you, too, can go in so many different directions is the career that you have chosen. The simple act of taking your graduation oath today offers you many exciting paths to explore. Now, I realize some of you already had a path in mind before you set foot on this campus. And you will follow that path doggedly, brilliantly, and the day you retire, you'll look back with pride on an amazing career. Some of you want to change the lives of millions, like our extraordinary colleague and teacher Paul Farmer. But changing the world doesn't require becoming Paul Farmer, as Paul himself will tell you if you ask him. To diagnose or treat one patient changes the world for that person. Those of you sitting here today will change the world as caregivers, as researchers, as policy wonks, and as leaders. Some of you, I can promise you, will change careers three, four, or five times in the decades ahead. And some of you will end up excelling and becoming the leaders in areas that simply don't exist today. Some of you may provide the answer to the age-old question, what does the spleen do? [LAUGHTER] That's the recurring theme for this day, I think. So I'm 68 years old, and I also see myself in transition. I've been a researcher, a physician, a dean. Now, in addition to research and education, I want to deepen my focus on public policy. I'd like to reconnect this to the passion of my 1972 graduation speech. But this time, I think I know a lot more than I did then. I face this transition both exhilarated and anxious about the future, not much different than many of you. There's so much to be done to improve our profession, and thereby human health. Through much of human history, physicians, what they did was ineffective or harmful. For centuries, doctors believed leeches could balance the humors. Battlefield surgeons wiped knives on their boots before the next amputation. And when I was a resident, we thought patients with heart attacks needed weeks of bed rest. But we were certainly wrong. Now we know they get better faster if they're out of bed walking on the next day. But the arc of medical progress will move forward and, quite clearly, at an accelerating pace. And the opportunities that you will have in your careers are truly thrilling. You're entering a world where technology and new knowledge will make it possible to know more about a patient or a population than ever before. And as we learn more about the precise causes of disease, your ability to diagnose, prevent, and treat them with precision will increase dramatically. New imaging modalities, remote-sensing data on your patients, population-level bioinformatics, this will tell you more than we could have imagined decades past. And I'm not just talking about the future. There are hundreds of stories of change from discovery and innovation at HMS during your years and sometimes by you. I'll just talk about two that have been especially impressive to me and that make me especially proud. One involves the very first faculty member we hired in our basic science departments after I became dean. The Genetics Department, a world-famous Department of Genetics, wanted to hire an assistant professor. I agreed. But I said, here's the deal. It has to be someone who has an interest in human genetics rather than genetics of model organisms, like the fly or the worm, which give us profound insights. But there was a thought that, at that juncture, perhaps someone interested in human genetics would be a good idea. Not everyone agreed. We should pick the best possible scientist, people said, regardless what they work on. So we compromised. There was really a brilliant compromise. We hired the best possible scientist, and he also happened to be working on human genetic disorders. And that person is Steve McCarroll. Some of you may be familiar with his groundbreaking work. It's deeply innovative. It's already sparking change. Still, that's not what excites me most about Steve's contribution. For that you'll have to wait a couple of minutes. Meanwhile, I'll tell another story about something we too rarely associate with innovation, and that's primary care. I don't need to tell the students here about the primary care crisis in this country. I may need to fill in some of the parents. Primary care docs are like what my parents thought I would be. They're the first doctors to see someone with a new problem, and they provide comprehensive and longitudinal care. But I'll tell you the truth, when I became dean, having been a physician-scientist, primary care was not on my radar. Soon after, a group of wonderful activist students with a passionate interest in primary care persuaded me that I was wrong. So I did my homework. I found this. First, good primary care improves health while lowering health care costs. That's a good combination. Second, in the US we provide less funding for primary care physician time than we do for more specialized disciplines. And that's really an historical accident more than anything else. Third, because we didn't stress primary care, lots of students here believed we didn't respect the choice of primary care careers. So what could I do? Any money that I might put towards a new program in primary care meant, at that point, taking money away from other worthy efforts, and that was difficult. Well, sometimes things happen and you say, yes, there is a god. As we were wrestling with this problem, I received a phone call from a person I had previously met. He had heard about our dilemma. And here's the short version of the conversation, but it's pretty close to what the actual conversation was. I'd like to fund your center, he said. I said something about how this would be rather expensive. And he said, send me a proposal. If it's really good, I'll fund it up to $30 million over the next five years. Now, when I climbed back onto my chair, he said, there's another stipulation. I'd like my gift to be anonymous. So as much as I'd like to, I can't tell you today the name of the generous and compassionate and idealistic person who made that gift. But the measure of what he did is that, since 2011, we've had a center that trains excited students how to give better care one patient at a time, trains them how to create primary care partnerships with other health professionals and organizations, and influences other schools to create centers like this because Harvard Medical School has done it. Now, there's still much work to be done before we fix the problems in primary care in this country, including finding better ways for HMS to involve the field of family medicine, which I know many students would like us to do. But now HMS is fully engaged in this area. But what's the broader significance of this story? Well, first, to quote John Lennon-- people in my generation knew who that was-- "Life is what happens when you're making other plans." I didn't have any idea when I started as dean that I would play any role in the creation of a primary care center. But I'm as proud of that as anything that's happened during my nine years as dean. But there's a second lesson. It's that Harvard hasn't educated you by itself. Your education does require partnerships-- a partnership between you and your family sitting in the back, the faculty sitting in the front, the agencies which fund so much of our research, and yes, the benefactors who support our greatest goals, like the anonymous individual who didn't even want his name to be known. Now, whatever path you take, you will succeed, at least in part through partnership. And speaking of partnerships, let me return to Steve McCarroll, who I'm going to ask to stand and take a bow over here. Steve. [APPLAUSE] Thank you. [APPLAUSE] So in one of his lines of work, Steve was trying to solve a mystery-- the genetic basis for schizophrenia, a disease that affects about 24 million people around the world with devastating effects. We know too little about the biology of schizophrenia to map out fully effective treatments. Dr. McCarroll led a large, worldwide team to identify the responsible genes. They found an area of the genome that seemed especially important. But what was the identity and the function of the schizophrenia-associated genes residing in that small area of the genome? They could not figure it out, at least for a while. On New Year's Eve back in 2013, Steve was heading to a New Year's Eve party. His cell phone rang. It was an email from an HMS student who was working in his lab. Steve opened it, and the student, working alone on New Year's Eve, had attached a graph so simple that you might not have thought it was important. But as soon as Steve looked at it, as he was quoted as saying in a recent New Yorker article about this discovery, "It was immediately clear he had solved the genetic mystery." That MD-PhD student became the first author on a truly groundbreaking paper involving collaborations with additional faculty at the Harvard Medical System describing a new theory for the origins of schizophrenia. And I think this will be a durable theory. I'm so proud to tell you that that student is graduating today. Aswin Sekar, please stand and take a bow. [APPLAUSE AND CHEERING] Aswin, by asking you to stand, we recognize, of course, your exceptional achievement, but also what you symbolize-- the insight, the intellect, and the drive of the entire class of 2016. So to the class of 2016, let me say this. You approach the future with a truly rare privilege. As physicians, you will enrich the lives of others. Sometimes you will give them the gift of life, and you will do that in many different ways. You'll demonstrate the gift of empathy and warmth that gives patients hope when they have none. You'll show your talent for caring for patients in one or more clinical disciplines. You'll make discoveries in basic, translational, and population science. And you'll leave the comfort of home to serve families halfway across the world, where health also means access to water and mosquito netting. You will shine within organizations whose critical work we know by their initials-- the NIH, CDC, FDA. You will lead hospitals and medical schools. Maybe one of you will lead this medical school. And some of you, quite remarkably, will do all of those things over a career. And as I contemplate with you these very future roles, I'm reminded of the passion for justice that motivated my graduation speech in 1972. And so as you leave to pursue your chosen paths, I do implore you to remain true to the deepest values that drove your decision to enter this profession. So much remains to be done. We will need your brilliance and your passion to endure through careers during which your perseverance and your dedication will repeatedly be challenged. So 44 years ago, when I delivered an excessively political graduation speech, I didn't really know what lay ahead. But I knew, if still incompletely, that I had earned one of the world's great gifts-- a degree in medicine. Class of 2016, as you make your transitions and journeys armed with that degree, you will have been shaped by the path that four or more years ago led you to this wonderful campus. And as you march forward, I hope there will be moments when you remember to look back. Life, after all, should involve the memory of your triumphs, and this is one of those. Remember this day. Remember sitting under this tent when the future stretched out before you, when your teachers applauded because they knew of your great work and your truly unlimited potential, when your classmates hugged good-bye, vowing you would be together again, when your families, filled with pride and love, celebrated what you had done and what you will do. Congratulations. [APPLAUSE]

Contents

Early life and career

Flier was born in New York City, and grew up in the Pelham Parkway section of the Bronx. He is the son of Milton R. Flier, a World War II C-47 pilot and businessperson, and Dorothy Flier, who taught junior high school mathematics. He graduated in 1964 from the Bronx High School of Science, and 1968 from the City College of New York. He was in the first entering class of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in 1968, and graduated in 1972 with the Elster Prize for highest academic standing.[1] After two years of internal medicine residency at Mount Sinai Hospital, he spent four years in the Public Health Service as a clinical associate at the National Institutes of Health, completing training in endocrinology and launching a research career. He moved to Boston in 1978, becoming an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, and chief of the Diabetes Unit at Harvard-affiliated Beth Israel Hospital. He subsequently became chief of the hospital's Endocrinology Division, vice chair for research of the Department of Medicine, and eventually the hospital's chief academic officer in 2002, overseeing research and educational affairs. At HMS, he became the George C. Reisman Professor of Medicine, and Harvard faculty dean for Academic Affairs at what became the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.[2]

Appointment as Dean of Harvard's Faculty of Medicine

Flier was appointed dean of the Faculty of Medicine and the Caroline Shields Walker professor of medicine at Harvard in July 2007 by President Drew Faust and assumed the position on September 1, 2007.[2] During his first year as dean, he led an extensive strategic planning process, releasing a report in October 2008.[3] Harvard University and Harvard Medical School suffered financial losses when markets fell in 2008-9. This slowed but did not stop investments in several areas.[4] Notably Flier penned an op-ed as Dean of Harvard Medical School opposing expansion of health insurance in the United States.[5] His term as dean of Harvard Medical School ended in 2016 after nine years.[6]

Research contributions

Flier has contributed to many areas in metabolism research over 35 years at NIH and Harvard. While at the Diabetes Branch of NIH, under the mentorship of Jesse Roth, MD, FACP, Philip Gorden, MD, and C. Ronald Kahn, MD, he discovered the existence of autoantibodies to the insulin receptor as a cause of severe insulin resistance.[7] This discovery elucidated a rare cause of diabetes,[8] advanced the field of membrane receptor biology and provided an important tool for research on insulin action. [9] Flier also played a major role in defining genetic causes of insulin resistance by identifying and characterizing mutations in the insulin receptor gene in a subset of patients with severe insulin resistance.[10][11] Much of his research has addressed the pathophysiology of obesity.[12][13][14] Among his work has been the discovery with Bruce Spiegelman, PhD, of altered production of adipocyte secreted factors in obesity;[15] investigations into the function of brown adipose tissue through creation of a brown fat deficient transgenic mouse;[16] elucidation of the role of the neuropeptide MCH in energy balance by making an MCH knockout mouse (with his wife, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier, MD);[17] identification of the capacity of adult hypothalamic neurogenesis to occur and influence energy balance;[18] and work with Maratos-Flier to define the role of FGF21 in metabolic regulation.[19] His most extensive work has related to the biology and pathophysiology of leptin. His lab has defined the role of leptin as a key molecule in the physiology of starvation,[20] and has provided evidence for the molecular mechanism of leptin resistance that characterizes and contributes to obesity.[21]

Personal life

Flier is married to Eleftheria Maratos-Flier. She is an endocrinologist and Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School,[22] and the two have collaborated in several areas of research.[17][12][14] They have two daughters. Sarah Flier, MD, is a gastroenterologist at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and an instructor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School.[23] Lydia Flier is a third year student at Harvard Medical School. His brother Steven Flier, MD, is a Harvard-affiliated internist practicing in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts.[24]

Honors/affiliations/awards

  • Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science [1]
  • American Academy of Arts and Sciences [1]
  • American Society for Clinical Investigation [2]
  • Association of American Physicians [2]
  • Eli Lilly Award, American Diabetes Association [1]
  • Banting Medal, American Diabetes Association [1]
  • Solomon Berson Lecture, American Physiological Society [1]
  • Albert Renold Award, American Diabetes Association [25]
  • Astwood Lecture, Endocrine Society [1]
  • Honorary Doctor of Science, University of Athens [1]
  • Doctor of Science, Honoris Causa, University of Edinburgh [26]
  • Advisory Council, National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH [27]

Selected works

Biomedical Research
  • Flier, J.; Kahn, C.; Roth, J; Bar, R. (1975). "Antibodies that impair insulin receptor binding in an unusual diabetic syndrome with severe insulin resistance". Science. 190 (4209): 63–5. doi:10.1126/science.170678. PMID 170678. 
  • Kahn, C. Ronald; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Bar, Robert S.; Archer, Juanita A.; Gorden, Phillip; Martin, Malcolm M.; Roth, Jesse (1976). "The Syndromes of Insulin Resistance and Acanthosis Nigricans". New England Journal of Medicine. 294 (14): 739–745. doi:10.1056/NEJM197604012941401. PMID 176581. 
  • Kahn, C. Ronald; Baird, Kathleen L.; Jarrett, David B.; Flier, Jeffrey S. (1978). "Direct demonstration that receptor crosslinking or aggregation is important in insulin action". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 75 (9): 4209–13. doi:10.1073/pnas.75.9.4209. PMC 336081Freely accessible. PMID 279910. 
  • Flier, Jeffrey S.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Pallotta, Johanna A.; McIsaac, Donald (1979). "Endogenous digitalis-like activity in the plasma of the toad Bufo marinus". Nature. 279 (5711): 341–3. doi:10.1038/279341a0. PMID 221828. 
  • Harrison, L.; Flier, J; Itin, A; Kahn, C.; Roth, J (1979). "Radioimmunoassay of the insulin receptor: a new probe of receptor structure and function". Science. 203 (4380): 544–7. doi:10.1126/science.83675. PMID 83675. 
  • Flier, J.; Cook, K.; Usher, P; Spiegelman, B. (1987). "Severely impaired adipsin expression in genetic and acquired obesity". Science. 237 (4813): 405–8. doi:10.1126/science.3299706. PMID 3299706. 
  • Moller, David E.; Flier, Jeffrey S. (1988). "Detection of an Alteration in the Insulin-Receptor Gene in a Patient with Insulin Resistance, Acanthosis Nigricans, and the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (Type A Insulin Resistance)". New England Journal of Medicine. 319 (23): 1526–9. doi:10.1056/NEJM198812083192306. PMID 2460770. 
  • Moller, D. E.; Yokota, A.; Ginsberg-Fellner, F.; Flier, J. S. (1990). "Functional Properties of a Naturally Occurring Trp1200 -> Ser1200 Mutation of the Insulin Receptor". Molecular Endocrinology. 4 (8): 1183–91. doi:10.1210/mend-4-8-1183. PMID 1963473. 
  • Epstein, Franklin H.; Moller, David E.; Flier, Jeffrey S. (1991). "Insulin Resistance — Mechanisms, Syndromes, and Implications". New England Journal of Medicine. 325 (13): 935–48. doi:10.1056/NEJM199109263251307. 
  • Flier, JS (1992). "Lilly Lecture: syndromes of insulin resistance. From patient to gene and back again". Diabetes. 41 (9): 1207–19. doi:10.2337/diabetes.41.9.1207. PMID 1499871. 
  • Lowell, Bradford B.; S-Susulic, Vedrana; Hamann, Andreas; Lawitts, Joel A.; Himms-Hagen, Jean; Boyer, Bert B.; Kozak, Leslie P.; Flier, Jeffrey S. (1993). "Development of obesity in transgenic mice after genetic ablation of brown adipose tissue". Nature. 366 (6457): 740–2. doi:10.1038/366740a0. PMID 8264795. 
  • Frederich, Robert C.; Hamann, Andreas; Anderson, Stephen; Löllmann, Bettina; Lowell, Bradford B.; Flier, Jeffrey S. (1995). "Leptin levels reflect body lipid content in mice: Evidence for diet-induced resistance to leptin action". Nature Medicine. 1 (12): 1311–4. doi:10.1038/nm1295-1311. PMID 7489415. 
  • Flier, JS (1995). "The adipocyte: storage depot or node on the energy information superhighway?". Cell. 80 (1): 15–8. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90445-X. PMID 7813011. 
  • Ahima, Rexford S.; Prabakaran, Daniel; Mantzoros, Christos; Qu, Daqing; Lowell, Bradford; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Flier, Jeffrey S. (1996). "Role of leptin in the neuroendocrine response to fasting". Nature. 382 (6588): 250–2. doi:10.1038/382250a0. PMID 8717038. 
  • Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Shimada, Masako; Tritos, Nicholas A.; Lowell, Bradford B.; Flier, Jeffrey S. (1998). "Mice lacking melanin-concentrating hormone are hypophagic and lean". Nature. 396 (6712): 670–4. doi:10.1038/25341. PMID 9872314. 
  • Bjorbak, C; Elmquist, JK; Frantz, JD; Shoelson, SE; Flier, JS (1998). "Identification of SOCS-3 as a Potential Mediator of Central Leptin Resistance". Molecular Cell. 1 (4): 619–25. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80062-3. PMID 9660946. 
  • El-Haschimi, Karim; Pierroz, Dominique D.; Hileman, Stanley M.; Bjørbæk, Christian; Flier, Jeffrey S. (2000). "Two defects contribute to hypothalamic leptin resistance in mice with diet-induced obesity". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 105 (12): 1827–32. doi:10.1172/JCI9842. PMC 378516Freely accessible. PMID 10862798. 
  • Masuzaki, H.; Paterson, J; Shinyama, H; Morton, NM; Mullins, JJ; Seckl, JR; Flier, JS (2001). "A Transgenic Model of Visceral Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome". Science. 294 (5549): 2166–70. doi:10.1126/science.1066285. PMID 11739957. 
  • Howard, Jane K; Cave, Belinda J; Oksanen, Laura J; Tzameli, Iphigenia; Bjørbæk, Christian; Flier, Jeffrey S (2004). "Enhanced leptin sensitivity and attenuation of diet-induced obesity in mice with haploinsufficiency of Socs3". Nature Medicine. 10 (7): 734–8. doi:10.1038/nm1072. PMID 15220914. 
  • Flier, JS (2004). "Obesity wars: molecular progress confronts an expanding epidemic". Cell. 116 (2): 337–50. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)01081-X. PMID 14744442. 
  • Kokoeva, M. V.; Yin, H; Flier, JS (2005). "Neurogenesis in the Hypothalamus of Adult Mice: Potential Role in Energy Balance". Science. 310 (5748): 679–83. doi:10.1126/science.1115360. PMID 16254185. 
  • Badman, MK; Pissios, P; Kennedy, AR; Koukos, G; Flier, JS; Maratos-Flier, E (2007). "Hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 is regulated by PPARalpha and is a key mediator of hepatic lipid metabolism in ketotic states". Cell Metabolism. 5 (6): 426–37. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2007.05.002. PMID 17550778. 
  • Fisher, FM; Chui, PC; Antonellis, PJ; Bina, HA; Kharitonenkov, A; Flier, JS; Maratos-Flier, E (2010). "Obesity Is a Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21)-Resistant State". Diabetes. 59 (11): 2781–9. doi:10.2337/db10-0193. PMC 2963536Freely accessible. PMID 20682689. 
Policy

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i An opponent to healthcare for all. "Jeffrey S. Flier, MD, Dean of Harvard Medical School". 
  2. ^ a b c d "Jeffrey S. Flier named next dean of Faculty of Medicine". Harvard Gazette. 11 July 2007. 
  3. ^ "Strategic Planning at Harvard Medical School" (PDF). October 2008. 
  4. ^ "The Dean's Report 2008-2009" (PDF). 2008. 
  5. ^ Flier, Jeffrey. "Health 'Reform' Gets a Failing Grade". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 August 2012. 
  6. ^ Flier, Jeffrey. "New Dean for Faculty of Medicine". Harvard Medical School. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  7. ^ Flier, JS; Kahn, CR; Roth, J; Bar, RS (1975). "Antibodies that impair insulin receptor binding in an unusual diabetic syndrome with severe insulin resistance". Science. 190 (4209): 63–5. doi:10.1126/science.170678. PMID 170678. 
  8. ^ Kahn, CR; Kasuga, M; King, GL; Grunfeld, C (1982). "Autoantibodies to insulin receptors in man: immunological determinants and mechanism of action". Ciba Foundation symposium (90): 91–113. PMID 6183063. 
  9. ^ Kahn, CR; Baird, KL; Jarrett, DB; Flier, JS (1978). "Direct demonstration that receptor crosslinking or aggregation is important in insulin action". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 75 (9): 4209–13. doi:10.1073/pnas.75.9.4209. PMC 336081Freely accessible. PMID 279910. 
  10. ^ Moller, DE; Flier, JS (1988). "Detection of an alteration in the insulin-receptor gene in a patient with insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and the polycystic ovary syndrome (type a insulin resistance)". The New England Journal of Medicine. 319 (23): 1526–9. doi:10.1056/NEJM198812083192306. PMID 2460770. 
  11. ^ Moller, DE; Yokota, A; White, MF; Pazianos, AG; Flier, JS (1990). "A naturally occurring mutation of insulin receptor alanine 1134 impairs tyrosine kinase function and is associated with dominantly inherited insulin resistance". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (25): 14979–85. PMID 2168397. 
  12. ^ a b Flier JS, Maratos-Flier E (1990). "Biology of Obesity". Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 
  13. ^ Flier, JS (2004). "Obesity wars: molecular progress confronts an expanding epidemic". Cell. 116 (2): 337–50. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)01081-X. PMID 14744442. 
  14. ^ a b Flier JS, Maratos-Flier E (September 2007). "What fuels fat". Scientific American. 
  15. ^ Flier, JS; Cook, KS; Usher, P; Spiegelman, BM (1987). "Severely impaired adipsin expression in genetic and acquired obesity". Science. 237 (4813): 405–8. doi:10.1126/science.3299706. PMID 3299706. 
  16. ^ Lowell, BB; S-Susulic, V; Hamann, A; Lawitts, JA; Himms-Hagen, J; Boyer, BB; Kozak, LP; Flier, JS (1993). "Development of obesity in transgenic mice after genetic ablation of brown adipose tissue". Nature. 366 (6457): 740–2. doi:10.1038/366740a0. PMID 8264795. 
  17. ^ a b Shimada, M; Tritos, NA; Lowell, BB; Flier, JS; Maratos-Flier, E (1998). "Mice lacking melanin-concentrating hormone are hypophagic and lean". Nature. 396 (6712): 670–4. doi:10.1038/25341. PMID 9872314. 
  18. ^ Kokoeva, MV; Yin, H; Flier, JS (2005). "Neurogenesis in the hypothalamus of adult mice: potential role in energy balance". Science. 310 (5748): 679–83. doi:10.1126/science.1115360. PMID 16254185. 
  19. ^ Badman, MK; Pissios, P; Kennedy, AR; Koukos, G; Flier, JS; Maratos-Flier, E (2007). "Hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 is regulated by PPARalpha and is a key mediator of hepatic lipid metabolism in ketotic states". Cell Metabolism. 5 (6): 426–37. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2007.05.002. PMID 17550778. 
  20. ^ Ahima, RS; Prabakaran, D; Mantzoros, C; Qu, D; Lowell, B; Maratos-Flier, E; Flier, JS (1996). "Role of leptin in the neuroendocrine response to fasting". Nature. 382 (6588): 250–2. doi:10.1038/382250a0. PMID 8717038. 
  21. ^ Howard, JK; Cave, BJ; Oksanen, LJ; Tzameli, I; Bjørbaek, C; Flier, JS (2004). "Enhanced leptin sensitivity and attenuation of diet-induced obesity in mice with haploinsufficiency of Socs3". Nature Medicine. 10 (7): 734–8. doi:10.1038/nm1072. PMID 15220914. 
  22. ^ "Flier and Maratos-Flier Research Lab at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center". 
  23. ^ "Sarah Flier, MD, Joins BIDMC". 1 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  24. ^ "Brigham and Women's Alumni in Academia". 1 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  25. ^ "Jeffrey S. Flier, MD, Receives American Diabetes Association's Distinguished Research Award" (PDF). 9 June 2008. Retrieved 2010-10-18. 
  26. ^ "Graduation Ceremony, McEwan Hall: Honorary Graduate: Jeffrey S. Flier". 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-18. 
  27. ^ "NIDDK Welcomes Five New Members to Advisory Council". 11 March 2005. Retrieved 2010-10-18. 

External links

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